cdma2000 in depth: architecture, protocols, design, and operation
This is a complete guide to the architecture and operation of cdma2000 networks. Three leading experts begin by reviewing the theory of CDMA communications, then systematically discuss every component of a cdma2000 network, including radio access networks, packet core networks, mobile stations, and their reference points. The authors present in-depth coverage of the cdma2000 air interface protocols between mobile and base stations; physical layer design; media access control; layer 3 signaling; handoffs; power control; radio resource management for mixed voice and data services; radio access network performance; and end-to-end call flows for circuit switched voice, packet data, and concurrent services. Coverage includes:
This is an ideal reference for professionals designing or building cdma2000 infrastructure and mobile stations, operators deploying and managing cdma2000 networks, and any wireless communications engineer who wants a thorough understanding of cdma2000 technology.
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VIERI VANGHI, Senior Staff Engineer at QUALCOMM, has more than ten years' experience in CDMA systems engineering, including base station and mobile station design.
ALEKSANDAR DAMNJANOVIC, Senior Engineer at QUALCOMM, has more than four years' experience in CDMA systems engineering and cdma2000 air interface standardization.
BRANIMIR VOJCIC is Chairman and Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University. Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
Spread spectrum communications techniques have been used in military applications since the 2nd World War but have found a widespread commercial use only in the last ten years or so. To cope with the accelerating demand for mobile communications in the early 1990s, the introduction of spread spectrum techniques in cellular communications afforded a bandwidth efficient digital technology that could accommodate, within a given wireless spectrum allocation, a larger population of mobile users than other analog or digital technologies.
Spread spectrum systems exploit the noise-like characteristics of the spread signal waveform to allow multiple simultaneous transmissions using a common bandwidth. This is accomplished by means of spreading codes that are unique to each user and have mutually low correlation so that the multiple access signals can be separated at the receiver by means of despreading. Due to the use of spreading codes to achieve multiple access capability, this technology was named code-division multiple access (CDMA). Several favorable properties of spread spectrum signals can be exploited in the context of CDMA. Firstly, the wide-band characteristic of the spread signal enables to resolve and constructively combine the multipath components at the receiver, thus mitigating channel fading. Also, the wide-band nature of spread spectrum signals allows employing powerful forward error correction codes without the bandwidth expansion penalty that is incurred in narrow-band technologies. In the context of cellular CDMA, spread spectrum allows for universal frequency reuse, which increases overall network capacity and eliminates the task of frequency planning. Finally, spread spectrum allows for soft handoff, a technique which improves performance at the cell boundary, and increases cell range and capacity.
The first cellular CDMA system was pioneered by QUALCOMM Inc., whose efforts led to the adoption of the IS-95 CDMA standard by the Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) in 1993. The IS-95 standard and its associated core network protocols are collectively known as cdmaOne(TM). Since then, the ever increasing demand for bandwidth efficiency, higher data rates and new services has motivated the constant evolution of the CDMA standard. IS-95 was primarily designed for voice services and to support low speed data applications. The data capabilities have since then improved, achieving higher data rates with increased bandwidth efficiency. At the same time the support of voice services has also improved with the adoption of more efficient vocoders. The milestones in the CDMA standards evolution are illustrated in CDMA air-interface standards evolution. An important milestone was achieved in 1999, when the IS-2000 CDMA standard (also referred to as CDMA 1X), developed under the auspices of standard development organizations of several countries, was approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) within the IMT-2000 initiative, as one of the standards for the 3rd generation mobile communications. Standards evolution exploited the flexibility afforded by CDMA in multiplexing multiple channels, which has allowed the adoption of revolutionary concepts without disrupting backward compatibility. Among them, the concept of fast forward link data rate adaptation with fast scheduling and hybrid ARQ was first introduced in IS-856, also referred to as High Rate Packet Data (HRPD), a CDMA system optimized for data only transmission that achieves very high forward link data rates and bandwidth efficiency. Similar concepts have been recently adopted in IS-2000-C, which allows for both circuit switched voice and high speed forward link data applications. IS-2000-C is sometimes referred to as 1X Evolution for Data and Voice (1X EVDV). The IS-856 and the IS-2000 standards, together with the associated core network and service protocols, are collectively known as the cdma2000 standard. At the time of the completion of this manuscript, IS-2000 revision D and IS-856 revision A are being standardized. The main feature of the new revisions is efficient support for high speed reverse link packet data through hybrid ARQ operation.
The cdma2000, specifications comprise thousands of pages and pose a daunting challenge even to the experienced practitioners. More importantly, with the ever increasing number of radio channel configurations, functionalities and applications supported by cdma2000 specifications, the motivating CDMA concepts tend to become obscure. In light of the above, the aim of this book is twofold. Firstly, it is to present how the principles of spread spectrum communication in general and CDMA in particular are applied to the cdma2000 standards. Secondly, it is too navigate the reader through the maze of specifications and distill their fundamentals into a manageable, but still comprehensive description of cdma2000 1X.
This book approaches cdma2000 mainly from a radio access network perspective, and focuses on the mobile station and base station interoperability procedures as specified in the IS-2000-C revision of the standard. In addition, this book also describes network architecture and services, and how these services are realized, end-to-end, throughout the various network interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the main concepts of spread spectrum techniques applied to CDMA cellular systems. Chapter 2 and 3 set the stage from a network perspective, describing the overall cdma2000 network architecture and the services it supports. Chapter 4 describes the functions performed by the CDMA modem and summarizes the IS-2000-C physical layer protocol. Chapter 5 and 6 describe the media access and signaling layer IS-2000-C protocols, respectively. The following chapters, from Chapter 7 to Chapter 9, describe soft handoff, power control, and packet data transmission techniques both from a protocol and an implementation perspective, giving practical guidelines and examples on how to implement these functionalities. Chapter 10 provides an analytical framework to estimate CDMA cell capacity and cell range, together with numerical examples that are useful to the practitioner. Finally, Chapter 11 describes how services are realized, end-to-end, in the cdma2000 network.
Given its scope and depth, we believe this book to be not only an invaluable aid to those that approach CDMA systems for the first time, but also an useful reference to the practitioners, system designers, and network operators. The book content and its structure also lend itself to be used for specialized courses and as a secondary academic text for courses in mobile communication systems and CDMA.
This leaves us with the pleasant task of acknowledging the contributions of the many individuals who reviewed this book. We would like to thank Alpaslan Savas, and our colleagues at QUALCOMM Inc., Baaziz Achour, Sanjeev Athalye, Tao Chen, Walid Hamdy, Duncan Ho, Jack Holtzman, John Ketchum, Jack Nasielski, Joe Odenwalder, Ragulan Sinnarajah, and Edward Tiedemann. Thanks to Jon Rayner for his contributions to the cover design. To all of the above we express our sincere thanks. We would also like to acknowledge the entire QUALCOMM team of engineers whose relentless efforts over past fifteen years have made CDMA the technology of choice for the present and future mobile systems. Last but not least, we are indebted to our families and soulmates for their support and patience during the many evenings and weekends we spent writing this book.
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