For undergraduate and graduate curriculum methods courses in Physical, Health and/or Multiple Disabilities, Disabilities courses or Severe Disabilities courses. Advocating "low tech" solutions to "high tech" problems, this unique text provides special educators and others with information, knowledge, and strategies for creating meaningful educational experiences for significantly challenged learners. This comprehensive text describes the implications of physical, health, and/or multiple disabilities. It illustrates ways to facilitate student participation in major life activities at home, in school, and within community environments. It addresses curriculum modifications and instructional strategies related both to core academic curriculum and to the specialized curriculum areas critical for these students. It also emphasizes physical access to the general curriculum, adaptations, and instructional strategies to help ensure students with disabilities the chance to reach their physical and multiple highest potential.
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This text was originally authored by June L. Bigge with invited contributors; Sherwood J. Best and Kathryn Wolff Heller joined her in the fourth edition. It has become the preeminent text for teachers of students who have physical, health, or multiple disabilities. This edition builds on the foundation of the previous editions, and June Bigge continues to guide and inspire our efforts. The book is designed for use by family members, educators, related-service providers, administrators, paraprofessionals, and others who provide services to individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. It meets the needs of service providers in three ways. First, it describes specific physical and health impairments with attention to their educational and psychosocial implications. Second, it illustrates accommodations and modifications that promote access to the curriculum and participation in home and community environments. Third, it addresses curricular issues in a comprehensive manner, thereby serving as a resource for family members and service providers.
This edition contains both similarities to and differences from the fourth edition. The focus on assistive technology has been retained, as have most chapters from the previous edition. Knowledge and skill statements, questions for discussion, and "Focus on the Net" remain to extend the reader's interaction with the subject matter. The differences are in the conceptual and structural improvements to this edition.
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
This fifth edition contains 16 chapters organized within four major parts. Part I, "Impact and Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities," provides foundational knowledge and describes a variety of specific physical and health impairments and their implications. Chapter 1 provides definitions, explains current laws, and explores issues in the lives of individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. This chapter orients educators and others to historical and current perspectives on disability that shape policy and practice in education. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 introduce specific physical and health disabilities, with definitions; descriptions of associated medical conditions; and discussions of the impact of disability on physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Readers are urged to explore these and other disabilities further through Internet resources.
Part II, "Accommodations for Curricular Access," contains information that assists educators in individualizing curricula for individuals with physical or multiple disabilities, with an emphasis on improved academic access and quality of life. Chapter 5 introduces the theme of accommodation by providing a model for planning and designing courses of study for students with disabilities. It includes accommodations and modifications of the general education curriculum and curricula in modified means of communication and task performance. Chapter 6 adds explanatory power to the model presented in the previous chapter by providing strategies for developing task and situation analyses to individualize curricula. An important aspect of this chapter is differentiating task difficulties that arise from either motor or cognitive challenges. Chapter 7 incorporates materials from two chapters in the previous edition. The first half of the chapter is focused on assistive technology (AT) assessment, and the second half provides practical AT solutions. This chapter also addresses the critical need for appropriate positioning, seating, and mobility. Chapter 8 concludes this part of the book with a focused discussion of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), one of the fastest-growing knowledge areas in special education and related services.
Part III, "Specialized Curricula," focuses on unique needs of individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. Feeding and swallowing issues are addressed in Chapter 9. A discussion of the connection between feeding/swallowing and speech development provides valuable information to educators and others. This knowledge is paired with strategies assessment and appropriate feeding interventions. Chapter 10 describes techniques that enable individuals with disabilities to function with maximum independence. A unique perspective in this chapter is attention to strategies for teaching students to manage their own care, which reinforces autonomy and self-determination. Chapter 11 describes adapted physical education, recreation, and leisure options for individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. Chapter 12 focuses on the topic of transition, with an overview of career education, development and implementation of the individual transition plan, and description of activities to support effective transition from school to work and community.
Finally, Part IV, "Core Curriculum Adaptations and Instructional Strategies," helps educators align student learning needs with curricula in general education. Chapter 13 begins the discussion on core curriculum adaptations with a focus on literacy. A critical aspect of this chapter is assisting educators to provide meaningful literacy experiences for students with motor and speech disabilities. Chapter 14 extends this discussion to the topic of writing, with emphasis on practical, low-tech adaptations in addition to computer-based options. Chapter 15 offers suggestions for modifying social studies and science curricula. Chapter 16 addresses mathematics. Every chapter in Part IV includes information on appropriate software to ensure accessibility and add meaning to content areas. Functional academic skills are also incorporated into all chapters in this part of the book.
The organization and content of this text provide educators and others with general information, specialized knowledge, and specific strategies that result in meaningful, high-quality educational experiences for students with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. The text prepares readers for providing direct or consultative services in a variety of educational arenas, including general education classes, special education classes, and hospital settings.
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