Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the reader into the physics. The new edition features an unrivaled suite of media and on-line resources that enhance the understanding of physics. Many new topics have been incorporated such as: the Otto cycle, lens combinations, three-phase alternating current, and many more. New developments and discoveries in physics have been added including the Hubble space telescope, age and inflation of the universe, and distant planets. Modern physics topics are often discussed within the framework of classical physics where appropriate. For scientists and engineers who are interested in learning physics.
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PREFACE A Brand New Third Edition
It has been more than ten years since the second edition of this calculus-based introductory physics textbook was published. A lot has changed since then, not only in physics itself, but also in how physics is presented. Research in how students learn has provided textbook authors new opportunities to help students learn physics and learn it well.
This third edition comes in two versions. The standard version covers all of classical physics plus a chapter on special relativity and one on the early quantum theory. The extended version, with modern physics, contains a total of nine detailed chapters on modern physics, ending with astrophysics and cosmology. This book retains the original approach: in-depth physics, concrete and nondogmatic, readable.
This new third edition has many improvements in the physics and its applications. Before discussing those changes in detail, here is a list of some of the overall changes that will catch the eye immediately.
Full color throughout is not just cosmetic, although fine color photographs do help to attract the student readers. More important, full color diagrams allow the physics to be displayed with much greater clarity. We have not stopped at a 4-color process; this book has actually been printed in 5 pure colors (5 passes through the presses) to provide better variety and definition for illustrating vectors and other physics concepts such as rays and fields. I want to emphasize that color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics. For example, different types of vectors are given different colors—see the chart on page xxxi.
Many more diagrams, almost double the number in the previous edition, have all been done or redone carefully using full color; there are many more graphs and many more photographs throughout. See for example in optics where new photographs show lenses and the images they make.
Marginal notes have been added as an aid to students to (i) point out what is truly important, (ii) serve as a sort of outline, and (iii) help students find details about something referred to later that they may not remember so well. Besides such "normal" marginal notes, there are also marginal notes that point out brief problem solving hints, and others that point out interesting applications.
The great laws of physics are emphasized by giving them a marginal note all in capital letters and enclosed in a rectangle. The most important equations, especially those expressing the great laws, are further emphasized by a tan-colored screen behind them.
Chapter opening photographs have been chosen to illustrate aspects of each chapter. Each was chosen with an eye to writing a caption which could serve as a kind of summary of what is in that chapter, and sometimes offer a challenge. Some chapter-opening photos have vectors or other analysis superimposed on them.
Page layout: complete derivations. Serious attention has been paid to how each page was formatted, especially for page turns. Great effort has been made to keep important derivations and arguments on facing pages. Students then don't have to turn back to check. More important, readers repeatedly see before them, on two facing pages, an important slice of physics.
Two kinds of Examples: Conceptual Examples and Estimates. New Physics
The whole idea of a new edition is to improve, to bring in new material, and to delete material that is verbose and only makes the book longer or is perhaps too advanced and not so useful. Here is a brief summary of a few of the changes involving the physics itself. These lists are selections, not complete lists.
planets revolving around distant stars Hubble Space Telescope updates in particle physics and cosmology, such as inflation and the age of the universe
New physics topics added:
new treatment of how to make estimates (Chapter 1), including new Estimating Examples throughout (in Chapter 1, estimating the volume of a lake, and the radius of the Earth) symmetry used much more, including for solving problems new Tables illustrating the great range of lengths, time intervals, masses, voltages gravitation as curvature of space, and black holes (Chapter 6) engine efficiency (Chapter 8 as well as Chapter 20) rolling with and without slipping, and other useful details of rotational motion (Chapter 10) forces in structures including trusses, bridges, arches, and domes (Chapter 12) square wave (Chapter 15) using the Maxwell distribution (Chapter 18) Otto cycle (Chapter 20) statistical calculation of entropy change in free expansion (Chapter 20) effects of dielectrics on capacitor connected and not (Chapter 24) grounding to avoid electric hazards (Chapter 25) three phase ac (Chapter 31) equal energy in E and B of EM wave (Chapter 32) radiation pressure, EM wave (Chapter 32) photos of lenses and mirrors with their images (Chapter 33) detailed outlines for ray tracing with mirrors and lenses (Chapters 33, 34) lens combinations (Chapter 34) new radiation standards (Chapter 43) Higgs boson, supersymmetry (Chapter 44)
Modern physics. A number of modern physics topics are discussed in the framework of classical physics. Here are some highlights:
gravitation as curvature of space, and black holes (Chapter 6) planets revolving around distant stars (Chapter 6) kinetic energy at relativistic speeds (Chapter 7) nuclear collisions (Chapter 9) star collapse (Chapter 10) galaxy red shift, Doppler (Chapter 16) atoms, theory of (Chapters 17,18, 21) atomic theory of thermal expansion (Chapter 17) mass of hydrogen atom (Chapter 17) atoms and molecules in gases (Chapters 17,18) molecular speeds (Chapter 18) equipartition of energy; molar specific heats (Chapter 19) star size (Chapter 19) molecular dipoles (Chapters 21, 23) cathode ray tube (Chapters 23, 27) electrons in a wire (Chapter 25) superconductivity (Chapter 25) discovery and properties of the electron, e/m, oil drop experiment (Chapter 27) Hall effect (Chapter 27) magnetic moment of electrons (Chapter 27) mass spectrometer (Chapter 27) velocity selector (Chapter 27) electron spin in magnetic materials (Chapter 28) light and EM wave emission (Chapter 32) spectroscopy (Chapter 36)
Many other examples of modern physics are found as Problems, even in early chapters. Chapters 37 and 38 contain the modern physics topics of Special Relativity, and an introduction to Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom. The longer version of this text, "with Modern Physics," contains an additional seven chapters (for a total of nine) which present a detailed and extremely up-to-date treatment of modern physics: Quantum Mechanics of Atoms (Chapters 38 to 40); Molecules and Condensed Matter (Chapter 41); Nuclear Physics (Chapter 42 and 43); Elementary Particles (Chapter 44); and finally Astrophysics, General Relativity, and Cosmology (Chapter 45).
Revised physics and reorganizations. First of all, a major effort has been made to not throw everything at the students in the first few chapters. The basics have to be learned first; many aspects can come later, when the students are more prepared. Secondly, a great part of this book has been rewritten to make it clearer and more understandable to students. Clearer does not always mean simpler or easier. Sometimes making it "easier" actually makes it harder to understand. Often a little more detail, without being verbose, can make an explanation clearer. Here are a few of the changes, big and small:
new graphs and diagrams to clarify velocity and acceleration; deceleration carefully treated. unit conversion now a new Section in Chapter 1, instead of interrupting kinematics. circular motion: Chapter 3 now gives only the basics, with more complicated treatment coming later: non-uniform circular motion in Chapter 5, angular variables in Chapter 10. Newton's second law now written throughout as ma = ΣF, to emphasize inclusion of all forces acting on a body. Newton's third law follows the second directly, with inertial reference frames placed earlier. New careful discussions to head off confusion when using Newton's third law. careful rewriting of chapters on Work and Energy, especially potential energy, conservative and nonconservative forces, and the conservation of energy. renewed emphasis that ΣΤ = Iα is not always valid: only for an axis fixed in an inertial frame or if axis is through the cm (Chapters 10 and 11). rolling motion introduced early in Chapter 10, with more details later, including rolling with and without slipping. rotating frames of reference and Coriolis, moved later, to Chapter 11, shortened, optional, but still including why an object does not fall straight down on Earth. fluids reduced to a single chapter (13); some topics and details dropped or greatly shortened. clearer details on how an object floats (Chapter 13). distinction between wave interference in space, and in time (beats) (Chapter 16). thermodynamics reduced to four chapters; the old chapters on Heat and on the First Law of Thermodynamics have been combined into one (19), with some topics shortened and a more rational sequence of topics achieved. heat transfer now follows the first law of thermodynamics (Chapter 19). electric potential carefully rewritten for accuracy (Chapter 23). CRT, computer monitors, TV, treated earlier (Chapter 23). use of Qencl and Iencl for Gauss's and Ampere's laws, with subscripts meaning "enclosed". Ohm's law and definition of resistance carefully redone (Chapter 25). sources of magnetic field, Chapter 28, reorganized for ease of understanding, with some new material, and deletion of the advanced topic on magnetization vector. circuits with L, C, and/or R now introduced via Kirchhoff's loop rule, and clarified in other ways too (Chapters 30, 31). streamlined Maxwell's equations, with displacement current downplayed (Chapter 32). optics reduced to four chapters; polarization is now placed in the same chapter as diffraction. New Pedagogy
All of the above mentioned revisions, rewritings, and reorganizations are intended to help students learn physics better. They were done in response to contemporary research in how students learn, as well as to kind and generous input from professors who have read, reviewed, or used the previous editions. This new edition also contains some new elements, especially an increased emphasis on conceptual development:
Conceptual Examples, typically 1 or 2 per chapter, sometimes more, are each a sort of brief Socratic question and answer. It is intended that students will be stimulated by the question to think, or reflect, and come up with a response—before reading the Response given. Here are a few:
using symmetry (Chapters 1, 44, and elsewhere) ball moving upward: misconceptions (Chapter 2) reference frames and projectile motion: where does the apple land? (Chapter 3) what exerts the force that makes a car move? (Chapter 4) Newton's third law clarification: pulling a sled (Chapter 4) free-body diagram for a hockey puck (Chapter 4) advantage of a pulley (Chapter 4), and of a lever (Chapter 12) to push or to pull a sled (Chapter 5) which object rolls down a hill faster? (Chapter 10) moving the axis of a spinning wheel (Chapter 11) tragic collapse (Chapter 12) finger at top of a full straw (Chapter 13) suction cups on a spacecraft (Chapter 13) doubling amplitude of SHM (Chapter 14) do holes expand thermally? (Chapter 17) simple adiabatic process: stretching a rubber band (Chapter 19) charge inside a conductor's cavity (Chapter 22) how stretching a wire changes its resistance (Chapter 25) series or parallel (Chapter 26) bulb brightness (Chapter 26) spiral path in magnetic field (Ch. 27) practice with Lenz's law (Chapter 29) motor overload (Chapter 29) emf direction in inductor (Chapter 30) photo with reflection—is it upside down? (Chapter 33) reversible light rays (Chapter 33) how tall must a full-length mirror be? (Chapter 33) diffraction spreading (Chapter 36)
Estimating Examples, roughly 10% of all Examples, also a new feature of this edition, are intended to develop the skills for making order-of-magnitude estimates, even when the data are scarce, and even when you might never have guessed that any result was possible at all. See, for example, Section 1-6, Examples 1-5 to 1-8. Problem Solving, with New and Improved Approaches
Learning how to approach and solve problems is a basic part of any physics course. It is a highly useful skill in itself, but is also important because the process helps bring under standing of the physics. Problem solving in this new edition has a significantly increased emphasis, including some new features.
Problem-solving boxes, about 20 of them, are new to this edition. They are more concentrated in the early chapters, but are found throughout the book. They each outline a step-by-step approach to solving problems in general, and/or specifically for the material being covered. The best students may find these separate "boxes" unnecessary (they can skip them), but many students will find it helpful to be reminded of the general approach and of steps they can take to get started; and, I think, they help to build confidence. The general problem solving box in Section 4-8 is placed there, after students have had some experience wrestling with problems, and so may be strongly motivated to read it with close attention. Section 4-8 can, of course, be covered earlier if desired.
Problem-solving Sections occur in many chapters, and are intended to provide extra drill in areas where solving problems is especially important or detailed.
Examples. This new edition has many more worked-out Examples, and they all now have titles for interest and for easy reference. There are even two new categories of Example: Conceptual, and Estimates, as described above. Regular Examples serve as "practice problems". Many new ones have been added, some of the old ones have been dropped, and many have been reworked to provide greater clarity and detail: more steps are spelled out, more of "why we do it this way", and more discussion of the reasoning and approach. In sum, the idea is "to think aloud with the students", leading them to develop insight. The total number of worked-out Examples is about 30% greater than in the previous edition, for an average of 12 to 15 per chapter. There is a significantly higher concentration of Examples in the early chapters, where drill is especially important for developing skills and a variety of approaches. The level of the worked-out Examples for most topics increases gradually, with the more complicated ones being on a par with the most difficult Problems at the end of each chapter, so that students can see how to approach complex problems. Many of the new Examples, and improvements to old ones, provide relevant applications to engineering, other related fields, and to everyday life.
Problems at the end of each chapter have been greatly increased in quality and quantity. There are over 30% more Problems than in the second edition. Many of the old ones have been replaced, or rewritten to make them clearer, and/or have had their numerical values changed. Each chapter contains a large group of Problems arranged by Section and graded according to difficulty: level I Problems are simple, designed to give students confidence; level II are "normal" Problems, providing more of a challenge and often the combination of two different concepts; level III are the most complex, typically combining different issues, and will challenge even superior students. The arrangement by Section number means only that those Problems depend on material up to and including that Sect...
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