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Autograph manuscript titled:] The effect of heat upon the absolute magnetic force of bodies.

FARADAY, Michael

Published by [London, not after November 22 1855] (1855)

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Item Description: [London, not after November 22 1855], 1855. Half page on a folded folio sheet (322 x 420 mm), 20 lines, with a few corrections, the sheet folded for posting, labelled on outside in ms 'Mr Faraday abstract' and 'Abstract of Dr Faraday's Paper', together with enclosing sheet folded for posting, addressed in Faraday's hand to 'Dr [William] Sharpey, Secretary, Royal Society, Somerset House' and with Faraday's signature in lower left corner, with red wax seal (broken), together in a cloth box. £12,500Autograph manuscript by Michael Faraday, an abstract of his paper for the 30th series, section 40, of his Experimental researches in electricity, published as a series of papers in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society between 1832 and 1855. The abstract itself was published before the Phil. trans., in Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol 7, pp 524-6 (1855). This is the only Faraday scientific manuscript I am aware of appearing recently for sale.The full paper was read before the Royal Society on November 22, and published in the Phil. trans. in 1856. Interestingly, the three papers of the 30th series were not included in the collected edition of the papers, volume three, which also appeared in 1855 (nor do they appear in the later reprints).This manuscript represents some of Faraday's final work on electromagnetism, and his experimental investigations of fields of force, the precursor of Maxwell's field theory. It continues the theme of sections 38 and 38, titled respectively 'Constancy of differential magnecrystallic force in different media' and 'Action of heat on magnecrystals'. It begins: 'Results were sought for by which the magnetic force of bodies already examined in the condition of magnecrystals might be compared with the whole paramagnetic or diamagnetic force of the same bodies, taken in the granular or amorphous state.' followed by an examination of the change of magnetic properties in relation to the temperature of the object.'During the 1850s when the stream of highly speculative papers on the nature of force and its transmission were appearing in the Philosophical Magazine . Faraday continued his experimental researches. The concept of the lines of force and the field now provided him with an overall picture of physical reality. The chain, in a sense, was complete. Only here and there was a link missing, and these Faraday sought to discover' (L. Pearce Williams, Michael Faraday, a biography, p 465). 'By the mid-1850s Faraday had gone as far as he could go. He had provided a new perspective for those who would look on all manifestations of force in the phenomenal world. His description of this perspective was fuzzy and imprecise but capable of clarification and precision if taken up by someone who could share Faraday's vision. Such a man was James Clerk Maxwell, who, in the 1850s and 1860s, built field theory on the foundations Faraday had laid' (DSB).Faraday's manuscripts are in the Royal Institution and the Royal Society, including the majority of papers read to these institutions. Letters by Faraday do occasionally appear for sale, but no scientific manuscript has been offered on the market in my experience.Both enclosing sheet and manuscript are on paper watermarked 'W. Stradling 1851'.For the published version see Jeffreys 427 and Wheeler Gift 2998. Bookseller Inventory # 2692

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Item Description: London: Richard and John E. Taylor, 1849. Large 4to. (300x231mm). Original blank wrappers. Some small tears. Back strip proffesionally repaired with Japanese paper. With presentation by Faraday in ink on title page: "William Thomson Esq. | St. Peters College | from the Author." (2),41,(1:blank). First edition, rare offprint issue of "one of the great classics of chemistry and physics" with the extremely attractive presentation inscription from Faraday to William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin), who delivered the first mathematical exposition of Faraday's researches in electricity. Thomson provided an important theoretical direction for Faraday's interpretation of his own experiments and the two colleagues motivated and inspired each other to a degree that the research and knowledge of electricity they possessed and published would not have would have been reached until many years later. The paper itself is of the utmost importance since much of his groundbreaking research published in 1831-1839 contained many shortcomings and errors which in this publication are corrected. "The corrected second edition of volume 1 is preferred, because the first edition (London 1839) contained many errors". (Neville, Historical Chemical Library)."In June 1849 William Thomson wrote to Michael Faraday suggesting that the concept of a uniform magnetic field could be used to predict the motions of small magnetic and diamagnetic bodies. [.] There had been an important exchange of ideas between the two, who had a common interest in explaining voltaic, electrostatic, magnetic, optical, and thermal phenomena. They meet every year between 1845 (where they became acquainted) and 1849". (Gooding, Faraday, Thomson, and the Concept of the Magnetic Field).In 1845 Thomson gave the first mathematical development of Faraday's idea that electric induction takes place through an intervening medium, or "dielectric", and not by some imprecise "action at a distance". He also devised a hypothesis of electrical images, which became a powerful agent in solving problems of electrostatics, or the science which deals with the forces of electricity at rest. It was partly in response to his encouragement that Faraday undertook the research in September 1845 that led to the discovery of the Faraday Effect, which established that light and magnetic (and thereby electric) phenomena were related.Faraday was also the direct cause of William Thomson's work on the transatlantic submarine telegraph cable. Faraday had in 1854 demonstrated how the construction of a cable would limit the rate at which messages could be sent, what later would be termed the bandwidth. Thomson immediately looked into the problem and published his response the same month Faraday had published his observations. Thomson expressed his results in terms of the data rate that could be achieved and the economic consequences in terms of the potential revenue of the transatlantic undertaking. In 1855 Thomson stressed the impact that the design of the cable would have on its profitability. Thomson's work on the cable consequently resulted in a complete system for operating a submarine telegraph that was capable of sending a character every 3.5 seconds. He patented the key elements of his system, the mirror galvanometer and the siphon recorder, in 1858.From 1831 to 1852 Michael Faraday published his "Experimental Researches in Electricity" in The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. These papers contain not only an impressive series of experimental discoveries, but also a collection of heterodox theoretical concepts on the nature of these phenomena expressed in terms of lines of forces and fields. He published 30 papers in all under this general title. They represents Faraday's most important work, are classics in both chemistry and physics and are the experimental foundations for Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light, using Faraday's concepts of lines of force or tubes of magnetic and electrical force. Bookseller Inventory # 38043

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CHEMICAL MANIPULATION;

Faraday (Michael)

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Item Description: Book Condition: Very Good. being instructions to students in Chemistry, on the methods of perfoming experiments of demonstration or of research, with accuracy and success. Pp. viii+656, text figures, index; later (but not recent) qr. calf, the spine lettered and ruled in gilt, brown cloth boards, a trifle soiled, lightly rubbed and flecked, the bottom fore-corners slightly frayed, small stain at foot of spine, which is lightly rubbed at edges; later endpapers and binder's blanks, bookseller's sticker at foot of upper pastedown, lower hinge starting, the outer leaves slightly soiled and foxed; W. Phillips, London, 1827. First edition. *Faraday's only separate monograph, his other publications being collections of scientific papers, or transcriptions of lectures. This copy is inscribed by him at head of title page: 'Edmund R. Daniell Esqr with the Author's Respects". Edmund Robert Daniell was a fellow of Royal Institution, and the brother of Faraday's friend John Frederic Daniell, a chemist and physicist remembered for his invention of an electric battery known as the Daniell cell. Edmund Daniell, who was a barrister, and the author of A Treatise on the Practice of High Court Chancery, was elected Secretary of the Institution in 1831. Faraday was the Institution's inaugural Fullerian Professor of Chemistry, a position to which he was appointed for life. As director of the laboratory, he spent most of his working life at the institution, where he made many of his important scientific discoveries. Chemist, physicist, educator and philosopher, Faraday was one of the most influential scientists in history. It is said that Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside one of Isaac Newton. Bookseller Inventory # 113975

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Experimental researches in electricity. Bound extracts

Faraday, Michael

Published by 1832-56, London (1832)

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Item Description: 1832-56, London, 1832. Faraday, Michael (1791-1867). Experimental researches in electricity. 30 series of papers, plus supplement to the 11th series, extracted from Philosophical Transactions. 4to. 18 plates. [London, 1832-56]. 285 x 224 mm. Extracts bound in 1 vol., modern morocco gilt. Fine set.First Editions. An extremely rare, fine complete set of Faraday's epochal papers on electricity, as they originally appeared in the Philosophical Transactions over 24 years. It was through his "Experimental researches" that Faraday announced his major findings relating to electricity and magnetism, the most important of which was his discovery of the means of generating electricity from electro-magnetic induction-the principle behind the dynamo and the transformer, and the foundation of the modern use of electricity. The "Experimental researches" also contain Faraday's demonstration of the identity of all forms of electricity, his discovery of the laws of electrolysis, his announcement of the fundamental relations between light and magnetism, his first general theory of electricity as a function of interparticulate strain, and his last series of researches on magnetism, containing the germ of the modern field theory, in which Faraday rejected his earlier model of the transmission of magnetic energy in favor of one locating the manifestation of magnetic energy in the field surrounding the magnet. Our set includes Faraday's 30th and final series of the "Experimental researches," published in 1856 and not included in the book-form edition (1839-55) or in the collected papers, like ours, cited as no. 64 in Dibner's Heralds of Science; this 30th series contains Faraday's papers on "Constancy of differential magnecrystallic force in different media" (no. 38), "Action of heat on magnecrystals" (no. 39), and "Effect of heat upon the absolute magnetic force of bodies" (no. 40). Jeffries, Michael Faraday, A list of his lectures and published writings (1960) 187, 191, 207, 215, 218, 220-21, 227, 234, 241, 273, 277, 279, 285, 299, 313, 341, 371, 381, 384, 394, 398, 427. See PMM 308 and Horblit 29 (both citing the book-form edition). Bookseller Inventory # 41454

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Item Description: with 14 plates exactly complete and located as textually called for, with numerous textual illustrations, PHOTOGRAPHS ON REQUEST. First Editions, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1832-1856, superbly bound in a large thick quarto, three-quarter green morocco, with raised bands gilt, by Trevor Lloyd, with the general title-page for the first part (1832) retained, most plates with very small and neat embossed uninked library name (this virtually invisible), one plate with small repairs in upper blank margin, an excellent attractive set beautifully preserved and bound, London, The Royal Society, 1832-1856. * See Printing and the Mind of Man, 308 and Horblit 29 (both citing the later collected book-form edition).*An extremely rare complete set of Faraday's epochal papers on electricity, as they originally appeared in the Philosophical Transactions over 24 years. Between 1832 and 1856, Faraday published in the Philosophical Transactions a series of 30 papers entitled "Experimental Researches in Electricity," in which his major discoveries relating to electricity and magnetism were first announced to the world. The first 29 of these papers were collected and published in three volumes between 1839 and 1855; the 30th paper, published in 1856, never appeared in book form. The "First series" of the "Experimental researches," published in 1832, is Faraday's single most important scientific paper: it reports his discovery of the means for generating electricity by electro-magnetic induction and his invention of the dynamo. Regarding Faraday's invention of the dynamo, his biographer L. Pearce Williams has this to say: ". . . it was impossible to realize at the time the revolution in man's life that would be worked by future developments of this apparatus. . . . From this simple laboratory toy was to come the whole of the electric power industry and the benefits to everyone that have followed upon the ability to transport electricity to even the smallest village or farm. Faraday did realize that here was a possible source of cheap electric current, but he was too immersed in discovery to think of pursuing the practical aspects. . . . The story is told that Sir Robert Peel, the Prime Minister, visited Faraday in the laboratory of the Royal Institution soon after the invention of the dynamo. Pointing to this odd machine, he inquired of what use it was. Faraday is said to have replied, "I know not, but I wager that one day your government will tax it" (Williams, Michael Faraday, pp. 195-96). The "Second series" of the "Experimental Researches," which deals with terrestrial electromagnetic induction and the force and direction of electromagnetic induction generally, is of almost equal importance to the "First series," as it represents the birth of the field concept. Through his experiments, Faraday had made the surprising discovery that the lines or curves of force generated by a magnet are independent of their source. Williams writes that: "in the same paper [i.e., the "Second series"] in which Faraday had noted the independence of the magnetic lines of force, he also introduced a new concept. This was the idea of the field of force generated in time and extending progressively through space. . . . For the next thirty years [Faraday] was to search for essentially two things: the way in which electric and magnetic forces were transmitted through space, and the relation between these forces and ponderable matter. It is no exaggeration to say that a fundamentally new way of looking at physical reality was introduced into science in this Second Series of the Experimental Researches. Hitherto all that had been really attended to was the effects of forces acting upon matter. Henceforth, the problem of the way in which the force was transmitted between particles of matter or even through empty space was to loom ever larger. Out of the successive answers given by Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell and Albert Einstein was t. Bookseller Inventory # 23258

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Experimental Researches in Electricity

Faraday, Michael

Published by London: Richard and John Edward Taylor, 1839, 1844, 1855 (1839)

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Item Description: London: Richard and John Edward Taylor, 1839, 1844, 1855, 1839. Hardcover. Book Condition: Very Good. No Jacket. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITIONS OF ALL THREE VOLUMES of Faraday’s monumental Experimental Researches in Electricity, the most comprehensive record of his achievements. (Printing and the Mind of Man, 308.). ORIGINAL CLOTH BINDINGS. Experimental Researches in Electricity. Reprinted from the Philosophical Transactions. London: Richard and John Edward Taylor, 1839, 1844, 1855. Octavo, original green cloth. Three volumes. Ex-libris Bath Public Library with call numbers on spine, bookplates on front pastedowns, and occasional small embossed stamp to text and all plates. Ownership signature of Alfred Jones on each title. Text clean, some spotting to cloth and one repaired spine tear, one hinge split but holding. RARE. Bookseller Inventory # ABE-10987662122

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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES IN ELECTRICITY. PRESENTATION COPY.

FARADAY, Michael.

Published by London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor (1849)

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Item Description: London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor, 1849. Offprint from the Philosophical Transactions - Part 1, number 22 for 1849, Twenty-second Series. PRESENTATION TO TOP OF TITLE PAGE "REV. DR. ROBINSON, (IRISH ASTRONOMER?), FROM THE AUTHOR". 4to, approximately 300 x 230 mm, 11¾ x 9 inches, a few small text illustrations, pages: title page, 1-41, [1 - blank], bound in pale brown wrappers. Wrappers dusty, spine worn with slight loss of paper, pencil and old ink notes to top cover, faint vertical crease to covers and text, edges of covers showing slight wear and handling, otherwise a very good copy with unopened pages as issued, (never read). Rev. Dr. Thomas Romney Robinson (23 April 1792 - 28 February 1882) was an astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the U.K. during the 19th century. (Wikipedia). See: Faraday's Correspondence letter 2289; The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine Part 3, page 139. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE. FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST. Bookseller Inventory # 14407

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Item Description: London, John Murray, (1821), 1822, 1823. Wirhout wrappers as extracted from "The Quarterly Journal of Science and the Arts. (The Royal Institution of Great Britain)", vol. XII a. XV. Half-title and title-page to vol. XII, pp. 74-96 a. pp. 416-421 and 1 engraved plate (showing Faraday's apparatus for illustrating electromagnetic rotation). Title-page to vol. XV. Pp. 288-292. The plate slightly brownspotted. First appearance of these three papers in which Faraday records one of the most influential discoveries in physics in the 19th Century; - with these papers he is the very first to show how to CONVERT THE ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC FORCES INTO CONTINUAL MECHANICAL MOVEMENT, thus creating the first electric motor, using the principle of electromagnetic rotation. In the first paper he introduced for the first time the concept of "LINE OF FORCE", hereby delineating "a picture of the universe as consisting of fields of various types, one that was more subtle, flexible, and useful than the purely mechanical picture of Galileo and Newton. The FIELD UNIVERSE was to be recognized with Maxwell half a century later and with Einstein, after an interval of another half century" (Asimov)."Ever since Hans Christian Oersted's announcement of the discovery of electromagnetism in the summer of 1820, editors of scientific journals had been inundated with articles on the phenomenon. Theories to explain it had multiplied, and the net effect was confusion. Were all the effects reported real? Did the theories fit the facts? It was to answer these questions that Phillips turned to Faraday and asked him to review the experiments and theories of the past months and separate truth from fiction,.Faraday agreed to undertake a short historical survey.His enthusiasm was aroused in September 1821, when he turned to the investigation of the peculiar nature of the magnetic force created by an electrical current. Oersted had spoken of the "electrical conflict" surrounding the wire and had noted that "this conflict performs circles".Yet as he experimented he saw precisely what was happening. Using a small magnetic needle to map the pattern of magnetic force, he noted that one of the poles of the needle turned in a circle as it was carried around the wire. He immediately realized that a single magnetic pole would rotate unceasingly around a current-carrying wire so long as the current flowed. He then set about devising an instrument to illustrate this effect. His paper "On some new Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on the Theory of Magnetism" appeared in the 21 October 1821 issue of the "Quarterly Journal of Science" (The paper offered). It records the first conversion of electrical into mechanical energy. It also contained the first notion of the line of force." (DSB IV, pp. 533). Bookseller Inventory # 43731

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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES IN ELECTRICITY. PRESENTATION COPY.

FARADAY, Michael.

Published by London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor (1850)

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Item Description: London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor, 1850. Offprint from the Philosophical Transactions - Part 1, for 1850, Twenty-Third Series. On the polar or other condition of diamagnetic bodies. PRESENTATION TO TOP OF TITLE PAGE : "REV. DR. ROBINSON, (IRISH ASTRONOMER?), FROM THE AUTHOR". 4to, approximately 300 x 230 mm, 11¾ x 9 inches, pages: text illustration as frontispiece, title page, 171-187, [1 - blank], bound in pale grey wrappers. Wrappers dusty, spine worn with slight loss of paper, pencil and old ink notes to top cover, faint vertical crease to covers and text, edges of covers showing slight wear and handling, otherwise a very good copy with unopened pages as issued, (never read). Rev. Dr. Thomas Romney Robinson (23 April 1792 - 28 February 1882) was an astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the U.K. during the 19th century. (Wikipedia). See: Faraday's Correspondence letter 2289; The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine Part 3, page 139. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE. FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST. Bookseller Inventory # 14408

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On Some New Electro-Magnetical Motions, and on the Theory of Magnetism", in The Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and the Arts, Vol. XII (1822)

Faraday, Michael

Published by John Murray, 1822, London (1822)

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Item Description: John Murray, 1822, London, 1822. Hard Cover. Book Condition: Near Fine. No Jacket. First Edition. First printing of the landmark article (pp. 74-96) in which Faraday demonstrated the conversion of electrical force into mechanical motion -- in effect, the creation of the first electric motor. "It was this paper.which thrust Faraday into the first rank of European scientists." (Williams) Bound together with 3 subsequent notes by Faraday (pp. 186f., 283-285, 416-421) + 2 illus. plates, all from the same Vol. XII. Removed and recently re-bound in an attractive cloth binding, with blank leaves separating the articles/notes, and printed label on front cover. Foxing on the 2 plates. Otherwise in Fine condition. -- Faraday omitted this, and his other papers published before 1832, from his 3-volume "Experimental Researches in Electricity". Size: 8vo - over 7¾" - 9¾" tall. Bookseller Inventory # 002386

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ON LIQUEFACTION OF GASES and SOLIDIFICATION of BODIES, Generally Existing as Gases. PRESENTATION COPY.

FARADAY, Michael.

Published by London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor (1845)

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Item Description: London from the Philosphical Transactions printed by Richard Taylor, 1845. Offprint from the Philosophical Transactions - Part 1, for 1845, PRESENTATION TO TOP OF TITLE PAGE: "REV. DR. ROBINSON, (IRISH ASTRONOMER?), FROM THE AUTHOR". 4to, approximately 300 x 230 mm, 11¾ x 9 inches, 2 small text illustrations, pages: title page, 155-177, [1 - blank], bound in pale grey wrappers. Wrappers dusty and lightly stained, spine worn with loss of paper, old ink notes to top cover, vertical crease to covers and text, edges of covers showing slight wear and handling, otherwise a very good copy. Rev. Dr. Thomas Romney Robinson (23 April 1792 - 28 February 1882) was an astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the U.K. during the 19th century. (Wikipedia). See: Faraday's Correspondence letter 2289; The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine Part 3, page 139. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE. FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST. Bookseller Inventory # 14409

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THE COMMITTEE LAY THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS, AND CONSEQUENT COMMUNICATION FROM MR. FARADAY, BEFORE THE CLUB, FOR THEIR INFORMATION.

Faraday, Michael & E. Magrath, Secretary Of The Athenaeum (Club)

Published by Royal Institution, London (1831)

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Item Description: Royal Institution, London, 1831. Pamphlet. Book Condition: Very Good. 4to 11" - 13" tall; 4 pages; 4 page printed document: "Athenaeum, 12th Feb. 1831. Dear Sir, Can you, from the few experiments you have made in this house, and from your knowledge on the subject of Lighting, answer the following questions: 1. What is the ratio of light of an oil and gas burner? 2. What is the ratio of heat? 3. Is either sulphurous or sulphuric acid formed by the combination of coal gas in the ordinary way? 4. From a gas light, properly regulated, is gas respired? 5. Will an oil or gas light soonest soil the ceiling of a room. 6. What effect will the heat evolved have on the temperature of a room? 7. What are the comparative effects of oil and gas lights on the quality of air, light for light? 8. What are the comparative qualities of the light from oil and gas? 9. Taking all the circumstances into consideration, what, in your opinion, is the cause of the oppresive feeling complained of in certain rooms in the Atheaeum? 10. Why has oil been displaced by gas in the public rooms of the Royal Institution? I remain, Dear Sir, Yours very sincerely, E. Magrath, Secretary. Michael Faraday, Esq. " Faraday answers the ten questions as follows: "Royal Institution, Feb. 14, 1831 Dear Sir, The following are the best answers I am able to give your queries: 1. In an experiment made at the Athenaeum, with an excellent argand oil lamp, regulated by Mr. Hancock, and compared with a 15-hole gas burner, the light of the gas was to that of the oil as 21 to 13. 2. In experiments made to determine the heat evolved for equal quantities of light from oil and gas burning brightly from argand burners, the best from the oil being 2, that from the gas was nearly 3. 3. A little sulphurous or sulphuric acid is generally formed from the combustion of coal gas. If well-purified gas be used, this product is rarely sensible; it is less sensible as sulphuric than as sulphurous acid. Upon closely questioning persons who have declared that they smelt the sulphur from gas, I have usually found they meant something else; generally the oppresive heat, or the dry sensation, or the smell of a little gas unburnt, none of which have anything to do with the sulphur product from gas. " Faraday continues to answer questions 4-10 contained in this folded document mailed to the addressee, a member of the Athenaeum. Bookseller Inventory # 4236

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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES IN ELECTRICITY. PRESENTATION COPY.

FARADAY, Michael.

Published by London (1851)

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Item Description: London, 1851. Offprint from the Philosophical Transactions 1852, Twenty-ninth Series. LACKS TITLE PAGE. PRESENTATION TO TOP OF FIRST PAGE "REV. DR. ROBINSON, (IRISH ASTRONOMER?), FROM THE AUTHOR". 4to, approximately 300 x 230 mm, 11¾ x 9 inches, pages: title page, 137-159, [1 - blank], engraved plate at end, bound in pale grey wrappers. Wrappers dusty with some pale browning to lower wrapper, margins of engraved plate stained, light foxing to plate, last blank page has pale age-browning, pencil and old ink notes to top cover, faint vertical crease to covers and text, edges of covers showing slight wear and handling, otherwise a very good copy with unopened pages as issued, (never read). Rev. Dr. Thomas Romney Robinson (23 April 1792 - 28 February 1882) was an astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the U.K. during the 19th century. (Wikipedia). See: Faraday's Correspondence, letter 2289; The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine Part 3, page 139. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE. FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST. Bookseller Inventory # 14410

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Faraday's Diary: Being the Various Philosophical Notes of Experimental Investigation

Faraday, Michael

Published by G. Bell and Sons Ltd, London (1932)

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Item Description: G. Bell and Sons Ltd, London, 1932. Cloth. Book Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good d/w. 8 volumes set (with index). D/Js in fine condition. Very minor spotting to preliminaries and foredges. With photogravure frontispieces to each volume and illustrations in the margins from the original diaries. Size: 8vo. Bookseller Inventory # 028211

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Experimental Researches in Electricity

Faraday, Michael

Published by Richard and John Edwards Taylor, London (1878)

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Item Description: Richard and John Edwards Taylor, London, 1878. Cloth. Book Condition: Good. 3 volumes, facsimile reprint of first edition from 1878-1882, autograph letter from Faraday tipped-in at front, 17 folding engraved plates, front free endpapers trimmed, some browning to endpapers, original cloth, a good sharp set.The letter reads:' Mr Faraday hastens to return his grateful thanks to Miss ?Turner for her kindness.He was at the Aqua Alhula with Sir Humphry Davy at the time referred to. Royal Institution.16 May 1846'. Size: 8vo. Bookseller Inventory # 030687

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Item Description: Paris, L'Imprimerie de Feugueray, 1821. Small8vo. Orig. printed wrappers. Totally uncut. "Annales de Chimie et de Physique, par MM. Gay-Lussac et Arago", tome XVIII. - Decembre 1821, pp. 337-448 and 1 engraved plate. (The entire December-issue). Faraday's paper: pp. 337-370. First appearance in French of this landmark paper in electromagnetism. The present paper is a translation into French of Faraday's seminal paper "On some New Electro-Magnetical Motions, and on the Theory of Magnetism", which was originally published on October 21 in "The Quaterly Journal of Science", between one and two months before the present French version, which was published in "Annales de Chimie et de Physique", in December the same year. The work contains the first published mentioning of the "LINE AND FORCE CONCEPT". Faraday employed a magnet and a wire with a flowing current, caused each separately to rotate round the other, and concluded that a current-carrying wire is surrounded by a circular "line" of magnetic force."Ever since Hans Christian Oersted's announcement of the discovery of electromagnetism in the summer of 1820, editors of scientific journals had been inundated with articles on the phenomenon.Inspired by the editor of Philosophical Magazine, Richard Phillips, Faraday agreed to undertake a short historical survey but he did so reluctantly, since his attention was focused on problems of chemistry rather remote from electromagnetism. His entusiasm was aroused in September 1821, when he turned to the investigation of the peculiar nature of the magnetic force created by an electrical current. Oersted had spoken of the "electric conflict" surrounding the wire and had noted that "this conflict performs circles", but this imprecise description had had little impact upon Faraday. Yet as he experimented he saw precisely what was happening. Using a small magnetic needle to map the pattern of magnetic force, he noted that one of the poles of the needle turned in a circle as it was carried around the wire. He immediately realized that a single magnetic pole would rotate unceasingly around the current-carrying wire so long as the current flowed. He then set about devising an instrument to illustrate this effect.and so his experiment records the FIRST CONVERSION OF ELECTRICAL INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY. (Based on the article in DSB).- Faraday's discovery of "the lines of magnetic force" became the starting point for the revolutionary theories of Clark Maxwell and later of Einstein. Bookseller Inventory # 39123

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Item Description: Paris, Crochard, 1832. Contemp. hcalf., gilt spine, light wear along edges. In: "Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Par MM. Gay-Lussac et Arago.", tome 50, Series 2. (Entire volume offered). 448 pp. 2 folded engraved plates. Faraday's papers: pp. 5-67 a. pp. 113-162. First French editions of the 2 first memoirs of Faradays groundbreaking researches on electricity, constituting the first 2 papers of his "Experimental Researches in Electricity", and containing his fundamental discovery of electromagnetic induction, THE FOUNDATION OF NEARLY ALL THE ELECTRICITY IN USE TODAY. In 1820 Oersted had generated magnetism from electricity, Faraday here finds the opposite effect, generating electricity by magnetism. He also described the first electrical generator (second paper). THESE PAPERS ARE SOME OF THE GREAT CLASSICS OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS."Faraday demonstrated this theory involving the lines of force.by inserting a magnet into a coil of wire attached to a galvanometer. While the magnet was being inserted or removd, current flowed through the wire. If the magnet was held stationary and the coil moved over it one way or the other, there was current in the wire. In either case the magnetic lines of force about the magnet were cut by the wire.If the magnet and coil were both held motionless, whether the magnet was within the coil or not, there was no current.Faraday hd thus discovered electricalinduction.It was to lead to great things, but this was not apparent."(Asimov)."Although his discovery of the electric motor and the dynamo was almost entirely identical to his theoretical discoveries, it laid the foundation of the modern electrical industry - electric light and power, teælephony, wireless telegraphy, televison etc. - by providing for the production of continous mechanical motion from an electrical source, and vice versa." (PMM, 308).Horblit, 29 - Milestones, 62. - Dibner, 64. - PMM, 308. Bookseller Inventory # 44145

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Item Description: Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1832. Contemp. hcalf., raised bands, gilt spine. Light wear along edges. In "Annalen der Physik und Chemie. Hrsg. von J.C. Poggendorff", Band 25. (Entire volume offered). VIII,648 pp. and 6 folded engraved plates. Small stamps on verso of titlepage and plates. Faraday's papers: pp. 91-142 a. pp. 142-186. with 3 folded engraved plates. Clean and fine. First German editions of the 2 first memoirs of Faradays groundbreaking researches on electricity, constituting the first 2 papers of his "Experimental Researches in Electricity", and containing his fundamental discovery of electromagnetic induction, THE FOUNDATION OF NEARLY ALL THE ELECTRICITY IN USE TODAY. In 1820 Oersted had generated magnetism from electricity, Faraday here finds the opposite effect, generating electricity by magnetism. He also described the first electrical generator (second paper). THESE PAPERS ARE SOME OF THE GREAT CLASSICS OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS."Faraday demonstrated this theory involving the lines of force.by inserting a magnet into a coil of wire attached to a galvanometer. While the magnet was being inserted or removd, current flowed through the wire. If the magnet was held stationary and the coil moved over it one way or the other, there was current in the wire. In either case the magnetic lines of force about the magnet were cut by the wire.If the magnet and coil were both held motionless, whether the magnet was within the coil or not, there was no current.Faraday hd thus discovered electricalinduction.It was to lead to great things, but this was not apparent."(Asimov)."Although his discovery of the electric motor and the dynamo was almost entirely identical to his theoretical discoveries, it laid the foundation of the modern electrical industry - electric light and power, teælephony, wireless telegraphy, televison etc. - by providing for the production of continous mechanical motion from an electrical source, and vice versa." (PMM, 308).Horblit, 29 - Milestones, 62. - Dibner, 64. - PMM, 308.The volume contains further notable papers. Elie de Beaumont "Zweiter geologischer Brief.an A.v. Humboldt über die relative Alter der Gebirgszüge", pp. 1-58 a. 2 plates (one handcoloured), papers by Döbereiner, E. Lenz, Moser, Mitscherlich, de Saussure, J. Dumas, F.E. Neumann, Gay-Lussac, Johannes Müller "Beobachtungen zur Analyse der Lymphe, des Bluts und des Chylus", pp. 513-590. Bookseller Inventory # 44146

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Experimental Researches in Electricity. Reprinted from the Phil. Trans. of 1831-1852.

Faraday, Michael.

Published by London Richard Taylor and William Francis 1844 1855 (1849)

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Item Description: London Richard Taylor and William Francis 1844 1855, 1849. 3 volumes 574pp. 8 plates; 302pp. 5 plates; 588pp. 4 plates. Volume I is second edition, and Volumes II & III are first editions. Original cloth, a little rubbed, spines faded, plates lightly foxed, but good clean copies. Printing and the Mind of Man 308. Sets are quite rare, particularly in original cloth. Quaritch did a facsimile reprint in 1878, but this set is original. Faraday's great work brought together the supposedly different types of electricity, described the principle of the dynamo, showed the effect of a magnetic field on polarized light, and provided the necessary basis for Maxwell's full electro-magnetic theory. --- Regular catalogues are available in the History of Science & Medicine. Please email to receive these. ---. Bookseller Inventory # KS0012

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Item Description: Crochard, 1832. rigide. 1 vol. in-8 cartonnage marbré de l'époque, Chez Crochard, Paris, 1832, 448 pp. avec 3 planches dont 2 planches dépliantes. Contient notamment : Recherches expérimentales sur l'Electricité (M. Faraday) ; Recherches expérimentales sur l'Electricité. Seconde Série (M. Faraday) ; Nouvelles expériences magnéto-électriques (Nobili et Antinori) ; Nouvelle construction d'une Machine électro-magnétique ; Sur la Force magnétique ; De l'Action de l'Acide hyponitrique sur les Huiles, et des produits qui en résultent (Félix Boudet) ; etc. Rare exemplaire de l'important tome 50 des "Annales de Chimie et de Physique" contenant les éditions originales des traductions françaises des 2 mémoires essentiels de Michael Faraday (pp.5-67 : "Sur l'induction des courans électriques - Sur le développement de l'électricité par le magnétisme - Sur une nouvelle condition électrique de la matière - Sur les phénomènes magnétiques de M. Arago" et 113-162 : "Induction magnéto-électrique terrestre - Force et direction de l'induction magnéto-électrique en général"). Bon état (cartonnage lég. frotté) Langue: Français. Bookseller Inventory # 34662

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Item Description: Weimar, Landes-Industrie-Comptoir, 1828-32., 1828. (20 x 12,5 cm). VI, 810 S.; 20 S. Mit 5 lithographierten Tafeln. Leinwandband der Zeit. Erste deutsche Ausgabe des einzigen als eigenständige Monographie konzipierten Werkes. - "A useful manual designed to assist a person 'in obtaining a knowledge of the chemistry of research.' Primarily for beginners, the work covers all aspects of manipulations used in the conduct of chemical experiments" (Cole). - Titel verso gestempelt. Stellenweise etwas stockfleckig. Mit zahlreichen sauberen Marginalien von alter Hand. Einband etwas fleckig und berieben. Insgesamt gut erhalten. - DSB 4, 527; vgl. Cole 432 (engl. EA). Bookseller Inventory # 103575-01

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Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics.

FARADAY, Michael

Published by Richard Taylor and William Francis, London (1859)

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Item Description: Richard Taylor and William Francis, London, 1859. Hardcover. Book Condition: Very Good. 1st Edition. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (215x141 mm). viii, 496, [2] pp., including half title, 3 plates (1 folding). Publisher´s dark green cloth, boards with frames in blind, title gilt to spine (ends of spine land corners bumped), untrimmed and partially unopened, very minor foxing in places. Fine copy. ---- Norman 765, D.S.B., Duveen p.208, Jeffreys 458, Ball pp. 74-81. - Uncommon first edition of compilation of Faraday's pioneering work in Chemistry. Reprinted from the Philosophical Transactions of 1821-1857; the Journal of the Royal Institution; the Philosophical Magazine, and other publications. Includes over fifty scientific articles. Among its highlights, it contains "Thoughts on ray-vibrations" [electromagnetic theory of light] Considered one of the most influential books of 19th century scientific investigation. Bookseller Inventory # 001872

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Item Description: (London, Richard Taylor, 1834). 4to. No wrappers as extracted from "Philosophical Transactions" 1834 - Part I. Pp. 77-122. Fine and clean. First appearance of this milestone paper in which Faraday announces the discoveries of further laws of electrochemistry, stating the general relations of electricity to chemistry and introducing new terms with precise meanings. The first part of the paper introduces his new terminology, giving the words a limited and precise meaning. These words, devised with the assistance of William Whewell, are now familiar to all chemists, electrode, anode, cathode, ion, anion, and cation. He also introduces the "Volta-electrometer", and arrives at the "Law of electro-chemical equivalents". The paper offered is one of Farday's most famous papers."Another section of the paper is devoted to a closer examination of the law of constant electrochemical action with respect to water and to the development of a gas electrometer to measure quantities of electricity. Faraday's "Volta-electrometer" provided the first practical means for the quantitative measurement of electricity." (Source Book in Chemistry p. 280-81).From 1831 to 1852 Michael Faraday published his "Experimental Researches in Electricity" in The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. These papers contain not only an impressive series of experimental discoveries, but also a collection of heterodox theoretical concepts on the nature of these phenomena expressed in terms of lines of forces and fields. He published 30 papers in all under this general title.They represents Faraday's most importent work, are classics in both chemistry and physics and are the experimental foundations for Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light, using Faraday's concepts of lines of force or tubes of magnetic and electrical forces. His many experiments on the effects of electricity and magnetism presented in these papers lead to the fundamental discoveries of 'induced electricity' (the Farday current), the electronic state of matter, the identity of electricity from different sources, equivalents in electro-chemical decomposition, electrostatic induction, hydro-electricity, diamagnetism, relation of gravity to electricity, atmospheric magnetism and many other."Among experimental philosophers Faraday holds by universal consent the foremost place. The memoirs in which his discoveries are enshrined will never ceaseto be read with admiration and delight; and future generations will preserve with an affection not less enduring the personal records and familiar letters, which recall the memory of his humble and unselfish spirit."(Edmund Whittaker in A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity). Bookseller Inventory # 42246

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Sur les Mouvemens électro-magnétiques et la théorie du magnétisme. (Traduit par M. Anatole-Riffault). + (André-Marie Ampere et Felix Savary:) Notes relatives au Mémoire de M. Faraday.

FARADAY, MICHAEL. - THE FIRST ELECTRIC MOTOR - INTRODUCING "LINES OF FORCE" AND THE UNIVERSE OF "FIELDS" (FRENCH EDITION).

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Item Description: (Paris, Crochard, 1821). No wrappers. In: "Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Par MM. Gay-Lussac et Arago.", tome 18 (Septembre Cahier). Pp. 337-443. (Entire issue offered). Faraday's paper: pp. 337-370 a. 2 folded engraved plates (showing the experimental apparatus). Ampère & Savary's Notes: pp. 370-379. Clean and fine. First French edition of Faraday's famous paper "On some new Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on the Theory of Magnetism. By Michael Faraday, Chemical Assistant in the Royal Institution. (1821)", recording one of the most influential discoveries in physics in the 19th Century, as Faraday here, as the very first, showed how to CONVERT THE ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC FORCES INTO CONTINUAL MECHANICAL MOVEMENT, thus creating the first electric motor, using the principle of electromagnetic rotation. In the first paper he introduced for the first time the concept of "LINE OF FORCE" and hereby deliniating "a picture of the universe as consisting of fields of various types, one that was more subtle, flexible, and useful than the purely mechanical picture of Galileo and Newton. The FIELD UNIVERSE was to be recognized with Maxwell half a century later and with Einstein, after an interval of another halfcentury."(Asimov)."Ever since Hans Christian oersted's announcement of the discovery of electromagnetism in the summer of 1820, editors of scientific journals had been inundated with articles on the phenomenon. Theories to explain it had multiplied, and the net effect was confusion. Were all the effects reported real ? Did the theories fit the facts ? It was to answer these questions that Phillips turned to Faraday and asked him to review the experiments and theories of the past months and separate truth from fiction,.Faraday agreed to to undertake a short historical survey.His entusiasm was aroused in September 1821, when he turned to the investigation of the peculiar nature of the magnetic force created by an electrical current. Oersted had spoken of the "electrical conflict" surrounding the wiree and had noted that "this conflict performs circles".Yet as he experimented he saw precisely what was happening. Using a small magnetic needle to map the pattern of magnetic force, he noted that oneof the poles of the needle turned in a circle as it was carried around the wire. He immediately realized that a single magnetic pole would rotate unceasingly around a current-carrying wire so long as the current flowed. He then set about devising an instrument to illustrate this effect. His paper "On some new Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on the Theory of Magnetism" appeared in the 21 October 1821 issue of the "Quarterly Journal of Science" (The paper offered in the first French edition). It records the first conversion of electrical into mechanical energy. It also contained the first notion of the line of force."(DSB IV, pp. 533). Bookseller Inventory # 43750

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Historical Sketch of Electro-magnetism.

FARADAY, MICHAEL). - HIS FIRST WORK ON ELECTROMAGNETISM.

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Item Description: London, Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821-22. 8vo. 2 contemp. moiré boards, rebacked, gilt spines with gilt lettering. Endpapers renewed. In: "The Annals of Philosophy", New Series, Vol. II and Vol. III. (8),480 pp. a. 3 plates. + VIII,480 pp. Faraday's paper: pp. 195-200, 274-290 a. 1 engraved plate (vol. II), pp. 107-121 (vol. III). A small stamp to verso of titlepages. Fine and clean. First printing of this milestone paper in the history of electromagnetism. It is Faraday's first paper on electromagnetism from which all his later work took a start. "In 1821, when the new field of inquiry opened by Oersted's discovery was attracting attention, he wrote an "Historical Sketch of Electro-Magnetism", as preparation for which he carefully repeated the experiments described by the writers he was reviewing; and this seems to have been the beginning of the researches to which his fame is chiefly due."(Edmund Whittaker "A History of the Histories of Aether & Electricity", p. 170)."The occasion for his serious interest in electromagnetism was a letter from his good friend R. Phillips requesting that Faraday write an historical account of this new branch of science for the Annals of Philosophy. To do this Faraday had to repeat the major experiments performed by Oersted, Arago, Ampere, and others and also examine their theoretical views closely. When he began in the summer of 1821, he was still under the impression that electromagnetic forces were rectilinear and analogous to other known forces. Only as he carefully followed the experimental trail blazed by others did he realized his error. Two papers were published as a result of his work: the "HistoricalSketch of Electromagnetism" . and in an article "On some New Electro-Magnetic Motions, and on the Theory of Magnetism, which was published in. "The Quarterly Journal of Science". In these papers faraday came to grips, for the first time, with the theory of electric and magnetic action; the result of his own experimental investigations and theoretical reasonings was a startling new phenomenon - electromagnetic rotation - which treatened to destroy all previous theoretical structures." (L. Pearce Williams "Michael Faraday, A Biography", p. 153.The volumes contains other importent papers THOMAS THOMSON "Experiments to determine the Atomic Weight of various Metals and Acids", pp. 120-146 (vol. II), JOHN HERAPATH "Tables of temperature, and a Mathematical Development of the Causes and Laws of the Phenomena which have been adduced in Support of the Hypotheses of "Calorific Capacity, latent Heat," &c., ina all 120 pp. (from both volumes). This is an importent paper on the "kinetic theory of gases". And an importent paper in the history of electrmagnetism: H.C. ØRSTED (OERSTED) "On Electro-magnetism. Pp. 321-337 a. 1 engraved plate. This paper was published simoustaneously in English 8as here), in German and in French. In this work "two essential changes had taken place in Ørsted's notions. He now supposed that both electricities acted on each pole, the negative electricity repelling the north pole, the positive attracting it, and vice versa with the south pole. The idea of a simple conveying movement of flowing electricity at those points of the medium where the poles are, cannot be reconsiled with this. Furthermore, among his assumptions he only emphasises "that the course of the electric forces in the conductor is a spiral line", but not that it is so outside the conductor; in some ceases he assumes this, in other others not. He imagines that the "electrical forces" leave the conductor in the direction of tangents to the surface of the conductor. Starting from this conception he seeks to explain the mutual action of prarallell currents and he includes the presupposition that the "forces" outside the conductor continue in straight lines, that they meet and act on one another like opposite electricities." (Kirstine Meyer in Foreword p. CVIII to Colelcted Works). Bookseller Inventory # 46959

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Item Description: Paris, Crochard, 1832. Contemp. hcloth, gilt lettering to spine. In: "Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Par MM. Gay-Lussac et Arago.", tome 50, Series 2. (Entire volume offered). 448 pp. 2 folded engraved plates. Faraday's papers: pp. 5-67 a. pp. 113-162. Some scattered brownspots. First French editions of the 2 first memoirs of Faradays groundbreaking researches on electricity, constituting the first 2 papers of his "Experimental Researches in Electricity", and containing his fundamental discovery of electromagnetic induction, THE FOUNDATION OF NEARLY ALL THE ELECTRICITY IN USE TODAY. In 1820 Oersted had generated magnetism from electricity, Faraday here finds the opposite effect, generating electricity by magnetism. He also described the first electrical generator (second paper). THESE PAPERS ARE SOME OF THE GREAT CLASSICS OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS."Faraday demonstrated this theory involving the lines of force.by inserting a magnet into a coil of wire attached to a galvanometer. While the magnet was being inserted or removd, current flowed through the wire. If the magnet was held stationary and the coil moved over it one way or the other, there was current in the wire. In either case the magnetic lines of force about the magnet were cut by the wire.If the magnet and coil were both held motionless, whether the magnet was within the coil or not, there was no current.Faraday hd thus discovered electricalinduction.It was to lead to great things, but this was not apparent."(Asimov)."Although his discovery of the electric motor and the dynamo was almost entirely identical to his theoretical discoveries, it laid the foundation of the modern electrical industry - electric light and power, teælephony, wireless telegraphy, televison etc. - by providing for the production of continous mechanical motion from an electrical source, and vice versa." (PMM, 308).Horblit, 29 - Milestones, 62. - Dibner, 64. - PMM, 308.The volume contains further notable papers. Elie de Beaumont "Zweiter geologischer Brief.an A.v. Humboldt über die relative Alter der Gebirgszüge", pp. 1-58 a. 2 plates (one handcoloured), papers by Döbereiner, E. Lenz, Moser, Mitscherlich, de Saussure, J. Dumas, F.E. Neumann, Gay-Lussac, Johannes Müller "Beobachtungen zur Analyse der Lymphe, des Bluts und des Chylus", pp. 513-590. Bookseller Inventory # 48987

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Item Description: Royal Society of London, London, 1825. Three Quarter Leather. Book Condition: Very Good. First Edition. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was an important English scientist who specialized in the areas of Chemistry and Physics. This paper is the his first report of his discovery of what he called "bicaburet of hydrogen" later known as benzene. Benzene is an organic compound that occurs naturally in crude oil, providing a building block for petrochemicals. This full volume of papers by numerous authors on a variety of subjects including medicine, natural history, physics, mathematics and archaeology, illustrated with numerous plates. iv, [i], v, [1], 585, 9, [8], 29 [plates], 26 pp. 4to. Recent brown three quarter leather bindings with five raised bands at spine, burgundy title patch with gold embossed titling, gold lines offsetting bands, decorative stamp in each compartment without titling, blind embossed borders to front and rear boards. Interiors clean, ex-library stamp on title page, and occurring sporadically within. Meteorological Journal of the year 1824 in 26 pp bound in at rear. Pages were trimmed slightly when rebound. Bookseller Inventory # 26099

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Ueber electrisch-magnetische ewegungen, und die Theorie des Magnetismus; von Faraday, chem. Assistenten in d. Roy. Inst. (geschrieben London d. 11 Sept. 1821: mit Anmerkungen von einem Freunde des Hrn Ampère. Frei bearbeitet und mit einigen Erläuterungen von Gilbert.

FARADAY, MICHAEL. - THE FIRST ELECTRIC MOTOR - INTRODUCING "LINES OF FORCE" AND THE UNIVERSE OF "FIELDS" (GERMAN EDITION).

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Item Description: Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1822. Without wrappers as extracted from "Annalen der Physik und der Physikalischen Chemie. Hrsg. Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert", Bd. 71. Titlepage to vol. 71, pp. 124-171 a. pp. 172-176 and 1 folded engraved plate showing experimental apparatus. Clean and fine. First German edition of Faraday's famous paper "On some new Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on the Theory of Magnetism. By Michael Faraday, Chemical Assistant in the Royal Institution. (1821)", recording one of the most influential discoveries in physics in the 19th Century, as Faraday here, as the very first, showed how to CONVERT THE ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC FORCES INTO CONTINUAL MECHANICAL MOVEMENT, thus creating the first electric motor, using the principle of electromagnetic rotation. In the first paper he introduced for the first time the concept of "LINE OF FORCE" and hereby deliniating "a picture of the universe as consisting of fields of various types, one that was more subtle, flexible, and useful than the purely mechanical picture of Galileo and Newton. The FIELD UNIVERSE was to be recognized with Maxwell half a century later and with Einstein, after an interval of another halfcentury."(Asimov)."Ever since Hans Christian oersted's announcement of the discovery of electromagnetism in the summer of 1820, editors of scientific journals had been inundated with articles on the phenomenon. Theories to explain it had multiplied, and the net effect was confusion. Were all the effects reported real ? Did the theories fit the facts ? It was to answer these questions that Phillips turned to Faraday and asked him to review the experiments and theories of the past months and separate truth from fiction,.Faraday agreed to to undertake a short historical survey.His entusiasm was aroused in September 1821, when he turned to the investigation of the peculiar nature of the magnetic force created by an electrical current. Oersted had spoken of the "electrical conflict" surrounding the wiree and had noted that "this conflict performs circles".Yet as he experimented he saw precisely what was happening. Using a small magnetic needle to map the pattern of magnetic force, he noted that oneof the poles of the needle turned in a circle as it was carried around the wire. He immediately realized that a single magnetic pole would rotate unceasingly around a current-carrying wire so long as the current flowed. He then set about devising an instrument to illustrate this effect. His paper "On some new Electro-Magnetical Motion, and on the Theory of Magnetism" appeared in the 21 October 1821 issue of the "Quarterly Journal of Science" (The paper offered in the first German edition). It records the first conversion of electrical into mechanical energy. It also contained the first notion of the line of force."(DSB IV, pp. 533). Bookseller Inventory # 43751

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On the Physical Character of the Lines of Magnetic Force.

FARADAY, MICHAEL. - LINES OF FORCE ARE PHYSICAL ENTITIES.

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Item Description: London, Taylor and Francis, 1856. Contemp. hcalf. Gilt spine. Title-and tomelabels with gilt lettering. Slightly rubbed. Fronthinge weakening. Small faint stamp to titlepage and to plates. In: "The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. Conducted by David Brewster et al.". Fourth Series, Vol. III. VIII,552 pp. a. 12 lithographed plates. Faraday's paper: pp. 401-428 a. 1 lithographed plate. First printing of this milestone paper which had a a huge impact on the development of the electromagnetc theory from Maxwell to Einstein and supporting the new picture of the universe as consisting of field of various types instead of the purely mechanical pictures of Galileo and Newton. "Faraday's pictorial and nonmathemtical imagination visualized these lines of force as real lines. When a circuit was closed and electricity was set to flowing, the lines sprang outward into space. When the circuit was broken they collapsed inward again."Asimov).Maxwell read this paper and he was hereby stimulated to write his famous paper "On Physical Lines of Force", the basis for his theory of electromagnetism published in 1865.Lines of force originated with Michael Faraday, whose theory holds that all of reality is made up of force itself. His theory predicts that electricity, light, and gravity have finite propagation delays. The theories and experimental data of later scientific figures such as Maxwell, Hertz, Einstein, and others are in agreement with the ramifications of Faraday's theory. Nevertheless, Faraday's theory remains distinct.At first Faraday considered the physical reality of the lines of force as a possibility, yet several scholars agree that for Faraday their physical reality became a conviction. One scholar dates this change in the year 1838. Another scholar dates this final strengthening of his belief in 1852. Faraday experimentally studied lines of magnetic force and lines of electrostatic force, showing them not to fit action at a distance models. In 1852 Faraday wrote the paper "On the Physical Character of the Lines of Magnetic Force" which examined gravity, radiation, and electricity, and their possible relationships with the transmission medium, transmission propagation, and the receiving entity.(Wikipedia). Bookseller Inventory # 46882

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Autograph letter signed to Mrs. Reynolds.

Faraday, Michael

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Item Description: 1837. Faraday, Michael (1791-1867). Autograph letter, signed, to Mrs. Reynolds. [London,] Royal Institution, 28 Sept. 1837. 2pp. plus integral blank. 229 x 189 mm. Creased where previously folded, small marginal tear, pin-holes in upper right corner of first leaf, otherwise fine. Autograph letter by Michael Faraday, the British physicist best known for his discovery of electromagnetic induction and his invention of the dynamo. The second paragraph of the letter mentions "two copies of the paper written by Dr. Moll of which I spoke to Dr. Reynolds". This this may be a reference to Gerard Moll's On the Alleged Decline of Science in England (1831), a pamphlet published as a rebuttal to Charles Babbage's Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, and on Some of its Causes (1830). Moll's pamphlet was edited and published by Faraday; see Origins of Cyberspace, no. 40. In the same paragraph, Faraday refers to "Daniell," probably John Frederic Daniell (1790-1845), inventor of the long-functioning electric battery known as the Daniell cell (see DSB). In the first paragraph, Faraday thanks Mrs. Reynolds for her hospitality and sends her a gift of some nets used in shaping boiled dumplings: . . . having obtained the nets I spoke of I now send them. Remember they are not for such a dish as the one you gave me the receipt for but for common place hard currant dumplings things perhaps which you never saw but which are nevertheless very good things of their kind. The dumpling when put into its net is to be tied up tight (but not squeezed) and when turned out after boiling presents-but you must make the experiment". We have not been able to identify Faraday's correspondent. Bookseller Inventory # 38489

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