This clearly written, well-illustrated, versatile book provides thorough coverage of chemistry with a balance of problem solving skills, real-world applications and an emphasis on critical thinking and the process of science. A supporting theme throughout the book continually emphasizes that chemistry is everywhere. Chemistry is Everywhere. Matter and Energy. Fundamental Measurements. Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table. Atomic Structure. Names, Formulas, and Uses of Inorganic Compounds. Periodic Properties of Elements. Chemical Bonds. Gases. Liquids and Solids. Solutions. Acids and Bases. Oxidation and Reduction. Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry. Organic Chemistry. Biochemistry. For professionals in the health sciences needing a "refresher" in chemistry.
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First edition users of this top-selling text praise the everyday applications, the extensive worked examples (more than two-hundred and seventy), and the clear, conversational writing style that virtually eliminates the frustrations and confusions most students experience in reading their first chemistry textbook. This edition features four-color art throughout, plus new practice examples following all worked examples, and updated applications relating chemistry to our lives and the environment.Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
To the Instructor
The wide acceptance and success of the third edition of this textbook provided the impetus for making refinements and modifications that are designed to make the text even more appealing and effective. A successful text is, by definition, a work in progress. A special thank you is extended to all users and reviewers who have made helpful suggestions that will enable this new edition to effectively address the needs of today's student population.
This text is written especially for students who have had no instruction—or limited instruction—in chemistry. It is for the broad range of students who are in the process of preparing themselves for subsequent courses in chemistry and other sciences. It is also for students who are preparing to enter nursing, allied health, and technical programs, and for students in a variety of disciplines who take the course for general education purposes.
Although chemistry is everywhere—and without it life would not be possible—excitement and anticipation for learning about chemicals and chemical reactions is frequently not evident among students. Instead, students often approach the study of chemistry with considerable apprehension. Furthermore, chemistry educators at all levels express a genuine concern about the limited science background and mathematical skills of many students. Beginning students especially need help to
In this fourth edition, we have addressed the goals listed here by extending and enhancing the blend of learning approaches directed at common problems students often have in understanding chemistry. Only when a student is competent will she or he be able to overcome fear, and have confidence.
To help students achieve real understanding, this text does the following things.
• Addresses student attitudes from the start. Preceding Chapter 1 is a letter to students that addresses student apprehension and study techniques. It lists six levels of thought processes, describes ten principles of productive study, and gives steps and actions that lead to success. Specific study techniques are recommended for use before lectures, during lectures, and before exams. Instead of expecting students to automatically know how to approach the study of chemistry, we suggest and provide successful learning strategies.
• Meets students where they are. Each chapter begins with an introduction that relates new topics to common applications and provides a rationale for learning. Throughout each chapter, care has been taken to provide a framework for learning that is built on simple and thorough explanations along with margin notes that point to learning connections, real-world connections, and medical connections. The learning connections help students relate new topics to terms, concepts, and problems in previous sections and point to later topics where the concept will be needed or further developed. Thus, major points are brought to the students" attention more than once. Repetition increases retention; applications increase understanding.
NEW: Connections are everywhere. Margin notes have specific headings toy focus student attention on Learning Connections, Real World Connections, ands Medical Connections. Boxes are used when the application or connection is discussed in greater detail. Students learn new concepts by making connections to) familiar concepts and examples. Thus, in-text explanations involving, common substances and simple analogies are frequently used to help students think through new, concepts. See all margin notes and Figure 11.4 (Making sandwiches and limiting; reactants), Figure 4.7 (Connecting metals and nonmetals with positions in the periodic table), Figure 4.27 (Counting by weighing), Figures 8.6 and 8.7 (Electronegativity trends—concepts and icons), and the Box, Properties of Sulfur, in Section 2.5. Also see periodic table icons in Figures 7.11, 7.12, 7.18, 7.19, 7.28, and other figures.
• Helps students visualize chemistry. To get a student's attention, the material must be inviting and interesting but in addition, teaching materials must help students visualize atoms, molecules, molecular structures, and chemical changes. Art is important. Furthermore, color is very much a part of chemistry and our everyday lives. It is used in this text as a learning tool. Color-coded periodic tables (Figures 5.32, 5.33, 5.36 and the periodic table on the inside cover) repeatedly use the same color scheme to encourage students to make connections and thus facilitate learning. Up-to-date four-color photographs and figures are used extensively throughout this text to help students visualize chemistry.
NEW: Zoom-out windows picturing materials at the atomic and molecular level alongside the macroscopic image have been added to help students think more like a chemist, picturing in the mind what is happening at the molecular level. See Figure 8.1 (Reaction of sodium and chlorine), Figure 10.2 (Burning magnesium), Figure 10.22 (Precipitation), Figure 14.3 (Dissolving a salt), and Figure 14.16 (Osmosis).
• Emphasizes learning in small steps. Beginning with Chapter 2, each section of a chapter contains one or more worked-out examples, for a total of over 250 representative worked-out examples. In this edition, each example is followed by two exercises—a simple exercise and a more complex one—for a total of over 500 exercises to be used by the student as self-tests. Solutions to exercises are given in Appendix F. The examples and exercises provide students with a structured method of reviewing major points within a section before proceeding to the next section. Problem-solving strategies or "concept maps" and step-by-step explanations accompany the worked-out examples. They serve as models for working end-of-chapter problems, which are referenced in the margin beside exercises.
NEW: Many of the 250 worked-out Examples are broken down into small steps. Examples in this edition are followed by two Exercises—the (a) Exercise is simple, the (b) Exercise is more complex—with answers in Appendix F. See Examples 9.13 to 9.18, Exercises 9.13 to 9.18, and Examples 11.2 to 11.6 along with the accompanying Exercises 11.2 to 11.6 and related Figures, 11.1 and 11.2.
• Provides matched pairs of problems. Over 1950 end-of-chapter problems in matched pairs provide ample opportunity for "learning by doing"—the method of science. A set of problems arranged by topic and from simple to more complex is followed by a small set of multi-concept challenge problems (suggested by reviewers) and a large set of additional problems. Answers to odd-numbered problems are given in Appendix F. The Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual provides complete worked-out solutions to the odd-numbered problems. The odd-numbered and even-numbered problems make up two sets of problems having equivalent difficulty, so an instructor who does not want students to have access to answers can assign the even-numbered problems. The Instructor's Solutions Manual contains complete solutions to all problems.
NEW: There is a 20 percent increase in end-of-chapter problems for this textbook. The new problems have been distributed throughout. See Chapters 4, 8, 9, 10, and 12.
• Emphasizes the process of science. Problem solving cannot stand alone; it requires an understanding of terms and concepts. Simple problems are often worked incorrectly when fundamental principles are confused. Furthermore, students encounter the "process of science" as they think through the experiments that led to major discoveries and use realistic experimental data to support scientific laws. For example, the text describes experiments that led to the law of conservation of mass and current applications (Chapter 2), Dalton's atomic theory (Chapter 4), discoveries that changed our models of atoms (Chapter 5), and experiments that provide information about chemical bonding (Chapter 8) and gases (Chapter 12). When possible, results of experiments are presented before a law is stated to create a "need to know" learning environment. We intend to demonstrate that the search for answers—in the past, the present, and the future—can be both exciting and challenging.
NEW: Chapter 8, Chemical Bonds, has been significantly updated, with new art to enhance learning. See Table 8.2, Section 8.8, and Figures 8.11, 8.15, and 8.18. Chapter 15, Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium, has been thoroughly rewritten. Additional images have been added along with updated line-art to help students visualize important and difficult equilibrium concepts. See Figures 15.3, 15.4, 15.6, 15.13, 15.14, and 15.15.
• Emphasizes the language of chemistry. Chemical terms and chemical formulas are used to communicate chemistry; they must be understood before problems can be solved. Key terms appear in boldface print in the text where they are defined and are listed at the end of the chapter for review. Chapter 6 provides a thorough treatment of chemical nomenclature. This "stand alone" chapter can be presented earlier, later, or in small sections, at the discretion of the instructor.
NEW: The number of end-of-chapter problems involving chemical formula writing and nomenclature has been expanded to provide more flexibility. Margin notes give Learning Connections with cross-references for key terms defined or discussed previously. See Margin notes in Sections 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, and 14.7.
• Provides real-world applications.
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