Offering a genuine difference, this practical book treats school consultation as a collaborative, problem-solving endeavor. It covers the two primary theories of consultation—behavior and mental health—in detail, and summarizes several others. Using numerous actual examples, it gives readers a broad overview of the what, why, and how of school consultation. The hands-on experience of this author keeps the narrative focused, and imbues it with the common sense necessary to help special and general educators deal with the everyday challenges of at-risk, mainstreamed, and included pupils. Specific chapter topics discuss communication and interpersonal skills, and ethics and advocacy in school consultation. For special education teachers as well as school psychologists and counselors.
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Thomas Kampwirth is professor emeritus in the Department of Education4l Psychology, Administration, and Counseling at California State University-Long Beach. He has taught in the areas of special education and school psychology since 1971. He was coordinator of the school psychology program at CSULB for 25 years. He is a consulting school psychologist for the alternative and correctional educational system operated by the Orange County Department of Education in California.
He has served as a special education teacher and a school psychologist in numerous districts in Illinois, Arizona, and California. His research interests include aptitude-treatment interactions and consultation processes. Dr. Kampwirth received his doctorate in school psychology from the University of Illinois in 1968.Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
This book was written to fill the needs of two different groups: university students and practitioners in the schools. The students are likely to be doing work in special education, school psychology, school counseling, or educational administration. The practitioners are currently employed in these professions and are being asked more and more to help others, usually teachers or parents, solve teaching/learning and behavior management problems. In this book, I present the consultation process as a collaborative, problem-solving endeavor designed to assist consultees in their work with students who have, or are at risk for, school adjustment or learning problems. In addition, I include a chapter on ethics and advocacy and a chapter on systems-level consultation designed to improve service delivery to students and teachers in a whole school or district.
Consultation as a service delivery system in the public schools has increased in popularity over the past decade. Prior to 1990, most special and general educators were still expected to deal on their own with whatever problems they experienced in their teaching or management of children; indeed, those who sought help may have been regarded as unable to deal with the job of teaching and subtly, or overtly, rejected by their peers or supervisors. To an even greater extent, parents in the United States, since the decline of the extended family configurations that were prevalent before the Second World War, have been expected to raise their children without much assistance from others. The "village" that it takes to raise a child had disappeared and been replaced by neighbors known only slightly and relatives who lived far away. Only people with large financial resources could access relatively expensive professional help for their children who needed it. Most parents, including those with children with disabilities, were left to their own resources.
In today's schools, we are fortunate to have experienced a change in attitudes about the value of team building and collaborative assistance. Part of the credit for this change should be given to the field of special education, which, as a result of P.L. 94-142, first implemented in 1977, established the need for team conferences (IEP meetings) to discuss the needs of, and solutions for, the learning and behavior/adjustment problems of students with disabilities. Since that time, teacher assistance teams, student study teams, and a host of other formal or semiformal team arrangements have been developed and have proven their effectiveness in meeting the needs of students who require some degree of assistance to be successful in school. These team interactions also meet the needs of teachers and parents in their efforts to teach or parent effectively.
Beyond what takes place in team meetings, there remains a real need for everyday assistance for both special education teachers who are providing direct teaching services to students with disabilities and general educators who are charged with teaching mainstreamed or included students with disabilities, in addition to a large cadre of other at-risk students. This text is primarily devoted to helping those who assist these special and general educators to deal with the everyday, ongoing challenges presented by these students. Largely because of increased inclusion and a seemingly growing number of at-risk youth, school personnel have learned the value of collaborative work as opposed to isolated work. In a school with a collaborative work ethic, the administration supports teachers who freely seek help from others, join in groups to discuss common or individual problems, and admit that they Kneed help. Job descriptions and expectations have changed accordingly. Special education teachers are increasingly leaving their resource rooms and special day classes and are spending part, if not all, of their school days in general education classes. School psychologists are learning alternative ways of assessing students, which include more time observing in the classes and more time talking with the teachers about the referrals and appropriate interventions that can be utilized in general education classes. School counselors are more likely to see if they can deal with some referrals through consultation with teachers and parents in conjunction with individual or group counseling efforts. Mentor teachers, vice-principals, and others who may have the opportunity to assist teachers and parents are also seeing their roles expand to include consultation.
UNIQUE ASPECTS OF THIS TEXT
This text differs in two major ways from others that are devoted to consultation in the schools. The first difference is the inclusion of five extended case studies. Two of these are about students who manifest behavior problems, two are in regard to students with learning (achievement) problems, and the fifth is a study of a systems-change effort. The second difference is the inclusion of separate chapters on students' learning and behavior problems. These problems are the main reasons for referral to a school consultant, whether that person has a primary position as a special education teacher, a school counselor, a school psychologist, a mentor teacher, or a vice-principal. Thus, it is important to have fundamental information about the probable causes and possible solutions to these problems.
This text has a number of strengths: (1) It is written in a user-friendly fashion. The author is very experienced in the practice of school consultation and has utilized his experiences to keep the situations described and interventions discussed at a very practical level. There is a bit of folk wisdom permeating these pages, a kind of common sense that may be lacking in some other texts that take perhaps too much of a seemingly impractical research-oriented perspective. Practitioners know that consultation is not an easy process to implement; this text presents the rough with the smooth and, because of this, lets future consultants know what the realities of the public schools are. (2) Each chapter has a number of student activities embedded in the narrative. These are intended to focus readers' attention on key aspects of the material and to give them a chance to practice the skills being discussed and to interact with others regarding the critical issues that are presented. (3) There are a number of figures and tables that serve a variety of purposes, such as models of forms, examples of paperwork that are used, and material cited from the work of others.
In this second edition I have added a set of objectives for each chapter which serve as guides to what the chapter covers. Also, this second edition has nearly twice the number of activities as did the first edition. There are also many more specific suggestions about interventions, especially in Chapter 5. The addition of a whole chapter on ethics and advocacy (Chapter 4) is not common among texts on consultation, in spite of the importance of these issues; I hope you will find it enlightening.
Chapter 1 presents an overview of school consultation as practiced by internal (i.e., regularly employed personnel) consultants. It defines terms and discusses the characteristics of consultation that are collaborative in nature; major focus points and questions about them; and the benefits and effectiveness of school consultation. I consider the consultee as a variable and explore information about consultation in culturally and linguistically diverse settings. The chapter concludes with a statement of philosophy about the educational placements of students with disabilities.
Chapter 2 presents a brief overview of various models and functional aspects that apply to school consultation. The behavioral and mental health models are discussed in some detail. There is also information about the roles, skills, and activities of consultants; student study team functions; and information about the development and conduct of inservice training.
Chapter 3 presents an extended discussion of the communication and interpersonal skills needed for effective consultation and reviews resistance to consultation and power dynamics in the consultative process.
Chapter 4 is devoted to issues of ethics and advocacy. In addition to a general overview of ethical issues, the chapter includes a review of the CEC ethical code and the standards of practice development for special educators. Case studies are presented to show how to apply the code and standards to situations that can occur in schools. A separate discussion of advocacy indicates how this potentially sensitive area can be utilized in a collaborative manner.
Chapter 5 is the heart of this text. Here I present generic models of the consultation process along with the solutions-oriented consultation system (SOCS), a 10-step practical model designed to guide school-based consultants through the often confusing stages that are necessary for comprehensive consultation work.
Chapter 6 reviews students' behavior/adjustment problems. I discuss reasons for these problems, terminology, and diagnostic methods including functional assessment, observation, interviews, rating scales, and charting methods. I also include general ideas for modifying classroom behavior.
Chapter 7 contains two extended case studies about two students who manifest behavior/adjustment problems and demonstrate how SOCS can be used to guide consultants' work.
Chapter 8 reviews learning/achievement problems among students and offers ideas for the diagnosis and remediation of these problems.
Chapter 9 consists of two case studies about students who manifest poor school achievement. Again, I use SOCS as the conduct guide for the consultation.
Chapter 10 is concerned with systems-change efforts. Reform and the revitalization of our public schools are topics of considerable importance as we move toward the achievement of GOALS 2000 and the "No child left behind" federal education bill approved by President George W. B...
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