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Abraham Lincoln

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Item Description: Lincoln Officially Commences the Civil War;He Orders the Blockade of the South. Abraham Lincoln. With war clouds hanging heavy over Washington in early April 1861 and the budding Confederate States of America a reality, the U.S. government seemed paralyzed and uncertain. Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott was an exception; he developed a plan for the execution of the onrushing war. Scott's concept, later dubbed the Anaconda Plan, consisted of the blockade of the Southern seaports and control of the Mississippi River. This, he believed, would strangle the South by preventing it from exporting its crops for currency, preclude its receiving needed supplies and weapons to support its war effort, and isolate the western states from the eastern section of the Confederacy. Lincoln was aware that the blockading of ports was an act of war. In fact, since an act of war is, by implication, taken against another state, some in his cabinet argued that a blockade would constitute a tacit recognition of the sovereignty of the Confederacy, something the North was trying to avoid. Lincoln was less interested in the legal definitions than in the military utility of the plan, and he approved it despite the objections. On Friday, April 12, 1861, Confederate forces opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, initiating hostilities between the North and South. Lincoln immediately began moving to meet the crisis head on. The U.S. Army had less than 800 officers and only some 14,000 enlisted men, yet the federal government needed to mobilize for war. The only law in existence permitting the raising of additional troops was the Militia Act of 1792, which empowered the president to call out the militia to suppress insurrection. Using this law, on April 15, Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring that an insurrection existed, called out 75,000 men to put it down, and convened a special session of Congress for July 4.On April 19, Lincoln issued his proclamation blockading Southern ports. It provided that "a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels" from the ports of the states in rebellion. Then, to make the proclamation official, he signed this document, authorizing "the Secretary of State to affix the Seal of the United States to a Proclamation setting on foot a Blockade of the ports of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas." The seal was then affixed to the blockade proclamation, which was announced that day. It was a de facto declaration of war by the Union against the Confederacy. By the end of 1861, over 250 warships were on duty, with 100 more under construction. By 1865, some 600 ships were patrolling the Confederate coastline. Moreover, as the war progressed, the Union also intensified the blockade's effectiveness by capturing or sealing off a growing number of Southern ports. The storied blockade-runners were increasingly stymied. In the blockadeÕs first year, their chance of capture was one in ten. By 1864, the odds had become one in three, and by 1865, one in two. Strategically, the blockade was decisive. It limited both the import of military and other needed supplies and the export of income-producing cotton. "The blockade reduced the South's seaborne trade to less than a third of normal. And of course the Confederacy's needs for all kinds of supplies were much greater than the peacetime norm. As for cotton exports,.the half-million bales shipped through the blockade during the last three years of war compared rather poorly with the ten million exported in the last three antebellum years.[And] the blockade was one of the causes of the ruinous inflation that reduced the Confederate dollar to one percent of its original value by the end of the war." (James McPherson in Battle Cry of Freedom)." The authoritative Historical Times Encyclopedia Illustrated of the Civil War states ÒHistorians generally agree that the blockade, with more than 600 ships, Bookseller Inventory # 7590

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A superb collection of manuscripts signed by: LINCOLN, ABRAHAM
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Item Description: 1865. No Binding. Book Condition: Very Good. An outstanding collection of three Lincoln autograph items and relics relating to his death. Letters, documents, a newspaper, and relics from Lincoln’s deathbed (details below). Generally in very good condition and well-suited for display. Elizabeth Hutter was one of the most prominent Northern women in the fight to preserve the Union. During the Civil War, Elizabeth and her husband provided food and supplies to Federal recruits and volunteered at military hospitals. After First Bull Run and Gettysburg, Elizabeth traveled to the battlefields to aid the wounded, once under a special pass courtesy of Lincoln. She co-chaired a committee of the June 1864 Great Central Fair to raise funds for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, raising $250,000 for Union military hospitals. Lincoln himself attended the grand event in Philadelphia. Elizabeth is known to have met and corresponded with Lincoln on a number of occasions. In 1863 she secured Lincoln’s endorsement of her proposed earmuffs to warm soldiers’ ears! In October 1864, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton appointed Elizabeth’s brother, Jacob A. Shindel, as Assistant Quartermaster of Volunteers with the rank of Captain. According to that appointment (item A), Jacob was to report to Maj. Gen. Edward Canby, commander of the Military Division of Western Mississippi, based in New Orleans. Mrs. Hutter visited Lincoln in the White House on November 4, 1864 to discuss her ideas about establishing homes for war orphans (Lincoln Day by Day). At that meeting she also intervened on behalf of her brother to secure him a better posting. This collection includes a note signed by Lincoln instructing Stanton to receive his friend, declaring, “I really wish Mrs. Hutter to be obliged in this case. She is one of the very best friends of the soldiers ” (item A). At the same time Lincoln submitted a document to the Quarter Master General’s office in support of the appointment (item C). Stanton acceded to Lincoln’s wishes, for the following day Lincoln amended the appointment, writing “Capt. Shindel will report to Gen. W. T. Sherman, instead of to Gen. Canby as within directed. A. Lincoln Nov. 5. 1864” (item D). Sherman had recently captured Atlanta and was about to commence the March to the Sea. THE ASSASSINATION RELICS include a piece of the blood-stained bandage from Lincoln's head, feathers from the pillow on which he lay, and a letter from the man in whose room he died. Please inquire for more details. Bookseller Inventory # ABE-18022546299

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Item Description: In a remarkable and extraordinarily rare Lincoln letter to the head of the U.S. Senate, he requests that the Senate remain in session to finalize the historic measureFrom Section 9 of the Act: ÒAnd be it further enacted, That all slaves of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the government of the United States, or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from such persons and taking refuge within the lines of the army; and all slaves captured from such persons or deserted by them and coming under the control of the government of the United StatesÉshall be forever free of their servitude, and not again held as slaves.ÓAs an individual, Lincoln hated slavery. Before the Civil War, as a Republican, he wished to exclude it from the territories as the first step to putting the institution, as he said in his House Divided speech, Òin the course of ultimate extinction.Ó But as he took office as president of the United States, Lincoln was bound by a Constitution that protected slavery in the states where it existed. With the warÕs outbreak, as commander in chief of the armed forces pursuant to the Constitution, Lincoln had to worry about the support of the four border slave states and the Northern Democrats. These groups probably would have turned against the war for the Union if the Republicans had made a move against slavery in 1861.With Union armed forces moving South and establishing positions in Confederate territory, the issue of what to do with slaves arose very quickly. Slaves were the most conspicuous and valuable property in the region. They raised food and fiber for the Southern war effort, worked in munitions factories, and served as teamsters and laborers in the Confederate Army. General Benjamin Butler, commander of Union forces occupying a foothold in Virginia at Fortress Monroe on the mouth of the James River, provided a legal rationale for the seizure of slave property. When three slaves who had worked on rebel fortifications escaped to ButlerÕs lines in May 1861, he declared them contraband of war and refused to return them to their Confederate owner. Here was an opening wedge for emancipation, and hundreds of such ÒcontrabandsÓ voted with their feet for freedom by escaping to Union lines in subsequent months. Some Union commanders gave them shelter and protection; others returned them to masters who could prove their loyalty to the United States.To reduce the ambiguity of this situation, on August 6, 1861, Congress passed the First Confiscation Act, which authorized Union seizure of rebel property. It stated that all slaves who fought with or worked for the Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters. It placed the slaves in Union custody, but did not settle their status. Lincoln was reluctant to sign the act; he felt that, in light of the Confederacy's recent battlefield victories, the bill would have no practical effect and might be seen as a desperate move. He was also worried that it could be struck down as unconstitutional, which would set a precedent that might derail future attempts at emancipation. Lincoln was hoping to convince the border states to initiate a system of gradual emancipation with compensation for slave owners. Only personal lobbying by several powerful Senators persuaded Lincoln to sign the legislation. Lincoln gave Attorney General Edward Bates no instructions on enforcing the bill, and few confiscations occurred. The measure did little to satisfy the Radicals in Congress, who wished to abolish slavery entirely, and in December 1861, Senator Lyman Trumbull introduced a stronger bill that, among other things, provided for the liberation of slaves confiscated from the rebels - a controversial move that Lincoln could not then support. But it did get him thinking about what form of emancipation he would accept.But 24 days after the First Confiscation Act was passed, Union General John C. Fremont, seeing it as a licens. Bookseller Inventory # 11151

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Published by Washington, D.C. (1862)

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From: Seth Kaller Inc. (White Plains, NY, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Washington, D.C., 1862. No binding. Book Condition: Fine. Autograph Letter Signed, as President, to Secretary of State William H. Seward, "Executive Mansion," Washington, D.C., March 5, 1862. Signed at bottom by "William H. Seward," with a note in an unidentified contemporary hand. 1 p. 4 3/4 x 7 1/4 in. The United States is the only nation in history to end slavery through Civil War. Nations as diverse as Russia, the British Empire, France, Brazil, and others around the world ended their reliance on slave labor through legislative means that included some form of compensation to slaveowners for their lost "assets." Here, President Lincoln requests that Secretary of State William Seward summon a meeting of the Cabinet. The following day, the president presented a special message to Congress with his plan end slavery through compensation. There were no takers among the slaveholding border states. The brevity of Lincoln's letter belies its far-reaching implications and the tantalizing possibilities of "what might have been." With: [ABRAHAM LINCOLN]. Newspaper. New York Semi-Weekly Tribune. New York, N.Y., March 7, 1862. 6 pp., 16 ¾ x 20 ½ in. With "Message from the President/ Highly Important Proposition/ The Gradual Abolition of Slavery./ A Vigorous Blow to the Hopes of the Rebels." Printing Lincoln's March 5 message to Congress. Inventory #30001.29Complete Transcript "Executive Mansion March 5, 1862Hon. Sec. of State My dear Sir Please summon the Cabinet to meet me here at 7 o'clock this evening. Yours truly A. Lincoln[Signature of recipient:] William H Seward[Notation, in a third hand:] March 6th 1862 The Presidents Message to Congress, Recommending Compensated Emancipation. To preserve the Union"Historical BackgroundNearly a year into the Civil War, Lincoln had rightly concluded that the cost of continuing the war would far outreach the price tag of purchasing all the slaves in the loyal border states, terming his measure "one of the most efficient means of self-preservation" and stating "in my judgment, gradual, and not sudden emancipation, is better for all."To this end, Lincoln called for a Congressional resolution endorsing compensated emancipation and pledging federal support to states that adopted it. Paying to end slavery, he insisted, would ensure the border slave states would have nothing to gain by joining the Confederacy. Moreover, if compensated emancipation succeeded in the border states, it would serve as a model for utilizing gradual emancipation elsewhere to end the bloody conflict. Lincoln's March 6 message to Congress, preserved in the Library of Congress, contains revisions likely decided upon with his Cabinet at the meeting referenced here.A week later after this note, Lincoln wrote to California War Democratic Senator James A. McDougall, asking him to renounce his opposition to the proposal, explaining that $1,000,000 (less than one half-day's cost of the war) would buy all the slaves in Delaware at $400 per head. Lincoln further estimated that buying the freedom of the 432,622 slaves in Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri and Washington, D.C. would amount to $173,048,800 - the cost of war for 87 days. "Do you doubt," Lincoln wrote, "that taking [these] initiatory steps would shorten the war more than eighty-seven days, and thus be an actual saving of expense?" The president argued his plan's costs were minimal by comparison. "The sum thus given," he wrote to McDougall, "would not be half as onerous, as . the indefinite prosecution of the war."The idea of compensated emancipation never took root. Lincoln's plan (although not an actual law-merely a joint resolution declaring the policy) came before Congress and passed both House and Senate by large majorities on April 10, 1862. However, not one vote came from the border-state Democrats. In support of the spirit of the original resolution, Congress then passed a bill that provided for gradual, compensated emancipation in the District of Columbia. On April 16, the Preside. (See website for full description). Autograph Letter Signed. Bookseller Inventory # 23747

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Item Description: Washington, DC, 1864. No binding. Book Condition: Fine. Autograph Endorsement Signed as President, to John D. Defrees, Washington, D.C., February 8, 1864. On verso of an excellent content Autograph Letter Signed by Defrees, February 7, 1864. Complete Transcript [Defrees to Lincoln] Washington Feby 7, 1864Mr. President: The last session of the 36th Congress proposed to so amend the Constitution of the U.S. as to prohibit any interference with slavery, (by the General Government) where it then existed. It was disregarded, and the slave states resorted to war to separate from the free states. Now, why not send a message to Congress recommending the passage of a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution forever prohibiting slavery in the States and territories? It would be your measure and would be passed by a two thirds vote, and, eventually, three fourths of the States, through their Legislatures, would consent to it. If not done very soon the proposition will be presented by the Democracy and claimed by them as their proposition. This may look strange to those who do not remember with what facility that party can change front. Is it not right in itself and the best way to end slavery! It would have a beneficial influence on our elections in the fall. Those who deny the justice of a second term to you are attempting to weaken the faith of the people in your plan of reorganizing the state Governments of the rebel states. They say, suppose a state does so change its constitution as to prohibit slavery, why may it not, in a few years, hereafter, change back again? The proposed amendment would answer that cavil [objection]. A single amendment, thus submitted to the Legislature of the several states, would not open the whole constitution to amendment-and no harm can come of it, even should it fail to receive the sanction of the constitutional number of states. If done, it would be in accordance with the mode provided by the constitution itself-to which no one could reasonably object. Many reasons could be given in its favor-but I only desire to call our attention to the subject, and not to trouble you with an argument. Should you submit such a proposition I think it would be heartily endorsed by our State Convention on the 22d. inst. I think it a great move on the political chess board. Very Respectfully Your friend Jno D. Defrees[Lincoln's response to Defrees:]"Our own friends have this under consideration now, and will do as much without a Message or with it. AL. February 8, 1864"Historical BackgroundJohn D. Defrees (1810-1882) bought the Indianapolis Journal in 1846 and founded a pro-Republican newspaper, the Atlas, in 1858. He was elected to the Indiana state Senate and tried (unsuccessfully) to gain the nomination for Indiana representative in Congress in 1858. By 1860, he was a major force in Indiana Republican politics. Lincoln named Defrees "Public Printer," the head of the Government Printing Office, where he remained a powerful supporter of Lincoln and the Republican agenda.Ending slavery became a war aim after Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. However, the proclamation was issued as a military order, and offered no permanent protection to the freedmen and women. Abolitionists had long advocated a constitutional amendment ending slavery. Defrees's concerns regarding the Democratic Party co-opting the issue of ending slavery is somewhat mystifying. Nearly a month earlier, on January 11, 1864, former Democratic Senator John B. Henderson of slave state Missouri submitted a resolution for an anti-slavery amendment. Despite having been reared in Virginia, Henderson was against slavery, and upon the outbreak of the war, he even changed party affiliations to Republican, and chose to serve the Union. He was elected to the Missouri State Convention where he opposed secession. He was also named brigadier general of the Missouri militia before being appointed to the Senate. Considering Defrees's placemen. (See website for full description). Autograph Endorsement Signed. Bookseller Inventory # 23199

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Item Description: A rare war-date letter, on engraved letterhead, of the President to Major General Meade, seeking Meade's approval for an arrangement that would lead to a donation of $200 per month for the needy soldiersIn March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln commander of the Union Armies. His headquarters would be with the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Gen. George G. Meade. So though Meade would retain his post as leading that army, Grant would be his superior, in command the actions of Meade's army and the other Union forces. Grant developed a strategy to defeat the Confederacy by placing his army between the rebel capital of Richmond and Gen. Robert E. LeeÕs Army of Northern Virginia. In his Spring offensive in 1864, Grant and Meade confronted Lee's army a number of times in very bloody engagements in which both sides suffered great losses. The Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania were essentially draws but resulted in huge casualties. After each battle Grant's armies moved southeast to try to create a wedge between Lee and Richmond, but Lee's army successfully followed up the engagements by foiling that maneuver.The United States Sanitary Commission cared for the Union's sick and wounded soldiers and promoted clean and healthy conditions in army camps. It held fairs in certain large cities around the country, mainly in 1863-4, to raise funds for its activities. LincolnÕs personal assistance to benefit these fairs is well known, as he contributed notes, documents and signatures to be sold or auctioned at the fairs. It turns out that he also intervened on behalf of others seeking to donate to the fairs.A little known aspect of the war relates to the material left behind by the soldiers, who left a trail behind them as they moved. This included clothing and other rags that they no longer needed, were useless in their present form, or which they had to discard because the loads they carried in their backpacks were too heavy. One enterprising former soldier, John C. Swift, who had served in the Union Army from 1861-1863, wrote Lincoln on March 4 and March 9, 1864, offering to pay $200 per month to the Sanitary Commission for the exclusive privilege of picking up clothing cast off by Meade's and Grant's army. This subject touched close to Lincoln's heart so he intervened directly Meade, though it was during a period of intense conflict, when tens of thousands were fighting and dying. But realizing that there might be logistic issues, rather than insist, Lincoln left the decision up to Meade, even while indicating his own willingness.Autograph letter signed, on engraved Executive Mansion letterhead, Washington, May 25,1864, to "Major General Meade, Army of Potomac. Mr. J. C. Swift wishes a pass from me to follow your army to pick up rags and cast-off clothing. I will give it to him if you say so, otherwise not. A. Lincoln."If Meade responded, history does not take note of that response, an unsurprising development given the hostilities in which his troops were involved at the time. It is noteworthy that knowing this, Lincoln still chose to intervene on Swift's behalf, a testament to Lincoln's interest in the well-fare of the soldiers cared for by the Sanitary Commission.Just days later, the Battle of Cold Harbor would commence. Bookseller Inventory # 10921

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An Oration delivered on the Battlefield of: LINCOLN, Abraham (1809-1865);
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Item Description: Baker & Godwin, New York, 1863. 8vo. (9 x 5 5/8 inches). 48pp. Publisher's lettered wrappers, publisher's ad on rear wrapper. (Repair to paper spine). Within a modern box. "Four score and seven years ago.": the earliest publication of the Gettysburg Address in book form, preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen-page pamphlet, The Gettysburg Solemnities, known in only three copies. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the bloody and pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. Lincoln's speech was preceded by an address from Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The Washington Chronicle of 18-21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [The Gettysburg Solemnities]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" (PMM). Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long-continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. Howes E232, "b"; Monaghan 193; Grolier, American 100, 72 (note); Streeter Sale 1747; Sabin 23263; cf. Printing and the Mind of Man 351; Garry Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, pp.191-204. Bookseller Inventory # 31428

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Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln: LINCOLN, Abraham

LINCOLN, Abraham

Published by Tandy-Thomas, New York (1905)

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From: Argosy Book Store, ABAA, ILAB (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Tandy-Thomas, New York, 1905. hardcover. Extremely rare and beautiful set of the Presidential Edition, limited to only 50 copies. Lacking the 24th volume containing original documents. Edited by Nicolay & Hay. 12 volumes, bound in 23. Presidential Edition. 1 of only 50 copies printed. Extra illustrated edition with a profusion of fine engraved portraits, views and maps, photogravures, and facsimile letters. The frontispiece in each volume is an original color watercolor depicting a log cabin. Tall 8vo, superbly bound in full crimson morocco with lovely gilt floral devices on all boards and spines; ornate inner dentelles and green morocco doublures; green silk moire endpapers; uncut edges, top edge gilt. New York: Tandy-Thomas Company, (1905). Fine. Bookseller Inventory # 256401

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Item Description: New York: Baker & Godwin, 1863., 1863. 48pp. Publisher's printed wrappers, publisher's advertisement on rear wrapper. Repair to paper spine. Very good. In a cloth box, leather label. Rare first appearance in book form of Lincoln's magnificent Gettysburg Address. This edition was preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen- page pamphlet, THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES, known in only three copies. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the bloody and pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. His speech was preceded by an address by Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The WASHINGTON CHRONICLE of 18-21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" - PMM. Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long-continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. HOWES E232, "b." MONAGHAN 193. GROLIER AMERICAN 100, 72 (note). STREETER SALE 1747. SABIN 23263. PRINTING AND THE MIND OF MAN 351 (ref). Garry Wills, LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG, pp.191-204. Bookseller Inventory # WRCAM 49250A

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Item Description: James Smithson, the great benefactor of America, was born in 1754, the illegitimate son of Hugh Smithson, the first Duke of Northumberland. Illegitimate children were not unusual among EnglandÕs 18th century nobility, but certain opportunities were closed to them; they could not become military officers or ministers of the Church of England, two careers aristocrats commonly pursued. However, the young man attended Pembroke College at Oxford University, and there became interested in the natural sciences. He became a mineralogist and chemist. If as a youth Smithson set out to establish his name respectably, he certainly succeeded, as his research, publications, and activities in science opened doors for him, and quickly gained him the regard of his peers. He was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society in London, a signal honor that made him part of the scientific elite. Meanwhile, Smithson inherited a substantial amount of land from his mother, and careful management of it brought him wealth. Smithson never married and had only one close relative, a nephew named Henry James Dickinson (who later changed his name to Hungerford). In his will, Smithson left his fortune of £100,000 to his nephew. In the event of HungerfordÕs death, Smithson stipulated, the estate would pass his children - legitimate or illegitimate. But if his nephew died childless, he did Òbequeath the whole of my propertyÉto the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men.Ó Why America remains a mystery. Smithson was born around 1765 in Paris, and despite his world travels, he had never once visited the United States. He is not known to have been in regular communication with any Americans, and his papers - other than his will - never mention the United States. SmithsonÕs motivations for choosing to deed his estate to the citizens of a nation to which he seemingly had no connection may never be satisfactorily answered. Heather Ewing, SmithsonÕs biographer, suggests that his donation reflected the late-18th centuryÕs interest in a Òculture of improvement,Ó and a widespread belief that the United States would play an important role in advancing the arts and sciences. A handwritten note later discovered among SmithsonÕs papers suggests his decision was part of his search for legitimacy, perhaps even immortality. ÒThe best blood of England flows in my veins,Ó Smithson lamented, Òbut this avails me not. My name shall live in the memory of man when the titles of the Northumberlands and the Percys are extinct and forgotten.ÓIn 1829 Smithson died in Genoa, Italy. In 1835 SmithsonÕs nephew died childless, and SmithsonÕs lawyers informed American diplomats of the bequest. The gift was quite large for the time, almost equal to HarvardÕs entire endowment, which was then $600,000. Surprisingly to us today, the bequest flummoxed the government of the United States. President Andrew Jackson was unsure of the constitutional propriety of accepting the gift, and turned the matter over to Congress. Former President John Quincy Adams, then a Representative from Massachusetts, championed the gift as being consonant with Òthe spirit of the age.Ó However, Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina vigorously disagreed, proclaiming it Òbeneath the dignity of the United States to receive gifts of this kind from anyone.Ó He also worried about overstepping and the Federal government exercising too much power, saying ÒWe would enlarge our grant of power derived from the States of this Union.Ó The debate went on for eight years. But meanwhile, in July 1836, Congress at least agreed to send former Attorney General Richard Rush as envoy to London to secure the funds.Rush spent nearly two years at the Court of Chancery, arguing for the validity of the will and pledging Òthe faith of the United StatesÓ that the institution would indeed be built. He had to overcome formidable. Bookseller Inventory # 10871

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Item Description: A rare note of Lincoln showing his tenderhearted approach to the personal and often agonizing parts of the Civil War for familiesMany Patriotic young men on the West Coast had followed the Civil War in the newspapers and were anxious for a chance to join in the fight. But they knew that if they joined a California state unit, they would be stationed in the West, fighting Indians, guarding commerce trails, or doing garrison duty. In the late summer of 1862, a group of Californians contacted Governor John A. Andrews of Massachusetts and proposed to raise 100 volunteers to form a separate company in a cavalry regiment that was being raised in Massachusetts. The Governor agreed on condition that the Californians would provide their own uniforms and equipment. Officially they became company A of the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry. This first contingent was soon followed by 400 more California volunteers who formed Companies E, F, L, and M. These Californians used their enlistment bounty to pay for their passage and set off by sea from San Francisco. At the Isthmus of Panama they debarked, transited the Isthmus by rail, then boarded a ship for the eastern seaboard. By April all the Californians were at Camp Meigs, Leadville, Mass. They were known as the "California Battalion". One of these men was Walter S. Barnes, who enlisted in San Francisco on February 5, 1863, and was assigned to Company E. The remaining companies in the regiment were raised largely in Boston and other places in the eastern Massachusetts. The main body of the regiment left Readville, Mass. for the seat of war May 11, proceeding to Washington. Loudoun County Virginia was an area of significant military activity during the Civil War. Located on the stateÕs northern boundary, the Potomac River, it became a borderland after Virginia's secession in 1861. Loudoun County's numerous Potomac bridges, fords, and ferries made it an ideal location for both Union and Confederate armies to cross into and out of Virginia. Likewise, the county's several gaps in the Blue Ridge Mountains that connected the Piedmont to the Shenandoah Valley were of considerable strategic importance. The opposing armies traversed the county several times throughout the war leading to many battles and skirmishes, and the county changed hands six during the course of the war, the last time being in the summer of 1864. There continued to be fighting in Loudoun even later, with the last territory being contested in the county on March 21, 1865, just 19 days before LeeÕs surrender.AshbyÕs Gap in Loudoun is a gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains, with the town of Upperville being the closest to the gap; the towns of Middleburg and Aldie are just east of it. In June 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee marched north to Pennsylvania for the Gettysburg Campaign, and General J.E.B. StuartÕs cavalry was ordered to hold the AshbyÕs Gap to prevent elements of the Union Army from interfering with LeeÕs plans. There was extensive fighting between the major cavalry units of both armies at Aldie and Upperville as Lee headed north. As Lee retreated and resettled in Virginia, possession of that gap again became a subject of dispute. On July 12, 1863, the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry, in Col. Charles LowellÕs Brigade and under the command of Major Caspar Crowninshield, moved through Middleburg and Upperville. The 2nd Mass. sent some companies to AshbyÕs Gap, which was then in the hands of John MosbyÕs legendary Confederate Rangers, who operated widely in Loudoun throughout the conflict. CrowninshiedÕs men skirmished with the Confederates, driving them up the gap and then pursuing them three miles. At dayÕs end Federals held the gap, though they took casualties to gain the victory. Among these was Walter S. Barnes, who was killed and buried in Upperville.James Hughes of Bloomington, Indiana was elected to the House of Representatives as a Democrat in the 35th Congress and served from March 4, 1857-March 3, 1859. He was then app. Bookseller Inventory # 10850

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Published by [Springfield, Ill.] (1837)

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Item Description: [Springfield, Ill.], 1837. No binding. Book Condition: Fine. Autograph memorandum and plat (completely in Lincoln's hand), unsigned. [Springfield, Ill.], between October 1837 - June 1838. 1 p., 7 3/4 x 6 1/4 in. Between rail splitting, shop-keeping and lawyering, one of Lincoln's lesser-known professions was as county surveyor. Here, he combines skills, representing the widow Rhoda Hart in legal proceedings involving the sale of her deceased husband's land against a competing family member's claims. Lincoln and Hart prevailed.Most of Lincoln's surveys were made for town and county governments rather than individuals land holders. As a result, unlike those of George Washington, very few Lincoln surveys have ever come on the market. We find only two, without land plats, in major auction records of the last 40 years (one selling at the 1979 Sang auction, and again at Sotheby's in 1987; and the other, now being offered privately for $32,500, but frankly, it has no visual appeal.) Complete TranscriptMemorandum of the Real estate of Moses Hart, deceasedE. half S.W. quarter Sec. 24 Town 17 Road 7W. half same " " " "E. " N.W. " Sec. 24 17 750 acres of S. end E. S.W. " 13 17 7Wishes to sell all of the last mentioned tract and the North half of the last but one.Below this is a plat showing sections and plots, to the right of which Lincoln writes,"Prefers to sell on the premises."Historical BackgroundLincoln began studying surveying in the fall of 1833 in New Salem, Illinois, and served as Sangamon County surveyor. On August 4, 1834, the 24-year-old Lincoln was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. He also began to study law, and received his license to practice law two years later. In April 1837, he left New Salem and settled in Springfield, the new state capital. He then joined John T. Stuart as a law partner. In some cases the two disciplines blended. For example, in 1834 Lincoln did a survey for one David Hart. Then he represented the Hart family in real estate and litigation matters.In 1837, Lincoln represented Moses Hart's widow Rhoda Hart. In October, he obtained by a court her right to sell the real estate that had belonged to her late husband. In October 1838, in pleadings Lincoln filed in Hart vs. Sackett, he wrote that Mrs. Hart had followed the Court's instructions in selling the land, and now had to sue a neighbor to secure her rights pursuant to that permission: "Humbly sheweth unto your Honor your oratrix, Rhoda Hart Executrix of Moses Hart deceased, that at the last October term of this court an order was made by this court directing your oratrix to sell the real estate of the said Moses Hart deceased; that in obedience to the said order your oratrix has sold and conveyed the said real estate aforesaid in the parcels." A final Court Order concluded the case in favor of Rhoda Hart. Based on the history of the case, Lincoln penned this document between late October 1837 and late June 1838. This time frame placed it only a few years after his surveying career.More on Lincoln's Career as a SurveyorIn the fall of 1833, Carl Sandburg wrote, Abraham Lincoln entered into the most highly technical and responsible work he had known. Writing of it later, he said, "The Surveyor of Sangamon [County] offered to depute to A[braham] that portion of his work which was within his part of the county. He accepted, procured a compass and chain, studied Flint, and Gibson a little, and went at it. This procured bread and kept soul and body together."There were farm sections, roads and towns needing their boundary lines marked clear and beyond doubt on maps - more than the county surveyor, John Calhoun, could handle. On the suggestion of Pollard Simmons, a farmer and Democratic politician living near New Salem, Calhoun appointed Lincoln.Then for six weeks, daytime and often nighttime as well, Lincoln had his head deep in Gibson's Theory and Practice of Surveying and Flint's Treatise on Geometry, Trigonometry and Rectangular Surveying. From decimal fractions on. (See website for full description). Autograph Memorandum and Plat. Bookseller Inventory # 23770

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Item Description: He acts the day the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg ends, as wounded Union soldiers and ÒcontrabandsÓ flood into Washington The chaplain felt a calling and would work mostly without pay, selflessly donating his time and labor to the freedmen, and LincolnÕs note makes it clear he wants him employedOver 40,000 escaped slaves sought refuge and freedom in Washington, D.C. after the passage of the D.C. Emancipation Act in April 1862, which freed all enslaved persons in the District of Columbia. In addition, as the Union Army advanced on southern strongholds, thousands of slaves in their path made their way across Union lines to freedom, becoming what was known as "contraband.Ó The increasing numbers of contraband coming into Washington created a dilemma for the Federal Government and the Union Army responsible for both the protection of the capital and the pursuit of victory over the Confederates. How would these African-American men, women, and children find food, shelter, and medical care? In an effort to meet this challenge, in late spring of 1862 the Union Army established a camp and hospital to serve them. It became a safe haven for these former slaves and a center of government sponsored contraband relief efforts in Washington. The Contraband Camp and Hospital were constructed as one-story frame buildings and tented structures built by the Union Army to serve as temporary housing and hospital wards for black civilians and soldiers. Separate wards for men and women were established as well as separate tented wards for smallpox patients. In addition to the hospital wards, there was a stable, commissary, dead house (morgue), ice room, kitchen, laundry, dispensary, and living quarters. Within the camp thousands of contraband found refuge and medical care, and by the end of 1863, they had processed over 15,000 individuals and had 685 residents. The hospital hired nurses primarily from within the population of fugitive slaves and employed the largest number of black surgeons among U.S. military hospitals. In fact, the Contraband Hospital was one of the few medical facilities in Washington to treat African-Americans and broke the color barrier when it appointed Alexander T. Augusta surgeon-in-charge in May 1863.Rev. Isaac Cross was an minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church of New Jersey, with a history of working for relief of impoverished African-Americans. After the Civil War got underway, and wounded Union soldiers and masses of freedmen packed Washington, Cross decided to play an active role in serving their spiritual needs. In November 1862 Cross obtained a letter from the Newark Conference of his church stating that he was Òqualified, in their judgment, to receive the appointment of chaplain in the service of the United States.Ó This commendation was signed over a dozen officials and pastors in the church, a chaplain in the Hospital Department in New Jersey, H. J. Johnson, the colonel of the 8th N.J. Regiment, and by a major general in the New Jersey militia. Cross also had a certification dated December 1, 1862, from his Conference that he was a minister Òin good and regular standingÓ, and moreover ÒHis Christian and ministerial deportment are such as to commend him to the confidence of the Federal authoritiesÉÓCross brought these to President Lincoln in person on December 15, 1862. just as the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg was winding up, and wounded soldiers were beginning to stream into the hospitals in and around Washington. To show LincolnÕs state of mind at the time, just three days later Lincoln would tell a friend, ÒWe are now on the brink of destruction.Ó Lincoln heard Cross express his desire to minister to those in the hospitals, specifically naming the Ebenezer Church and Odd Fellows Hall Hospitals in Washington. Autograph Note Signed as President, Washington, December 15, 1862, setting in motion the appointment of Cross that would culminate in his service as chaplain to the Contraband Camp and Hospi. Bookseller Inventory # 11130

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LINCOLN, Abraham

Published by [n.p.],, Massachusetts: (1863)

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Item Description: [n.p.],, Massachusetts:, 1863. FIRST EDITION. Broadside. 28 x 20 inches. Mounted on cloth, folded in quarters, minor splitting a center fold; light soiling and edgewear with minor chips (without loss of text), very light annotations in ink on verso (visible to recto right margin). Overall an excellent example of this rare and important broadside. First printing of the first proclamation of Thanksgiving as a national holiday. This original broadside produced in Massachusetts is formatted in two halves, the top being Governor John A. Andrew's announcement of Lincoln's Proclamation dated July 27, 1863, and the bottom being Lincoln's actual proclamation dated July 15, 1863, announcing that August 6 shall be set aside as a National Day of Thanksgiving. Though the exact printing date is unknown, it can be assumed that it was printed within the week following July 27.Thanksgiving was observed as a holiday since colonial times and each state would set aside its own day for celebration. This proclamation was the first time that the holiday would be celebrated on a set day nationwide, making it the first observed Thanksgiving as a national holiday.Later the same year, on October 3, 1863, Lincoln made a second proclamation again announcing Thanksgiving as a holiday, but this time in November, a date closer to the time most states had been celebrating it in the past. This earlier proclamation is actually the first time Thanksgiving was given national status, but because the second proclamation was widely accepted, the knowledge of this earlier one has been somewhat forgotten, making this piece a rare and important document in the annals of American history.Though this broadside is for the State of Massachusetts, no other broadsides from any other states announcing this date are known to exist, and only three other copies of this rare document are located through OCLC. Bookseller Inventory # 11224

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LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Gardner, Alexander

Published by Washington (1865)

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Item Description: Washington, 1865. No Binding. Book Condition: Fine. The hanging of the Lincoln assassination conspirators. Within two weeks of Lincoln’s death, eight accused conspirators were in custody. President Andrew Johnson ordered a trial by military commission. After a seven-week trial in May and June, the commission retired to deliberate. On July 5 Johnson approved the verdicts and sentences including four death sentences. On July 6 the verdicts were revealed, and the very next day the four executions were carried out simultaneously. The convicted conspirators were stunned to learn that they were to be executed immediately. Alexander Gardner, the leading photographer in Washington, secured permission to document the carefully orchestrated event for which tickets were hotly contested. He made a series of ten images documenting the execution. This dramatic photograph shows the preparation for the hanging of the conspirators (from left to right): Mary Surratt (at whose boarding house the conspirators met) Lewis Powell (who attempted to assassinate Secretary of State William Seward) David Herold (who assisted John Wilkes Booth in his flight from Washington) George Atzerodt (who conspired to assassinate Vice-President Andrew Johnson) This photograph was the sole Alexander Gardner view used as a double-page spread in the standard work on the subject, which observed: “Adjusting the Ropes. The conspirators are bound, hooded, and fitted with nooses. On the right, Atzerodt, the last to be bound, recoils at what he sees” (Swanson and Weinberg, Lincoln’s Assassins: Their Trial and Execution, plate 190). Officials hold umbrellas to block the sun while preparations are made for the hanging. Men below the platform await the order to knock away the posts holding the trapdoors in place. This momentous image is one of the first news photographs. Albumen print (8 3/4 x 6 3/4 in.), mounted. Some chipping to mount. Manuscript caption on mount “preparing for the Execution of President Lincoln’s Conspirat[ors], Jail yard Washington, D.C. July 7th, 1865.” Some fading, but generally in good condition. Bookseller Inventory # ABE-15971286647

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Item Description: A rare full pardon, signed in the first year of his Presidency by Lincoln and Secretary of State William SewardLincolnÕs clemency is central to his legacy. His stern leadership combined with a soft heart makes him more human and resolute at the same time. During LincolnÕs presidency, under his clemency powers, he pardoned 324 persons for crimes for which they had been convicted by civil courts. The standards of kindness and mercy that he used were no different than those for convictions in military courts. Attorney General Edward BatesÕ pardon clerk later wrote of Bates that he discovered Òhis most important duty was to keep all but the most deserving cases from coming before the kind Mr. Lincoln at all; since there was nothing harder for him to do than to put aside a prisonerÕs application and he could not resist it when it was urged by a pleading wife and a weeping child.ÓCharles de Villier was a Frenchman an a native of Guadeloupe, and he and his father had come to the United States because, as he wrote in his pardon petition addressed to President Lincoln, of Òinternational troubles by which they lost their property.Ó They were teaching Òancient and modern languagesÓ to get by. ÒIn a moment of derangement of mind,Ó wrote de Villiers in his pardon petition, "he bought articles to the amount of $25 under 'false pretenses', was arrested and plead guilty and was sentenced to imprisonment of 18 months." ÒIn his heart,Ó de Villiers went on to say, Òhe was not guilty but intended to pay for the goods when he received a remittance from New York.Ó He was sent to jail. The petition is found in the Lincoln Papers in the Library of Congress, along with a letter de Villiers wrote the trial judge asking for clemency. The petition was endorsed by ten well connected Washington, DC residents, among them chaplain H.S. Stevens, and notably, H.S. Johnston, the man from whom the goods had been taken.Lincoln agreed to grant the pardon, but perhaps not buying de VillierÕs story, had one caveat: that de Villier leave Washington for at least 5 years, and leave promptly. Document signed, October 28, 1861, also signed by Secretary of State William Seward. ÒWhereasÉCharles de Villier was indicted and convicted for obtaining goods under false pretenses, and was by said Court sentenced to be imprisoned in the Penitentiary for the period of 18 months; and whereas the said Charles de Villier has now served out more than 6 months of his said term of imprisonmentÉ; And whereas it appears that this was his first offenseÉ; and whereas a large number of highly respectable citizens of the District of Columbia have earnestly brought me to extend the Executive ClemencyÉ; Now therefore let it be known that I Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, in consideration of the promises, divers other good and sufficient reasonsÉdo hereby grant unto him, the said Charles de Villier a full pardon on condition that he leave the District of Columbia within thirty days and do not return to the same within five years from the date hereof.ÓFull pardons signed by Lincoln and Seward are increasingly uncommon. Bookseller Inventory # 11026

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Item Description: Our records find no record of another such piece signed by Lincoln and his running mateUnusually, Lincoln puts strings attached, withholding a pardon and turning the ex-Confederate over to JohnsonÕs custodyThe 49th Tennessee Infantry was organized in December 1861 at Fort Donelson, Tennessee. Major Richard E. Douglass in Company B was appointed Adjutant. On February 16, 1862, it was captured at the fort and reported 300 engaged and 21 killed or wounded. Exchanged in November, the unit was assigned to General Maxey's Brigade in the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. For a time it served at Port Hudson, then took an active part in the fight at Jackson in May 1863. By this time Douglass had left the Confederate service and returned to his farm in Montgomery County. But wartime Tennessee was divided and a hotbed of intrigue. Although the state became a part of the Confederacy, East Tennessee was strongly pro-Union before secession, and strongly pro-Union Tennesseans remained there and existed in pockets throughout the state during the war. As Union forces took ever more Tennessee territory, some locals who had originally sided with the Confederacy began to feel the war was lost and were ready to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, putting them in contention with those still loyal to the Confederacy. Meanwhile, partisans on both sides were out gunning for opponents. After being home about a year, Douglass got picked up and was sent to Rock Island prison, quite possibly on a claim that he was in violation of his parole received at Fort Donelson. Rock Island was a prison camp that once held thousands of Confederate soldiers. Conditions were poor, and thousands died there. Some people called it the Andersonville of the North.Friends of Douglass wrote Gov. Andrew Johnson to secure his pardon, and in their letter stated that Douglass had been out of the war for a year and was living as a good U.S. citizen. They urged his release. A portion of that letter survives, though without the names of the signatories making the request. It reads, ÒWe the undersigned friends and acquaintances of Mr. R.E. Douglass who is now a prisoner at Rock Island Barrack No. 69 beg leave to state that the said Douglass was once in the Confederate Army and service but had resigned his office of Adjutant and had been and remained at home for some ten months quietly pursuing his duties as citizen and farmerÉÓOn June 8, 1864, Lincoln had been nominated for President on his fusion National Union Party ticket, and Johnson had been nominated as his running mate. Just days later, Johnson turned to the President to address the Douglass case.Johnson had a reputation for being hard on Confederates, but he looked into the matter and found the pardon request justified. He endorsed it, writing ÒExecutive Dept., Nashville, Tenn., June 20, 1864. I have made myself acquitted with the facts in this case; and I recommend it as a fit case for the Executive Pardon. Most respectfully submitted, Andrew Johnson, Mil. Gov. Tennessee.Ó Lincoln, however, was apparently not completely persuaded, and took an action atypical for him. Instead of just allowing Douglass to take the oath of allegiance and be released, as was his custom, he instead put him on bail (which is no pardon) and released him into JohnsonÕs own custody, effectively turning him over to state authorities. Then any repercussions would be on JohnsonÕs watch. Autograph endorsement signed, Washington, June 28, 1864. ÒLet this man take the oath of Dec. 8th and be exchanged on bail to Gov. Johnson.Ó Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton then wrote, ÒReferred to Col. Hoffman to execute the order.ÓThis document is thus signed by both men as joint nominees, a combination of autographs on the same sheet that is exceptionally uncommon. It is also fascinating to see how Lincoln working with Johnson, choosing to handle JohnsonÕs request, complying but really throwing the ball back into JohnsonÕs court. Bookseller Inventory # 11060

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Lincoln, Abraham

Published by G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1905)

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Item Description: G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1905. Limited edition set. Large octavo, 8 volumes. Bound in contemporary three quarters red morocco, top edge gilt, gilt tooling the spine, gilt ruled to the front and rear panel. One of a 1,000 numbered copies with a document signed by Lincoln and William Seward bound into volume four, appointing Addison L. Clarke as Consul of the United States in China, 14 February 1865, with the Presidential seal with some tape repairs to verso, Ranging from finely honed legal argument to dry and sometimes savage humor to private correspondence and political rhetoric of unsurpassed grandeur, the writings collected in this volume are at once the literary testament of the greatest writer ever to occupy the White House and a documentary history of America in Abraham Lincoln's time. They record Lincoln's campaigns for public office; the evolution of his stand against slavery; his pyrotechnic debates with Stephen Douglas; his conduct of the Civil War; and the great public utterances of his presidency, including the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address. Bookseller Inventory # 5067

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Lincoln, Abraham: Johnson, Andrew: Seward, William H.:

Published by Washington, D.C. May 29, 1865. (1865)

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Item Description: Washington, D.C. May 29, 1865., 1865. [2],4pp. Folio. Single folio leaf tipped onto a single folded folio sheet. Minimal edge sunning, else fine. A fine copy of the official government printing of various amnesty proclamations issued by Presidents Lincoln and Johnson during and just after the Civil War. The first page is a form circular from Secretary of State, William H. Seward, giving rules and regulations for administering and recording the amnesty oath, issued on May 29, 1865. Appended are copies of President Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of the same date, and President Lincoln's proclamations of amnesty and pardon, dated Dec. 8, 1863 and March 26, 1864. Johnson issued his amnesty proclamation for the benefit of those in the Confederacy who had not availed themselves of Lincoln's earlier announcements. "There are eleven classes of people not included in Johnson’s amnesty, beginning with 'civil & diplomatic officers or otherwise domestic or foreign agents of the pretended Confederate government'" - Goodspeed. Seward's circular and the proclamations are sometimes each found separately, but are rarely found together. A rare and highly important item, with only three copies in OCLC, at the Lincoln Presidential Library, the Allen County Public Library, and the Lincoln Museum. Not in Monaghan. GOODSPEED 524:106 (without the Seward circular). OCLC 62879317. Bookseller Inventory # WRCAM 49950

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Item Description: The telegraph was the only quick link between Lincoln and the events in the field, and he spent untold hours in the telegraph office waiting for news from the frontAnson Stager would also create the most widely used - and most effective - secret code of the war; An appointment of the highest importanceThe War Department Telegraph Office was the scene of many momentous events in the Civil War. Located next to the Secretary of WarÕs office, it hosted an anxious President Lincoln on many occasions, as he would read the telegrams as they came in, waiting news from the front. During great battles, he would sit and wait for messages to come in one after another. It was also a place of debate and cabinet meetings, where Lincoln was accessible. He met Congressmen there, who went to the telegraph office to see him when he could not be found at the White House. All military dispatches necessarily passed through this office.The U.S. Military Telegraph Corps was formed in 1861, prior to which no such organization existed. The scale of the war required rapid communication, and the telegraph was the only practical method. The corps trained come 1,200 operators of the military telegraph throughout the war, and they served under the anomalous status of quartermaster's employees. Their work was of the most vital importance to the army in particular and to the country in general, and the exigencies and experiences of the war demonstrated the utility and indispensable importance of the telegraph, both as an administrative agent and as a tactical factor in military operations. In 1861, Anson Stager was a civilian with a knowledge of telegraph lines. He was the co-founder of Western Union, and the first president of Western Electric Manufacturing Company. After the Civil War broke out in April 1861, Stager was requested by Ohio governor William Dennison to manage the telegraphs in southern Ohio and along the Virginia Line. Stager obliged and immediately prepared a cipher by which he could securely communicate with those who had the key (notably the governors of Illinois and Indiana). He is the author of the first telegraphic cipher used for military purposes. When the cipher came to the attention of General George B. McClellan, he asked Stager to prepare a cipher for use in the field, which he did; it was later adopted as the official cipher of the War Department. Stager was acting as a patriotic volunteer at this time, without rank or compensation.He soon came to the attention of the right people in Washington. On October 28, 1861, Thomas A. Scott, Assistant Secretary of War, wrote to President Lincoln, referring to Stager as a man who had a plan for managing the military telegraph. Lincoln responded, ÒÉIf the Secretary of War has confidence in it, and is satisfied to adopt it, I have no objections.Ó Cameron summoned Stager to Washington, where Stager submitted a plan of organization for the new telegraphic operations. Cameron approved the plan, and, on November 11, Stager was appointed Captain and Quartermaster, so that he could assume his role as head of the War Department Telegraph Service.Special orders 313, dated November 25, 1861, read: ÒCapt Anson Stager, assistant quartermaster, is assigned to duty as general manager of the Government telegraph linesÉ. Commanding officers will also give such aid as may be necessary in the construction and repair of telegraph lines in the country in which troops are operating.Ó Thomas Eckert was named StagerÕs assistant.Upon taking over as Secretary of War in early 1862, one of the first acts of Edwin M. Stanton was a recognition of the importance of the telegraph. He moved the telegraph office adjacent to his own, and brought all telegraphic operations under his control at the War Department. This brought StagerÕs operation closer to him and to the President.Document signed, March 26, 1862, effective retroactively to November 11, 1861, an ornate, vignetted commission, with an eagle, cannons and flags, app. Bookseller Inventory # 11145

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Abraham Lincoln

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From: The Raab Collection (Ardmore, PA, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: A very uncommon document signed by both On March 6, 1857, two days after President Buchanan was inaugurated, the Supreme Court issued a landmark decision in the Dred Scott case, holding that as a slave, Scott had no rights under the U.S. Constitution and thus no liberty to present a case in a Federal court. Further, since slaves were property, and since the Fifth Amendment spelled out that no person could be deprived of "life, liberty or property without due process of the law," the federal government was powerless to prohibit the practice of slavery anywhere in the Union. This decision appeared to undermine the Kansas-Nebraska Act, for in the assertion that the federal government was powerless to deprive an individual of his property, the corresponding powerlessness of a state government seemed implicit. While Stephen A. Douglas desperately attempted to reconcile the Dred Scott decision with his principle of popular sovereignty, Lincoln prepared to face off against him in the 1858 Senate election. Even as great events began to draw Lincoln in, he still had to attend to his law practice.The firm of Lincoln and Herndon handled about two dozen cases for S. C. Davis & Company, a St. Louis-based dry-goods wholesaler who sold sundries to local merchants. In many instances, these local stores didn't make enough money to pay their debts; and if the stores were in Illinois, S. C. Davis hired Lincoln and his partner to sue them. The documentary evidence suggests that Lincoln was not fond of these cases. He clearly saw himself as a mediator, wanting debtors to have an opportunity to pay their debts instead of having their assets seized. Lincoln and Herndon later turned S. C. Davis over to another law firm.On December 7, 1857, Lincoln filed praecipes in assumpsit (complaints for breach of contract) in the U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of Illinois for nine of the S. C. Davis cases. One of these was S. C. Davis & Co. vs. Henry J.D. Sanders. Document signed by Lincoln and Herndon, being a Bond For Costs, saying ÒWe enter ourselves as security for costs in this cause,Ó and promising to pay the court-assessed costs themselves if their client failed to do so. Document from their legendary practice signed by both Lincoln and Herndon are extremely uncommon. This is the second one weÕve had in our quarter century in business, and we recall seeing only two or three others over that entire span of time. Bookseller Inventory # 10629

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AN ORATION DELIVERED ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF: Lincoln, Abraham; Everett,
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Item Description: Baker and Godwin, 1863. Hardcover. Book Condition: Fine. No Jacket. 1st Edition. Baker & Godwin, New York, 1863. 8vo. 48pp. "Four score and seven years ago.": the earliest publication of the Gettysburg Address in book form, preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen-page pamphlet, The Gettysburg Solemnities, known in only three copies. Bound in recent hardcover. Several pages attached with recent restoration paper stubs. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. Lincoln's speech was preceded by an address from Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The Washington Chronicle of 18-21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [The Gettysburg Solemnities]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" (PMM). Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long-continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. Howes E232, "b"; Monaghan 193; Grolier, American 100, 72 (note); Streeter Sale 1747; Sabin 23263; cf. Printing and the Mind of Man 351; Garry Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, pp.191-204. Housed in a custom-made collector's slipcase. Bookseller Inventory # 1503132

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Political Debates between Hon. Abraham Lincoln and: LINCOLN, Abraham.

Item Description: Columbus: Follett, Foster and Company, 1860, 1860. Octavo. Publisher's brown blind-stamped cloth,gilt lettered spine. Blue cloth chemise and slipcase. A few spots of foxing to title page. Copies in the original cloth are commonly found in shabby condition, this one is remarkably fresh and unsullied. A fine copy. First edition of the text of the debates that were Lincoln's springboard to fame. The Lincoln–Douglas debates are unquestionably the most famous, and most important, of such confrontations to have been staged in the history of American politics. The candidates' sharp exchanges helped to polarise sectional attitudes towards slavery, and - although Lincoln lost the 1858 Illinois Senate race of which they were a part - the debates catapulted Lincoln towards the 1860 presidential nomination, and into the White House. The text of the Lincoln–Douglas Debates was set from Lincoln's own scrapbook - now in the Library of Congress - of clippings of the candidates' remarks as reported by the Chicago Press & Tribune (for the Republican Lincoln), and by the Chicago Times (for the Democrat Douglas). When published as a presidential campaign tool in April 1860, the collected speeches became a best-seller, and by the time of Lincoln's official nomination, some 30,000 copies were in circulation. Our copy is inscribed discreetly in pencil on one of the blank leaves at the end: "George Wolford/ May - 1860"; this is almost certainly the New York Republican Assemblyman of the same name who stood in the 81st New York State Legislature in 1858, giving this copy a marvellous contemporary resonance. A stunning copy of one of the most celebrated publications in American political history. Howes L388; Leroy, Mr. Lincoln's Book 15; Monaghan, Lincoln Bibliography 69; Monaghan, "The Lincoln–Douglas Debates," in Lincoln Herald 45:2–11; Pratt, "Lincoln Autographed Debates," in Manuscripts 6:194–201; Sabin 41156. Bookseller Inventory # 97989

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Abraham Lincoln

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From: The Raab Collection (Ardmore, PA, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: He appoints the famed pioneering ornithologist Charles Bendire an officer in the Union ArmyCharles Bendire served in the Civil War successively as a private, corporal, sergeant, and a hospital steward until he was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Infantry in May 1864. He transferred to the 1st U.S. Cavalry on September 9, 1864, and was eventually promoted to 1st Lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious services" at the Battle of Trevilian Station. Remaining in the army after the war, he was later a captain, and then major. He retired on April 24, 1886.During Bendire's service in the army he was sent to many locations, often isolated, across America, including Arizona, Washington and California. It was during these travels that he developed a fondness for all things wild, and particularly birds. He became a noted ornithologist and oologist (studying bird eggs), corresponded with other naturalists, and published articles. He made new discoveries about the migration habits of various birds and discovered several new species, including the BendireÕs Thrasher.Bendire amassed an important private collection of 8,000 bird eggs, which he donated to the U.S. National Museum (part of the Smithsonian Institution). The SmithsonianÕs website states of Bendire: ÒCollected eggs extensively throughout military career. Private collection of 8,000 eggs formed the basis of the egg collection at USNM. Honorary Curator in the Department of Oology under Spencer F. Baird. Prepared two volumes of "Life Histories of North American Birds." Founding member of the American Ornithologists' Union.ÓDocument signed as President, on vellum, complete with engravings of an eagle, flags, and military accoutrements, Washington, May 21, 1864, appointing Charles ÒSecond Lieutenant in the 2nd Regiment of Infantry.Ó The document is countersigned by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. We obtained it direct from the Bendire family descendants, and it has never before been offered for sale.It is unusual find a Lincoln military appointment with a significant scientific connection such as this one, and extraordinary to find one with a connection to the Smithsonian Institution. Bookseller Inventory # 10537

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Lincoln, Abraham; Douglas, Stephen A.

Published by Columbus, OH: Follett, Foster and Company (1860)

Used Hardcover First Edition

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Item Description: Columbus, OH: Follett, Foster and Company, 1860. Hard Cover. Book Condition: Near Fine. 1st Edition. First edition, first printing, first issue, without a line over the publisher's imprint on the verso of the title page, and "2" to the foot of page 17. Publisher's brown cloth, boards decoratively stamped in blind, spine lettered in gilt. Near fine, with the lightest touch of wear to extremities, fresh and unfaded cloth, spine gilt bright, contemporary former owner's inscriptions to the front endpapers and title page, bookplate to front pastedown, bright and clean interior. Overall, about fine and completely unsophisticated, the nicest we've seen. Howes L338. Monaghan 69. HBS 65543. Political Debates between Hon. Abraham Lincoln and Hon. Stephen Douglas collects the transcripts of the seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas held in Illinois from August 21 - October 15, 1858. When both men were running for Senate in Illinois, Lincoln challenged his Democratic opponent to a series of formal debates, which took place at Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, Quincy, and Alton. In each city, one candidate would open with an hour speech, the other would respond with an hour and half response, and the first would conclude the debate with a thirty minute rebuttal. The main topic of the debates was slavery, particularly in regards to its legality in the American territories. Notably, in the second debate, which was held in Freeport, Douglas articulated his "Freeport Doctrine," which argued for using popular sovereignty as a means to determine whether or not a territory would allow slavery. Although Lincoln would lose the senatorial race, Douglas' support of the Kansas-Nebraska Act vis-à-vis the Freeport Doctrine directly contradicted the Dred Scott decision and caused a regional divide in the Democratic Party, thereby paving the way for Lincoln to win the 1860 presidential election. In addition to the "Great Debates," this volume includes Lincoln and Douglas speeches given earlier in the same year at Springfield and Chicago, which include Lincoln's memorable "The House Divided" speech, as well as the two men's correspondence prior to the debates. Notably, Political Debates was printed in 1860 to garner support for Lincoln in the presidential race. Bookseller Inventory # AHSD002

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Item Description: That key victory during the Vicksburg campaign sealed Vicksburg's fate, as it bottled up the Confederates in that cityAt the outbreak of the Civil War, William H. Kinsman enlisted and was chosen 2d lieutenant in the company in which future General Grenville M. Dodge was captain. This company was assigned to the 4th Iowa Infantry. Kinsman was promoted to a captain and with that rank fought at the battle of Pea Ridge on March 6, 1862. Becoming detached from his regiment in that engagement, and, with two companies (his own and one from the 24th Missouri Infantry) deployed as skirmishers, he heroically covered the left wing of the Union Army. General Dodge requested to have Kinsman on his staff, and President Lincoln obliged. Document signed as President, Washington, July 19, 1862, with engravings of an eagle, flags, accoutrements of war, and a blue seal, appointing ÒW.H. KinsmanÓ as ÒAssistant Adjutant General of Volunteers with the rank of CaptainÓ.Kinsman had his eye on a regimental command and did not assume a place on DodgeÕs staff. And he did not have long to wait to receive that command. On August 2, 1862, he was named lieutenant-colonel of the 23d Iowa Infantry. In the Spring of 1863, with Kinsman now a full colonel, the regiment took part in the Vicksburg campaign. Port Gibson was the regiment's first battle, and in that engagement its loss was 31 killed and wounded. Then, on May 17, 1863, it took a lead role in the Battle of Big Black River Bridge. Placing himself in the front and center of his regiment, Colonel Kinsman said: "Captains, lead your companies, and I will lead you." The shout was now raised, and the men started their attack on the double-quick; the Confederates were there waiting. Colonel Kinsman had not advanced far till he was struck by a minnie ball in the abdomen, which felled him. Immediately rising, he said: "They have not killed me yet," and still moved on; but he had advanced only a few yards further, when he was shot again - this time through the lungs. He fell, mortally wounded; but he said to his regiment as it passed him: "Go on, go on, I can not go with you further.Ó KinsmanÕs last words were: ÒBury me on the battle-field, and tell my friends I did not falter." The Confederates lost almost 2,000 men, a loss they could ill-afford. Fewer than half of them who had fought at Champion Hill made it into the defenses at Vicksburg. This battle sealed Vicksburg's fate: the Confederate force was bottled up at there. So the day had been won, but at a great cost. Bookseller Inventory # 10715

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Abraham Lincoln

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From: The Raab Collection (Ardmore, PA, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Rioters had been jailed under a charge that they intended to kill U.S. MarinesLikely the pardoned man volunteered to join the Union Army, leading to the pardonIn the mid-1850s, the controversial, nativist "Know-Nothing" Party was immensely powerful in Washington, D.C. The mayor, John T. Towers, was a member of that party. When he declined to run again for the June 1857 election, the Know-Nothings nominated Silas H. Hill to succeed him. The city's Democrats, Republicans, and remaining Whigs all banded together as the "Anti-Know-Nothing Party" and nominated William B. Magruder. After one of the fiercest campaigns in the history of Washington, Magruder won the mayoral election by a mere 13 votes.On Election Day, June 1, in what became known as the 1857 Election Riots, the Know-Nothings recruited a street gang from Baltimore, the Plug-Uglies, to come to Washington, and with its own hometown heavies, intimidate the voters at the polls. They turned away anti-Know-Nothing voters with rocks, guns, and knives, until some citizens brought weapons of their own and the violence grew into mob rule. When the rioters reached levels of over 500, Magruder closed the polls and requested military aid from President James Buchanan. Marines arrived after the rioters had stolen a Federal cannon, and threatened to use it. Magruder pled with the mob to abandon it and surrender, but they refused. The crowd threw bricks, the government claimed that guns were shot at the Marines, and the Marines then fired into the crowd, killing ten, which dispersed the rioters. A coroner's jury later criticized Magruder and the Marines, and called the homicides unjustified, but the press saw a victory for law and order.David Christopher Bohlayer was one of these rioters. Deposed on June 24, he left a detailed account of the events that day. He stated that the Marines already had the cannon back when they formed in line of attack. He continued, saying that a brick was thrown at the Marines by someone in the crowd, the Marines charged with bayonets, then Magruder ordered the Marines to fire into the crowd. Bohlayer maintained that no pistol was shot from the crowd until after the Marines had fired, and moreover that Magruder was intoxicated.Neither President Buchanan nor new Mayor Magruder had any use for No-Nothings, nor their riotous accomplices. Some of the rioters were indicted for intent to kill the Marines, and imprisoned. Bohlayer was one of these. The 1860 U.S. Census shows Bohlayer as incarcerated in the penitentiary in Washington, DC, for "intent to kill." His occupation was listed as butcher. In 1861, Buchanan and Magruder were both out of office, and the No-Nothings had been relegated to history. Someone appealed to Lincoln to pardon Bohlayer, and Lincoln clearly doubted that Bohlayer had actually tried to kill any Marine. So he agreed.Document signed as President, Washington, August 9, 1861, being that pardon. "I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of State to affix the seal of the United States to the Presidential Warrant for the pardon of David Christopher Bohlayer.and for so doing this shall be his warrant." Why did Lincoln pardon Bohlayer? It may well have had to do with his volunteering for the Union Army. Less than two months after this pardon was issued, one David Bohlayer enlisted in the New York Artillery, from which he was detached in 1862. In 1863, David Christopher Bohlayer registered for the draft in Washington. It is easy to see why Lincoln was lenient in this case and likely others, as this pardon dates from just two weeks after Bull Run, and the Union needed all the men it could get. Bookseller Inventory # 10801

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Lincoln, Abraham

Published by Washington, D.C., (1864)

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From: Quaker Hill Books (Redding, CT, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Washington, D.C., 1864. 30 January 1864, seven lines plus signature and date on verso of a manuscript petition from James S. Henderson and 13 others, to His Excellency A. Lincoln, Calloway County, Missouri, 18 January 1864. 2 pages, 4to. The letter respectfully petitions President Lincoln on behalf of three young Confederates " now prisoners of war at Point Lookout." They were captured at the Battle of Black Water (near Vicksburg) after entering "the Rebel Army.in the fall of 1861." Now, they are "desirous to return to their homes.and comply with the Laws." They are "willing to take the necessary Oath." Lincoln as was so often his wont, is happy to comply, and writes: "Let these three young men take the oarth of Dec. * and be discharged. Also let J.J. Neal go to Point Lookout & return with these young men. A. Lincoln." The three here pardoned were among the 1700 Confederate prisoners taken in the Battle of Big Black River, 17 May 1863, in the late phases of General Grant;s Vicksburg campaign. Bookseller Inventory # 884614

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Published by Sangamon County, Illinois (1839)

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From: Seth Kaller Inc. (White Plains, NY, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Sangamon County, Illinois, 1839. No binding. Book Condition: Fine. Autograph Manuscript Signed "Stuart & Lincoln" (meaning the entire text and signature was penned by Lincoln), Sangamon County, Illinois, after November 4, 1839. 2 pp. 7⅝ x 12 1/2 in. "Yet the said defendant (although often requested so to do) hath not as yet paid the said several sums of money or either of them or any part thereof, bus so to do, hath hitherto wholly neglected and refuse- to the damage of the said plaintiffs of five hundred dollars and therefore they sue. Stuart & Lincoln p.q." A complaint on behalf of Lincoln's and Stuart's client, Neff, Wanton & Company, against Josiah Francis, an Athens storekeeper. On March 13, 1837, Francis purchased $319.21 worth of goods on 6 months credit, which he failed to pay. On November 4, 1839, he agreed to pay a further $45.45 for interest and penalties. Here, Lincoln recites the history, notes they still haven't been paid, and claims $500 in damages. Lincoln was involved in a second suit against Josiah Francis in 1841, after Francis bought a building and failed to pay on time. Francis served in the Illinois legislature, and founded the Sangamo Journal, which his brother edited. John T. Stuart (1807-85). Illinois legislator, U.S. Congressman, cousin of Mary Todd. Stuart and Lincoln met while serving together during the Black Hawk War. Stuart lent Lincoln his first law books, served as an early mentor, and first law partner from 1837-41. An "old-line" Whig, in 1838, during a debate in Springfield, Stuart fought with Lincoln's future opponent Stephen Douglas. "Stuart seized his little opponent by the neck and carried him around the square. The Little Giant retaliated by biting his assailant's thumb until it was half-severed" (Gerald M. Capers, quoted in www.mrlincolnandfriends.org).On November 2, 1839, Lincoln noted his partner's departure for Washington to assume his seat in the United States Congress by entering in firm's fee book, "Commencement of Lincoln's Administration." Stuart later opposed the Republican Party and Lincoln's administration, primarily over the abolition of slavery. Autograph Manuscript Signed. Bookseller Inventory # 23827

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34-Line Document Written Entirely in Lincoln's Hand: LINCOLN, Abraham (1809

LINCOLN, Abraham (1809 - 1965)

Published by Sangamon County, Illinois (1842)

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From: Argosy Book Store, ABAA, ILAB (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

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Item Description: Sangamon County, Illinois, 1842. unbound. 2 pages (front and back), 12.25 x 7.25 inches, Sangamon County, Illinois, March 1, 1842. Signed "Logan & Lincoln PQ," the name of Lincoln's law firm -- a writ on behalf of Illinois lumber merchants William Porter, James Donnell, and Joseph P. Eagen, who were seeking restitution and damages from a debtor, Frederick A. Patterson, in part: ".For that whereas the said defendant.was indebted to the said plaintiffs in the sum of one hundred and twenty three dollars, and eighty five, for scanting, joists, sheeting, rafters, weatherboarding, flooring and other lumber.yet the said defendant although often requested to do so has not as yet paid the said sum of money." Tears along the folds, silked on the back, slight staining, signature slightly smudged. Very good(-) condition. Bookseller Inventory # 234068

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