The Western Heritage: Volume II, since 1648

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9780023632204: The Western Heritage: Volume II, since 1648

This concise, full-color survey of Western civilization provides an exceptionally balanced survey of the political, social, and cultural development of Western civilization--its strengths and weaknesses, and the controversies surrounding it. Covers the major eras of Western civilization from England and France in the 17th century to the Cold War and the emergence of the New Europe. Focuses on several critical themes--1) the development of political freedom, constitutional government, and concern for the rule of law and individual rights; 2) the shifting relations among religion, society, and the state; 3) the development of science and technology and their expanding impact on thought, social institutions, and everyday life; 4) the major religious and intellectual currents that have shaped Western culture. For anyone interested in Western Civilization and European History.

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About the Author:

Donald Kagan is Hillhouse Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958-1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); and a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); and On the Origins of War (1995 ). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings.

Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of ten books. The Age of Reform, 1250-1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 American Book Award. Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), and The Burgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996) were selections of the History Book Club, as is his most recent book, Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999).

Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, and Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University, by John Henry Newman (1996). Since 1996 he has served as a Trustee of Connecticut College.

A. Daniel Frankforter is Professor of Medieval History at the Pennsylvania State University. He holds degrees from Franklin and Marshall College, Drew University, and the Pennsylvania State University, where he has taught since 1970. His books include: A History of the Christian Movement; Civilization and Survival; The Shakespeare Name Dictionary, The Medieval Millennium, An Introduction; an edition and translation of Francoise Poullain de la Barre's De l'Égalité des Deux Sexes, and Stones for Bread: A Critique of Contemporary Worship. He has received four awards for excellence in teaching and research from the Pennsylvania State University.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

The heritage of Western civilization is a major point of departure for an understanding of the modern world. The global context in which we now conduct our daily lives is unprecedented, and it has been shaped in large measure by Western technologies, economic systems, and political ideologies. From the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries the West had a tremendous influence, for both good and ill, on cultures scattered around the globe, and we live today in the wake of that impact. It is the goal of this book to help students become better informed and more culturally sensitive citizens of the emerging global age by introducing them to the West's legacy.

Since The Western Heritage first appeared, its authors have sought to provide their readers with a work that does justice to the scope of Western civilization. Their expectation is that accurate understanding of the West will foster useful debates about the West's character, values, institutions, and global influence. Since the authors believe that a critical attitude toward their own culture has always been a characteristic of Western peoples, it is hoped that this new brief edition of The Western Heritage will contribute to the on-going debate about the strengths and weaknesses of the West that has been a persistent feature of Western intellectual life.

In this edition as in earlier ones, the goal has been to present Western civilization fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to the immense diversity of the human enterprise. Since history is made, experienced, and recorded by a multiplicity of peoples, history has many facets, no one of which can account for all the others. Any attempt to tell the story of the West from a single overarching perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story. The authors have had to make selections to bring the story of the West within the compass of an introductory text, but they have also tried to provide the broadest possible coverage of their subject.

They also believe that any book that addresses the experience of the West must look beyond Europe's borders. The students who will read this book are drawn from a wide variety of social contexts, and they live in a world characterized by highly interconnected economies and instant communication across cultural boundaries. It is important, therefore, to recognize the ways in which Western civilization has, throughout its history, engaged other cultures and been influenced by them. Examples of the two-way interaction between Western and non-Western societies appear throughout the text and are highlighted in a series of comparative essays entitled "The West & the World."

Goals of the Text

The primary goal of The Western Heritage is to present a strong, clear narrative that surveys key developments in Western history while paying special attention to several critical themes:

  • The capacity of Western civilization to generate transforming self-criticism.
  • The development of political freedom, constitutional government, and concern for the rule of law and the rights of individuals.
  • The shifting relations among religion, society, and the state.
  • The development of science and technology and their expanding impact on thought, social institutions, and everyday life.
  • The major religious and intellectual influences that have shaped Western culture.

FLEXIBLE PRESENTATION. The Western Heritage is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in Western civilization and to allow instructors to stress what is most important to them. The last two chapters /30 and 31 / have been specifically reorganized and rewritten so that courses can conclude by emphasizing either social or political developments.

INTEGRATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND POLITICAL HISTORY. The Western Heritage provides one of the richest accounts of Western social history found in any current textbook. It provides strong coverage of family life, the changing roles of women, and the place of the family in relation to broader economic, political, and social developments. This reflects the explosive growth that has taken place in social historical research in the past quarter century and which has enriched virtually all areas of historical study. But the authors, while strongly believing in the value of social history, have also been sensitive to the needs of teachers who have repeatedly said that they believe that apolitical narrative provides students with the most effective tool for constructing an initial understanding of the past.

No other survey text presents so full an account of the religious and intellectual development of the West. People may be political and social animals, but they are also reasoning and spiritual beings. What past generations thought and believed are among the most important things we can know about them, and we cannot fully understand ourselves without understanding the intellectual currents of the past that have shaped our thoughts and conceptual categories.

CLARITY AND ACCESSIBILITY. Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. The goal of the authors was to produce a fully accessible text without condescending to readers by compromising vocabulary or conceptual level.

Changes in the Current Edition

ART & THE WEST. A beautiful and important new feature enhances students' understanding of the artistic heritage of the West. In each chapter a work of art or architecture is highlighted to illustrate key developments from the era of its creation.

THE WEST & THE WORLD. Sections of the text are supplemented by a series of extended essays that compare various Western institutions with those from other parts of the world or which discuss the ways in which developments in the West have influenced non-Western cultures.

RECENT SCHOLARSHIP. The new edition has been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and to address the current concerns of professional historians. Of particular interest are expanded discussions of:

  • Women in the history of the West (see, especially, chapters 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 30.)
  • The Scientific Revolution (chapter 14 has been wholly revised and rewritten to explain the scientific theories that arose from the Copernican revolution, the current interpretation of the Galileo case, the role played by pioneering female scientists, and the social context for the development of early science).
  • The Dutch Golden Age (chapter 15 contains a new section discussing the United Netherlands during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries).
  • Africa and the transatlantic economy (chapter 17 extensively explores the relationship of Africa to the transatlantic economy of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, focusing on: the role of African society and politics in the slave trade, the experience of Africans forcibly transported to the Americas, and the incorporation of African elements in New World cultures).
  • Jewish thinkers in the Enlightenment (chapter 18 contains a new section discussing the thought of Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn as they relate to the role of Jewish religion and society in the wider European culture).
  • The Holocaust (chapter 29 provides more analysis of the causes of the Holocaust, and chapter 30 includes an extensive new section on the destruction of the Jews of Poland).
  • Twentieth century social history (The Western Heritage presents the most extensive treatment of modern social history available in a survey text; of particular significance is chapter 30 which treats the experiences of women under authoritarian governments, the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, the destruction of the Polish Jews, European migration, and the impact of computers and new technology on European life).
  • The history of the Cold War and Europe at the start of the twenty-first century (chapter 31, which deals with the Soviet-American rivalry and the collapse of communism, has been wholly rewritten). Chapters 30 and 31 are designed so that instructors, though teaching both chapters, may choose to close their course with either one. Those who want to emphasize social history might end with chapter 30 and those who wish to emphasize political developments may choose to conclude with chapter 31.

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. To help students understand the relationship between geography and history, relief features have been added to many of the maps. The text also contains numerous color illustrations.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES. These include chronological tables, a list of key topics at the beginning of each chapter, chapter summaries, review questions, and bibliographies. This edition continues the practice of using B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of the Lord) to designate dates. It also utilizes the most accurate currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words.

Ancillary Instructional Materials

The ancillary instructional materials that accompany The Western Heritage include print and multimedia supplements that are designed to reinforce and enliven the richness of the past and inspire students with the excitement of studying the history of Western civilization.

Print Supplements for the Instructor

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL WITH TEST ITEMS. The Instructor's Manual contains chapter summaries, key points and vital concepts, and information on audiovisual resources that can be used in developing and preparing lecture presentations. Also included is a test item file that offers multiple-choice, identification, and essay test questions.

PRENTICE HALL CUSTOM TEST. This commercial-quality computerized test management program, for Windows and Macintosh environments, allows users to create their own tests using items from the printed Test Item File. The program allows users to edit the items in the Test Item File and to add their own questions. Online testing is also available.

TRANSPARENCY PACKAGE. This collection of full-color transparency acetates provides the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in classroom presentations.

Print Supplements for the Student

STUDY GUIDE, VOLUMES I AND II. The study guide includes commentaries, definitions, and a variety of exercises designed to reinforce the concepts in the chapter. These exercises include: identification, map exercises, and short-answer and essay questions.

DOCUMENTS SET, VOLUMES I AND II. This carefully selected and edited set of documents provides over 100 additional primary source readings. Each document includes a brief introduction as well as questions to encourage critical analysis of the reading and to relate it to the content of the text.

MAP WORKBOOK. This brief workbook gives students the opportunity to increase their knowledge of geography through identification and other map exercises. It is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD. This four-color historical atlas provides additional map resources to reinforce concepts in the text. It is available for a nominal fee when shrink-wrapped with the text.

UNDERSTANDING AND ANSWERING ESSAY QUESTIONS. Prepared by Mary L. Kelley, San Antonio College. This brief guide suggests helpful study techniques as well as specific analytical tools for understanding different types of essay questions and provides precise guidelines for preparing well-crafted essay answers. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

READING CRITICALLY ABOUT HISTORY: A GUIDE TO ACTIVE READING. Prepared by Rose Wassman and Lee Ann Rinsky. This guide focuses on the skills needed to learn the essential information presented in college history textbooks. Material covered includes vocabulary skills, recognizing organizational patterns, critical thinking skills, understanding visual aids, and practice sections. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

THEMES OF THE TIMES. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information of relevance in the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in the text is supplemented by a collection of current articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us. To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information call toll-free: 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to co-sponsor Themes o f the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic, involving process.

Multimedia Supplements

HISTORY ON THE INTERNET. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the History discipline and how to use the Companion Website™ available for The Western Heritage. This supplementary book is free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

Students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of Western Civilization through The Western Heritage Companion Website™. Features of the website include, for each chapter in the text, objectives, study questions, map labeling exercises, related links, and document exercises. A faculty module provides material from the Instructor's Manual and the maps and charts from the text in Powerpoint™ format.

POWERPOINT™ IMAGES CD ROM. Available for Windows and Macintosh environments, this resource includes the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in Powerpoint™. Organized by chapters in the text, this collection of images is useful for classroom presentations and lectures.

IRC WESTERN CIVILIZATION CD ROM. Available for Windows 95 and 3.1, this lecture and presentation resource includes a library of over 3000 images, each with a descriptive caption, plus film clips, maps, and sound recordings. A correlation guide lists the images as they correspond to the chapters of The Western Heritage. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for information about the adoption requirements for this resource.

DOCUMENTS CD ROM. Functional in both Windows and Macintosh environments, this resource contains all the primary source readings from the print Documents Set in easy-to-read Adobe Acrobat™. Additionally, all the document questions are linked directly to the Companion Website™, enhancing an already useful study tool. This CD ROM comes packaged free with all new copies of The Western Heritage, Brief Third Edition.


We are grateful to the scholars and teachers whose thoughtful and often detailed comments helped shape this revision:


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