The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume B: From 1300 to 1800 (6th Edition)

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9780130988096: The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume B: From 1300 to 1800 (6th Edition)

This comprehensive, accessible survey of world history has been extensively revised to provide an even more global and comparative perspective on the events and processes that have shaped our increasingly interdependent world. Written by leading scholars in their respective fields. Interactive maps—one Web-based interactive map in each chapter—provides readers with opportunities to explore the relationships between time and space in shaping world history. Volume B covers the period from 1300-1850. The Sixth edition now provides roughly the same amount of coverage for European and non-European regions. Combines unusually strong and thorough coverage of the unique heritage of Asian, African, Islamic, Western, and American civilizations, while highlighting the role of the world's great religious and philosophical traditions. For anyone interested in world civilization or world history.

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About the Author:

ALBERT M. CRAIG is the Harvard-Yenching Research Professor of History at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he took his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration (1961), The Heritage of Chinese Civilization ( 2001), and, with others, of East Asia, Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan, A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970). At present he is engaged in research on the thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi. For eleven years (1976-1987) he was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo Universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.

WILLIAM A. GRAHAM is Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies and Professor of the History of Religion at Harvard University, and Master of Currier House at Harvard University. From 1990-1996 he directed Harvard's Center for Middle Eastern Studies. He has taught for, twenty-six years at Harvard, where he received the A.M. and Ph.D. degrees. He also studied in Göttingen, Tiibingen, and Lebanon. He is the author of Divine World and Prophetic World in Early Islam (1977), awarded the American Council of Learned Societies History of Religions book prize in 1978, and of Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987). He has published a variety of articles in both Islamic studies and the general history of religion and is one of the editors of the Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. He serves currently on the editorial board of several journals and has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships. Three Faiths, One God, co-authored with Jacob Neusner and Bruce Chilton, will be published in January 2003.

DONALD KAGAN is Hillhouse Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958-1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received four awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965), a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969), The Archidamian War (1974), The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981), and The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987), a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991), On the Origins of War (1995), and While America Sleeps (with Frederick W. Kagan) (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings.

STEVEN OZMENT is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of nine books. The Age of Reform, 1250-1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Four of his books: Magdalena and Balthasar An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), and The Börgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996) were selections of the History Book Club. His most recent books are Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999), and Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001).

FRANK M. TURNER is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, and Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited, John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University (1996). Since 1996 he has served as a Trustee of Connecticut College.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

The events of September 11, 2001, as nothing in the immediate past, have brought upon the world a new awareness of human history in a global context. Prior to that day North American readers generally understood world history and globalism as academic concepts; they now understand them as realities shaping their daily lives and experience. The new, immediate pressures of the present draw us to seek a more certain and extensive understanding of the past.

The idea of globalization is now a pressing reality on the life of nations, affecting the domestic security of their citizens, their standard of living, and the environment. Whether, as Samuel Huntington, the distinguished Harvard political scientist, contends, we are witnessing a clash of civilizations, we have certainly entered a new erg in which no active citizen or educated person can escape the necessity of understanding the past in global terms. Both the historical experience and the moral and political values of the different world civilizations now demand our attention and our understanding. It is our hope that in these new, challenging times The Heritage of World Civilizations will provide one path to such knowledge.


Globalization—that is, the increasing interaction and interdependency of the various regions of the world—has resulted from two major historical developments: the closing of the European era of world history and the rise of technology.

From approximately 1500 to the middle of the twentieth century, Europeans gradually came to dominate the world through colonization (most particularly in North and South America), state-building, economic productivity, and military power. That era of European dominance ended during the third quarter of the twentieth century after Europe had brought unprecedented destruction on itself during World War II and as the nations of Asia, the Near East, and Africa achieved new positions on the world scene. Their new political independence, their control over strategic natural resources, and the expansion of their economies (especially those of the nations of the Pacific rim of Asia), and in some cases their access to nuclear weapons have changed the shape of world affairs.

Further changing the world political and social situation has been a growing discrepancy in the economic development of different regions that is often portrayed as a problem between the northern and southern hemispheres. Beyond the emergence of this economic disparity has been the remarkable advance of political Islam during the past forty years. In the midst of all these developments, as a result of the political collapse of the former Soviet Union, the United States has emerged as the single major world power.

The second historical development that continues to fuel the pace of globalization is the advance of technology, associated most importantly with transportation, military weapons, and electron communication. The advances in transportation over the past two centuries including ships, railways, and airplanes have made more parts of the world and its resources accessible to more people in ever shorter spans of time. Military weapons of increasingly destructive power over the past century and a half enabled Europeans and then later the United States to dominate other regions of the globe. Now, the spread of these weapons means that any nation with sophisticated military technology can threaten other nations, no matter how far away. Furthermore, technologies that originated in the West from the early twentieth century to the present have been turned against the West. More recently, the electronic revolution associated with computer technology has sparked unprecedented speed and complexity in global communications. It is astonishing to recall that personal computers have been generally available for less than twenty-five years and the rapid personal communication associated with them has existed for less than fifteen years.

Why not, then, focus only on new factors in the modern world, such as the impact of technology and the end of the European era? To do so would ignore the very deep roots that these developments have in the past. More important, the events of recent months and the response to them demonstrate, as the authors of this book have long contended, that the major religious traditions continue to shape and drive the modern world as well as the world of the past. The religious traditions link today's civilizations to their most ancient roots. We believe this emphasis on the great religious traditions recognizes not only a factor that has shaped the past, but one that is profoundly and dynamically alive in our world today.


BALANCED AND FLEXIBLE PRESENTATION. In this edition, as in past editions, we have sought to present world history fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to its great variety. History has many facets, no one of which can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of civilization from a single perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story.

Historians have recently brought a vast array of new tools and concepts to bear on the study of history. Our coverage introduces students to various aspects of social and intellectual history as well as to the more traditional political, diplomatic, and military coverage. We firmly believe that only through an appreciation of all pathways to understanding of the past can the real heritage of world civilizations be claimed.

The Heritage of World Civilizations, Sixth Edition, is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in world civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others wilI4 select among them to reinforce assigned readings and lectures.

CLARITY AND ACCESSIBILITY. Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. Our goal has been to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising on vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.

RECENT SCHOLARSHIP. As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the expanding concerns of professional historians.

The Sixth Edition includes greater discussion of the origins of humankind in Chapter 1, incorporation of new scholarship on Islam and East Asia, updated coverage of developments in Africa and Latin America, and analysis of globalization, terrorism, women's rights, and recent events in the Middle East.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES. This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, helping to make the text accessible to students, reinforcing key concepts, and providing a global, comparative perspective.

  • Part Essays open each of the seven major sections of the book. These serve to preview the coverage in the subsequent chapters and highlight major trends and movements.
  • Part Timelines show the major events in five regions—Europe, the Near East and India, East Asia, Africa, and the Americas—side by side. Appropriate photographs enrich each timeline.
  • Chapter Topics introduce each chapter.
  • Chronologies within each chapter help students organize a time sequence for key events.
  • Primary Source Documents, including selections from sacred books, poems, philosophy, political manifestos, letters, and travel accounts, introduce students to the raw material of history, providing an intimate contact with the people of the past and their concerns.
  • Questions accompanying the source documents direct students toward important, thought-provoking issues and help them relate the documents to the material in the text. They can be used to stimulate class discussion or as topics for essays and study groups.
  • Map Explorations, new to the Sixth Edition, prompt students to engage with at least one map per chapter in an interactive fashion. Each Map Exploration is found on the Companion Website for the text.
  • In World Perspective sections conclude most chapters. These brief essays place important developments in the chapter into a world context. An all-new "In World Perspective" on democratization, globalization, and political terrorism ends the final chapter.
  • Chapter review questions help students focus on and interpret the broad themes of a chapter. These questions can be used for class discussion and essay topics.
  • Religions of the World essays introduce students to the five major world religious traditions—Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.
  • Comparative Perspectives essays, located on the Companion Website for The Heritage of World Civilizations, examine technology and civilizations from a cross cultural perspective.


This edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations includes new pedagogical features, many content revisions, and a new feature, Art and the World essays, described below.

CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION. The many changes in content and organization in this edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations reflect our ongoing effort to present a truly global survey of world civilization that at the same time gives a rich picture of the history of individual regions.

To better accomplish this, several significant changes to the book's organization have been carried out in this revision. Coverage of events during the European High Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which was formerly treated in two chapters, has been reconceived into a single chapter (Chapter 15) entitled, "Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline, and Renaissance." Coverage of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, which formerly was addressed in four chapters,...

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Craig, Albert M.; Graham, William A.; Kagan, Donald M.; Ozment, Steven; Turner, Frank M.; Kagan, Donald
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Craig, Albert M.; Graham, William A.; Kagan, Donald M.; Ozment, Steven; Turner, Frank M.; Kagan, Donald
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