Dedicated to the memory of Irving M. Copi, the twelfth edition of Introduction to Logic retains its breadth of coverage, while breaking new ground with a compelling new design and inclusion of new pedagogic features to help students in their study of logic. This new edition goes further than any previous edition-or competing logic text-in assisting students with their mastery of logic! NEW to Introduction to Logic, Twelfth Edition!* New material-Additional coverage of conditional proofs; new category for fallacies of defective induction; separated treatment of classic syllogistic logic and modern symbolic logic *"VISUAL LOGIC" feature-Clear and vivid illustrations provided to clarify challenging logic topics *Marginal definitions-Helps students define terms while reading *Summary tables-Over 30 "OVERVIEWS" to help students review material at a glance *New student supplemet-Available to package with new texts, LogicNotes with Practice Problems provides a Notebook with numerous practice problems and solutions (Package ISBN: 013-163729-0) eLogic-Prentice Hall's new CD-ROM-based logic tutorial Prentice Hall has revised its tutorial to provide students with over 800 exercises, drawn from the text, plus the tools students need to solve logic problems. Students can work problems, including diagramming arguments, creating Venn diagrams, constructing truth tables. And now students can build and check proofs! See the walk-through in this book or visit www.prenhall.com/philosophy for more information!

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Irving Copi first published *Introduction to Logic* in 1953, a little more than half a century ago. The book has grown mightily in the years since—but it is a mark of Professor Copi's power as thinker and teacher that this book has become the one work used by more people around the world in the study of logic than any other book ever written—with the possible exception of *The Organon* of Aristotle. Three reasons for this long-continuing success are justly noted as follows.

First, Professor Copi perfected the structure for a textbook in logic which was not only intellectually coherent, but also fit smoothly and usefully into the widely practiced patterns of college instruction. That original structure remains the architectonic of this twelfth edition: first, it presents the basic concepts of logic and the logical difficulties encountered in everyday uses of language; next, the methods of deductive reasoning are presented in a manner which an account of traditional syllogistics precedes an explanation of modern symbolic logic; and last, the methods of inductive reasoning are presented in a manner beginning with the analysis of simple arguments by analogy and advance to moderately sophisticated techniques in science and the theory of probability.

Second, Professor Copi was an understanding teacher who clearly saw that the mastery of the principles of logic could best be acquired by giving students many opportunities to exercise their skills and reinforce their satisfactions with materials whose contents are interesting and worthy. Logic, he would say, is an art as well as a science, and proficiency in its use requires practice as well as comprehension. Therefore, from the very beginning, every edition of *Introduction to Logic* has been rich with illustrative materials and exercises taken from arguments encountered in real life. The present edition retains that spirit, by introducing many fresh and intriguing exercises and illustrations which have been drawn from lively controversies-political, scientific, and moral-of the twenty-first century.

Third, *Introduction to Logic* became the most widely used of all textbooks in logic because Irving Copi had the talents that enabled him to combine great accuracy with clarity, and deep penetration with engaging exposition. This was, and is, a textbook—but a textbook that has been written well, and one that we hope does not loom before students as a parade of chores, but wins its readers as friends confronting a series of enjoyable intellectual challenges.

These merits are fairly claimed for the original manuscript of Irving Copi. Ensuing editions have always sought to preserve those merits and to find new ways to realize them. Instructors who use *Introduction to Logic* in their courses may be helped by a brief report in this preface of the manifestations of that continuing revitalization in this twelfth edition. The larger structure of the book has been retained as noted above, but some important changes have been introduced to that structure.

**1. Organization of the Twelfth Edition**

How best to present the basic conceptual material of the early chapters has been a perennial pedagogical concern. We must resolve the unavoidable tension between the need to put a series of related basic concepts before the student early on, and the competing need to follow the introduction of each of these concepts with exercises that can exhibit their use and complexity. We have tried several different approaches, sometimes breaking the exposition into several chapters, and in the eleventh edition we combined theoretical exposition and many exercises into one very long chapter. But this most recent pattern has been found to make the material somewhat more difficult to digest. We have consulted widely with our colleagues across the country on this matter; the resolution with which we now emerge is the following.

The first *two* chapters of the book are devoted to the presentation of basic conceptual materials. In the first of these we give a short account of the central ideas and their interconnections. A few exercises are included, but the need for an overall understanding of the terrain calls for a relatively speedy exposition of many critical topics: propositions and arguments, deduction and induction, validity and truth, and so on, without lengthy exercise sets. In the following chapter we address the complexities to which these central ideas quickly give rise: the techniques of argument analysis, the problems of recognizing arguments, incompletely stated arguments, intertwined and cascading arguments, and so on. This division, we believe, achieves the happiest result, allowing the instructor to introduce assorted fundamental concepts without delay at the outset, and subsequently to explore their ramifications and to work with the exercises that enrich this first account. For the twelfth edition, the text's organization retains three main parts, but each part is now separated into two sections (A & B), to help clarify the arrangement of material. Additionally, by breaking out the first two chapters of the text, the twelfth edition numbers 15 chapters.

**2. Classification of Informal Fallacies**

The classification of informal fallacies has been a matter much discussed among logicians, many different classifications having been proposed over the years. Our extended treatment of this matter in chapter 5 of the present edition, has been adjusted to reflect what we now conclude is the classification most *helpful* to students. Where previously we had distinguished three clusters of informal fallacies—those of relevance, of presumption, and of ambiguity, we add now a fourth category, fallacies of defective induction, which are also appropriately distinguished and grouped. This schematism must be qualified throughout by the realization that much depends, in almost every case, on context and interpretation. There is no one right way to classify these very slippery fish; no pattern of inclusion or exclusion satisfies everyone. Nor is it the case, for many mistakes in reasoning, that there is only one right category to which that mistake may be assigned. We try here to achieve reasonable sophistication in analysis, with more clarity and more modesty.

**3. Inclusion of Indirect Proofs**

Some of our colleagues have thought it a deficiency of our earlier editions that in presenting the deductive methods of modern logic, the method of indirect proof had been omitted. The study of symbolic logic only begins with the materials in this book, of course, and we have deliberately refrained from introducing methods (including conditional proofs) likely to prove burdensome but not very useful to the student in an introductory course in logic. We have been persuaded, however, that some techniques going beyond the standard method of formal proof by natural deduction are indeed useful to the introductory student, and are straightforward enough to be digestible. Therefore we have introduced in Chapter 10 (now renamed Methods of Deduction) a separate short section on the method of indirect proof, and another section on the shorter truth table method of proof. Either of these sections, or both, may be conveniently omitted by instructors who find them inappropriate for their students.

**4. Science and Logic**

From instructors who use this book we have received many helpful suggestions regarding the formulation of the logical issues presented on the hypothetico-deductive methods of science in what is now Chapter 14. There are so many intriguing possibilities in this realm, so many inviting complexities, that we have in the past been tempted to include more than is called for in an introductory text. In this edition we pare this down, compressing the account of evaluating scientific explanations, but enriching the larger account by presenting, in very short compass, the outlines of some of the most beautiful scientific investigations. This latter account, however fascinating, is necessarily historical, but it is complemented by the more extended analysis of the modern quest for the structure of DNA, whose importance has been underscored by the recent completion of the mapping of the human genome.

**5. Additional Changes to the Twelfth Edition**

We continue to search for, and to include, a wealth of exemplary materials from contemporary journals and periodicals—from *Science* and *The New England Journal of Medicine,* from decisions of appellate courts and from *The New York Times*—and from whatever source may offer the illustrations and exercises that have enabled *Introduction to Logic* to contribute to intellectual enrichment which goes beyond the realm of the strictly logical. It was deeply satisfying to us to encounter, among the remarks of one of the reviewers of Introduction to Logic, the observation that for his students the book had served, in itself, as one sort of liberal education. We have aimed for that. To advance this objective, the exercise sets in the early chapters of this edition, and also in the later chapters dealing with inductive logic, have been rejuvenated. It is important for students of logic to grasp, and to *feel,* the impact of reasoning on matters of genuine concern to them. In those sections of the book dealing with modern deductive logic, on the other hand, where exercise sets consist mainly of problems of a symbolic nature, there is no good reason to change them since they have served well as study materials. Those exercise sets, therefore, remain largely as they have been.

In selecting real-life illustrations of arguments good and bad, we try hard to avoid all partisanship. We have greatly benefited from the contributions of our users, for which we are truly appreciative. Here again we issue a standing invitation to all to send us the materials—examples, cartoons, illustrative quotations and suggestions of every sort—which we will certainly acknowledge, and which are sur...

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