Published by [Göttingen (1926)

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**Item Description: **[Göttingen, 1926. Historically important, very detailed, scientific letter showing how Heisenberg, who had invented quantum mechanics just six months earlier, grappled with the difficulties presented by a basic new discovery in quantum physics, that of electron spin by Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck. Heisenberg describes calculations he has carried out (partly with Pascual Jordan and partly with Wolfgang Pauli) which show that Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck’s theory leads to predictions about spectral lines that do not agree with observations, but which would agree if the electron’s spin angular momentum was reduced from the amount postulated by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck by a factor of two. This letter was written just one day before this missing factor of two was explained by the Cambridge physicist Llewellyn Thomas as an effect arising from special relativity. Heisenberg was at this time teaching at the University of Göttingen, having studied there under Arnold Sommerfeld and Max Born.Translated, the letter reads: First all of all many thanks for having had the corrections of your article sent to me; it is very good. But the main reason for this letter is something else: the calculations pertaining to your model according to quantum mechanics are now completed (partly in collaboration with Pauli) and in every instance the results are as expected, that is, the Zeeman-effects appear to be correct as far as the intensities and the splitting of lines are concerned. However, for the D-lines the intensities and splitting come out as in Voigt’s formula: W = W_0 + (2R2h2Z4)/(m c2n3) [(j(j+1) - k(k+1) - ½ 1/3)/(k(k+½)(k+1)) – 1/(k+½) + 3/4n] In this formula k is taken to be zero for the term, j=k&plusminus;½. One sees immediately: relativity does not give the Sommerfeld formula; in Sommerfeld the last two terms are of course –1/(k+1) +3/4n). Therefore in any case the relativistic explanation of the doublets collapses. But furthermore: your theory gives exactly double the observed fine-structure separation. Accordingly it gives no separation in screening doublets and magnetic doublets either. But it yields the remarkable coincidence: if the factor 2 in your electron is annulled then, firstly, the correct doublet value follows and, secondly, the correct separation in screening and magnetic doublets; that is, exactly Sommerfeld’s formula. From all of this I would like to deduce that an electron is not a point charge and that your theory regarding magnetism is about right; but that new research on the mechanical behavior of electrons will be necessary in order to understand the doublets logically. Here it might be useful to do some research about the distance existing between triplets and singlets When the visible lines of the spectrum of hydrogen are observed in a powerful spectroscope, they appear as close doublets. In atoms having two electrons outside the closed core, or shell, of electrons the lines are split into triplets; higher multiplets are also possible. This phenomenon, known as the ‘fine structure’ of the hydrogen spectrum, was established experimentally around 1890 but did not receive an explanation until Sommerfeld’s theory of 1915-16, which had wide influence through its detailed treatment in Sommerfeld’s classic textbook Atombau und Spektrallinien (1919). Sommerfeld modified Bohr’s treatment of the hydrogen atom from 1913 by taking into account the theory of relativity, in particular the variation in the mass of the revolving electron – hence Heisenberg refers to the ‘relativistic theory’ in his letter. Sommerfeld’s theory was accepted by most physicists until near the end of the reign of the ‘old’ quantum theory in 1925, but by that time a number of discrepancies had been found between experiment and the theory’s predictions. There was also the problem of the anomalous Zeeman effect, which had been a thorn in the side of the old quantum theory for a decade and was still not satisfactorily resolved. The theoretical situation changed dramatically in. Bookseller Inventory # 3661

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Published by 1929-1930 (1929)

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**Item Description: **1929-1930, 1929. Heisenberg, Werner (1901-76) and Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958). (1) Zur Quantendynamik der Wellenfelder. Offprint from Zeitschrift für Physik 56 (1929). 61pp. 231 x 160 mm. Original printed wrappers, spine repaired. (2) Zur Quantentheorie der Wellenfelder. II. Offprint from Zeitschrift für Physik 59 (1930). 168-190pp. 231 x 160 mm. Original printed wrappers, spine repaired with clear tape. Together 2 items. Small mark from paper clip on wrappers of no. (1), small tear in front wrapper of no. (2), but very good. First Editions, Offprint Issues. Heisenberg and Pauli’s two-part paper contains the first full-fledged relativistic quantum field theory, representing the "formal invention of quantum electrodynamics" (Miller, Early Quantum Electrodynamics: A Source Book, p. xiii). "This extremely technical and mathematical branch of quantum physics, the foundations of which were laid by Heisenberg, Dirac, Pauli, Jordan, and their colleagues during the late 1920s and early 1930s, continues to this day with much the same program and approach . . . [Heisenberg was] a leading member of the small band of abstract theorists who established the program and laid the foundations of relativistic quantum field theory as it has been pursued ever since" (Cassidy, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg, p. 276). In this paper—the only one that Heisenberg and Pauli co-authored—the two physicists attempted to establish "a consistent extension of the quantum formalism that would yield a satisfactory unification of quantum mechanics and relativity theory . . . In 1929, drawing upon the work of Dirac, Jordan, Oskar Klein, and others, Heisenberg and Pauli succeeded in formulating a general gauge-invariant relativistic quantum field theory by treating particles and fields as separate entities interacting through the intermediaries of field quanta. The formalism led to the creation of a relativistic quantum electrodynamics, equivalent to that developed by Dirac, which, despite its puzzling negative energy states, seemed satisfactory at low energies and small orders of interaction. But at high energies, where particles approach closer than their radii, the interaction energy diverges to infinity. Even at rest, a lone electron interacting with its own field seemed to possess an infinite self-energy . . . Attention was directed to the resolution of such difficulties for more than two decades" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography). Mehra & Rechenberg, The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, 6, pp. 312-26. Bookseller Inventory # 43254

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**Item Description: **Berlin, Julius Springer, 1925-26. Bound in 4 nearly uniform contemp. hcloth. Edges a little rubbed. Stamp on title-pages. In "Zeitschrift für Physik. Hrsg. von Karl Scheel", Vols 33,34,35 and 36. VII,950;VII,953;VIII,954;VII,951 pp. The offered papers: pp. 879-893 (vol.33), pp. 858-888 (vol.34), pp.557-615 (vol.35) and pp.336-363 (vol. 36). Internally fine and clean. First printings of these four absolutely fundamental papers, which together MARK THE TURNING POINT IN THE FABRICATION OF A NEW PHYSICS, Quantum Mechanics, also called "Matrix Mechanics"."In May 1925, Heisenberg took on a new and difficult problem, the calculation of the line intensities of the hydrogen spectrum. Just as he had done with Kramers and Bohr, Heisenberg began with a Fourier analysis of the electron orbits. When the hydrogen orbit proved too difficult, he turned to the anharmonic oscillator. With a new multiplication rule relating the amplitudes and frequencies of the Fourier components to observed quantities, Heisenberg succeeded in quantizing the equations of motion for this system in close analogy with the classical equations of motion.in June Heisenberg returned to Göttingen, where he drafted his fundamental paper [the first paper offered], which he completed in July. In this paper Heisenberg proclaimed that the quantum mechanics of atoms should contain only relations between experimentally observable quantities. The resulting formalism served as the starting point for the new quantum mechanics, based, as Heisenberg's multiplication rule implied, on the manipulation of ordered sets of data forming a mathematical matrix.Born and his assistant, Pascual Jordan, quickly developed the mathematical content of Heisenberg's work into a consistent theory with the help of abstract matrix algebra [the second paper offered].Their work, in collaboration with Heisenberg, culminated in their "three-man paper" ["Dreimännerarbeit" - the third paper offered] that served as the foundation of matrix mechanics. Confident of the correctness of the new theory, Heisenberg, Pauli, Born, Dirac, and others began applying the difficult mathematical formalism to the solution of lingering problems." (DSB).In the last paper offered, the Pauli-paper, he shows that the hydrogen spectrum can be derived from the new theory. His starting-point constitutes, due to Lez, a method for integrating the classical equations of motion of a particle in a Coulomb field. Pauli's paper was received on January 17, 1926, but the main result must have been obtained before November 3, 1925, for on that date, Heisenberg writes Pauli: ".Ich brauche Ihnen wohl nicht zu schreiben, wie sehr ich mich über die neue Theorie des Wasserstoffs freue." Pauli's paper convinced most physicists that Quantum Mechanics is correct. (Van der Waerden). Bookseller Inventory # 39170

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1925)

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From: Manhattan Rare Book Company, ABAA, ILAB (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1925. Hardcover. Book Condition: Very Good. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITIONS of three papers that defined a discipline: THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS. "In May 1925, Heisenberg deliberately abandoned the classical picture of particles and orbits, and took a long, hard look at the mathematics that describes the associations between pairs of quantum states, without asking himself how the quantum entity gets from state A to state B. In the summer of 1925, working with Pasqual Jordan, Born translated Heisenberg's mathematical insight into the formal language of matrices, and Born, Heisenberg and Jordan together published a full account of the work, in what became known as the 'three-man paper'. The equations of Newtonian (classical) mechanics were replaced by similar equations involving matrices, and many of the fundamental concepts of classical mechanics- such as the conservation of energy- emerged naturally from the new equations. Matrix mechanics seemed to contain Newtonian Mechanics within itself, in much the same way that the equations of the general theory of relativity include the Newtonian description of gravity as a special case" (Gribben, Q is for Quantum). Heisenberg, Werner. Uber quantentheorestische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen. Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Foundation of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg approach. Nobel Prize to W. Heisenberg awarded in 1932 'for the creation of quantum mechanics'". Heisenberg; Born, Max and Jordan, Pasqual. Zur Quantenmechanik.Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Invention of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with one degree of freedom." Heisenberg, Born, Jordan. Zur Quantenmechanik II. Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Development of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with arbitrary many degrees of freedom." IN: Zeitschrift fur Physik, Vols. 33 (pp. 879-893), 34 (858-888), 35 (557-615). Berlin: Julius Springer, 1925-1926. Octavo, volume 33 with half black cloth over marbled boards; volume 34 and 35 in half red cloth over red boards. Volume 33 is taller (wider margins) than the other two volumes. A few institutional stamps to preliminaries. All three volumes with stamps from the prestigious Gmelin Institute (after 1996, part of the Max Planck Institute). Overall, very good condition. Bookseller Inventory # 465

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**Item Description: **FIRST EDITIONS OF THREE LANDMARK PAPERS THAT TOGETHER FORMED THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS. "In spite of its high-sounding name and its successful solutions of numerous problems in atomic physics, quantum theory, and especially the quantum theory of polyelectronic systems, prior to 1925, was, from the methodological point of view, a lamentable hodgepodge of hypotheses, principles, theorems, and computational recipes rather than a logical consistent theory. Every single quantum-theoretic problem had to be solved first in terms of classical physics; its classical solution had then to pass through the mysterious sieve of the quantum conditions or, as it happened in the majority of cases, the classical solution had to be translated into the language of quanta in conformance with the correspondence principle? In short, quantum theory still lacked two essential characteristics of a full-fledged scientific theory, conceptual autonomy and logical consistency" (Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, 196). The work of Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan in these papers began to rectify these issues and together marked the "starting point for the new quantum mechanics," also called matrix mechanics (DSB). "In May 1925, Heisenberg took on a new and difficult problem, the calculation of the line intensities of the hydrogen spectrum. Just as he had done with Kramers and Bohr, Heisenberg began with a Fourier analysis of the electron orbits. When the hydrogen orbit proved too difficult, he turned to the an harmonic oscillator. With a new multiplication rule relating the amplitudes and frequencies of the Fourier components to observed quantities, Heisenberg succeeded in quantizing the equations of motion for this system in close analogy with the classical equations of motion. In June Heisenberg returned to Göttingen, where he drafted his fundamental paper [the first paper offered], which he completed in July. In this paper Heisenberg proclaimed that the quantum mechanics of atoms should contain only relations between experimentally observable quantities. The resulting formalism served as the starting point for the new quantum mechanics, based, as Heisenberg's multiplication rule implied, on the manipulation of ordered sets of data forming a mathematical matrix. Born and his assistant, Pascual Jordan, quickly developed the mathematical content of Heisenberg's work into a consistent theory with the help of abstract matrix algebra [the second paper offered].Their work, in collaboration with Heisenberg, culminated in their "three-man paper" ["Dreimännerarbeit" - the third paper offered] that served as the foundation of matrix mechanics. Confident of the correctness of the new theory, Heisenberg, Pauli, Born, Dirac, and others began applying the difficult mathematical formalism to the solution of lingering problems" (DSB). CONDITION & DETAILS: In: Zeitschrift für Physik 33 (1925), 34 (1925), 35 (1926). 8vo. (9 x 6.25 inches; 225 x 156mm). Three full volumes. All but invisible ex-libris stamp on title pages; no other library markings whatsoever. Handsomely rebound in grey linen, gilt-tooled and lettered at the spine. Tightly and solidly bound. Very clean inside and out. Near fine condition. Bookseller Inventory # 9

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**Item Description: **Berlin, Julius Springer, 1927. 8vo. Contemporary full cloth with gilt lettering to spine. A small paper-label pasted to lower part of spine. Very light edgewear. Corners a bit bumped. In: 'Zeitschrift für Physik', Volume 43, p.172-198. The entire volume offered, VII,936 pp. First appearance of the first announcement of Heisenberg's famous "Uncertainty Principle", stating that it is impossible to determine accurately and both members of specific pairs of atomic variables simultaneously, and that the minimum product of the two variables are proportional to Planck's constant 'h' - one of the most important and celebrated findings in modern physics."Heisenberg's paper 'On the physical content of the quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics' was received by the publishers on 23 March, after Bohr had returned - and had correctly criticized some substantial points in the manuscript. All the same Heisenberg's work is on a par with his discovery paper of quantum mechanics and represents a most solid contribution to its interpretation. It is THE FIRST PAPER IN WHICH THE QUESTION OF WHAT IS OBSERVABLE AND WHAT IS NOT IS QUANTITATIVELY DISCUSSED IN THE CONTEXT OF QUANTUM MECHANICS. His work marks the beginning of a subject on which volumes have since been written: the measurement problem in quantum physics." (Pais in "Niels Bohr's Times", p. 304). Bookseller Inventory # 43294

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1926)

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From: Manhattan Rare Book Company, ABAA, ILAB (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1926. Soft cover. Book Condition: Very Good. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the famous "three-man paper," the first, complete, self-consistent description of quantum mechanics. "In 1925, after an extended visit to Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, Heisenberg tackled the problem of spectrum intensities of the electron taken as an anharmonic oscillator (a one-dimensional vibrating system). His position that the theory should be based only on observable quantities was central to his paper of July 1925, "Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen" ("Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations"). Heisenberg's formalism rested upon noncommutative multiplication; Born, together with his new assistant Pascual Jordan, realized that this could be expressed using matrix algebra, which they used in a paper submitted for publication in September as "Zur Quantenmechanik" ("On Quantum Mechanics"). By November, Born, Heisenberg, and Jordan had completed "Zur Quantenmechanik II" ("On Quantum Mechanics II"), colloquially known as the "three-man paper," which is regarded as the foundational document of a new quantum mechanics" (Britannica's Guide to the Nobel Prizes). Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Development of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with arbitrary many degrees of freedom." Provenance: With ownership signature on front wrapper of E.F. Barker, noted American physicist who worked primarily at the University of Michigan. IN: Zeitschrift für Physik, Band 35, February 1926, pp. 557-615. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1926. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. A few creases to wrappers, chips to spine. RARE in original wrappers. Bookseller Inventory # 1276

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1925)

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From: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS (Koebenhavn V, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1925. First edition. A very fine copy (not ex-library) of his breakthrough paper, announcing his discovery of matrix mechanics. "A severe attack of hay fever in early June forced Heisenberg’s retreat to the island of Helgoland. There he completed the calculation of the anharmonic oscillator, determined the constants of motion, and obtained from his multiplication rule the Thomas Kuhn summation rule for spectral lines. After nearly two weeks on Helgoland, Heisenberg returned to Göttingen, where he drafted his fundamental paper 'Über die quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen', which he completed in July. In this paper Heisenberg proclaimed that the quantum mechanics of atoms should contain only relations between experimentally observable quantities. The resulting formalism served as the starting point for the new quantum mechanics, based, as Heisenberg’s multiplication rule implied, on the manipulation of ordered sets of data forming a mathematical matrix." (DSB). In: Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 33, pp.879-893. The complete volume offered (VIII,950 pp.) in a nice contemporary half calf binding with gilt spine lettering. Completely clean throughout - a fine copy. Bookseller Inventory # 2911

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From: Antiquariat Stammerjohann (Hamburg, HAM, Germany)

**Item Description: **The meaning of beauty in exact natural science. Vortrag vor der Bayerischen Akademie der Schönen Künste. Übetragung ins Englische von Enrico Cantore, New York. Mit drei signierten ganzseitigen Original-Farblithographien von Max Ernst. Stuttgart, Belser-Presse (= 7. Druck der Belser-Presse) 1971. Folio. 79(5) S. , 3 Tafeln. Handgebundener Orig.-Leinenbd. mit Cellophan-Umschlag. In handgefertigem Orig.-Schuber. Erste Buchausgabe. - Spies-Leppin 198 D. - Eins von 185 num. Exemplaren. - Getrüffeltes Exemplar, bei dem neben dem Druckvermerk alle Lithographien von Max Ernst signiert wurden. - Druck der Lithographien auf Bütten durch Pierre Chave, in Vence. - Sehr schönes Exemplar. Bookseller Inventory # [Best.-Nr.: 216115]

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From: Lynge & Søn ILAB-LILA (Copenhagen, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Berlin, Julius Springer, 1925. 8vo. Bound in full cloth with library label to lower part of spine and library stamps to front free end paper. In "Zeitschrift für Physik, 33. Band, 1925". Front boards very loose and spine almost detached. Internally fine and clean. [Heisenberg) Pp. 879-893. [Entire issue: VII, (1), 950 pp.]. First printing of Heiseberg's seminal and groundbreaking paper which laid the foundation for matrix mechanics and thereby giving birth to modern quantum mechanics; a theory that states quantum mechanics should be based "exclusively on relationship between quantities which in principle are observable" (From the abstract). "The alternative, which he [Heisenberg] chose in his historic paper [the present] and which led to the development of matrix machanics, the earliest formulation of modern quantum mechanics, abandoned Bohr's description of motion in terms of classical physics altogether and replaced it by a description in terms of what Heisenberg regarded as observable magnitudes" (Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, P. 197)."After nearly two weeks on Helgoland, Heisenberg returned to Göttingen, where he drafted his fundamental paper "Über die quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen," which he completed in July. In this paper Heisenberg proclaimed that the quantum mechanics of atoms should contain only relations between experimentally observable quantities. Theresulting formalism served as the starting point for the new quantum mechanics, based, as Heisenberg's multiplication rule implied, on the manipulation of ordered sets of data forming a mathematical matrix." (DSB)Before Heisenberg's discovery the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory was the leading theory. By the early 1920's most physicists agreed that the Bohr-Sommerfeld theory had problems and that there was a need to replace it with a new quantum theory. Heisenberg's main achievement was to replace the idea of orbital path with what could be observed, namely the light emitted and absorbed by the atoms. Because of the unfamiliar mathematics which Heisenberg's new theory used, several physicists had doubts about its consistency. But Max Born soon realized that the laws, which the theory relied on, were the same as the laws, which apply to matrix algebra. In 1925 Born and his student Pascual Jordan published "Zur Quantenmechanik" which reformulated Heisenbergs theory in terms of matrices, in the special case of one degree of freedom. With "Zur Quantenmechanik II" (or the "Three Man Paper") published 1926, Heisenberg, Born and Jordan described the new theory in the general case of arbitrarely many freedom degrees. Bookseller Inventory # 45483

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin, 1929-1930

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From: Charles Parkhurst Rare Books, Inc. ABAA (Prescott, AZ, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1929-1930. First Edition. In "Zeitschrift fur Physik" Vol. 56, 1-61pp. and Vol. 59, 168-190pp; bound in blue cloth, spine lettering and call letters gilt; stamp of the Mount Wilson Observatory on front free endpaper, no other library markings. Both volumes are fine and housed in a custom clamshell. These are the only papers on which Heisenberg and Pauli, both Nobel Laureates in Physics (1932 and 1945) collaborated. These are unquestionably important early works in the development of relativistic quantum electrodynamic theory. Bookseller Inventory # pb.0775

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Published by Seabury Pr

ISBN 10: 0816424888 ISBN 13: 9780816424887

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**Item Description: **Seabury Pr. Paperback. Book Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory # DADAX0816424888

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1925)

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From: Milestones of Science Books (Ritterhude, Germany)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1925. Hardcover. Book Condition: Very Good. 1st Edition. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. In: Zeitschrift für Physik. Vol. 33, pp. 879-893. Berlin: J. Springer, 1925. 8vo (22,5x16 cm). Whole vol. with 256 text illustr. and vii, 950 pp. Volume title with library stamp and shelf number. Contemp. half cloth with gilt spine and remnants of glue on spine. ---- PMM 417b; Poggendorff VI, 1070 - First edition of Heisenberg's groundbreaking paper announcing the invention of quantum mechanics, published in the "Zeitschrift für Physik" on July 25, 1925. - Entire volume, also includes two papers on quantum theory by Max Born and Pascal Jordan: "Zur Quantentheorie aperiodischer Vorgänge", pp. 479-508. (cf. DSB XV, 41). ---- Erste Ausgabe der grundlegenden Untersuchung. "Mit ihr war das Fundament der neuen, mit nicht vertauschbaren Größen operierenden Quantenmechanik geschaffen, die mit einem Schlag alle Unstimmigkeiten der älteren Theorie beseitigte" (DBE). - Im vollständigen Band, darin auch die beiden Arbeiten "Zur Quantentheorie aperiodischer Vorgänge" von M. Born u. P. Jordan (S. 479-508). Bookseller Inventory # 001726

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Published by Julius Springer 1929-30, Berlin (1929)

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From: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS (Koebenhavn V, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer 1929-30, Berlin, 1929. First editions, first printings. A fine set, in the original wrappers, of the two papers in which Heisenberg and Pauli gave "for the first time the foundations for quantum electrodynamics in the way we know it today." (Abraham Pais). "Three years before the discovery of the positron Heisenberg and Pauli – in two papers ‘Zur Quantenmechanik der Wellenfelder’ and ‘Zur Quantenmechanik der Wellenfelder II’ of 29 March and 7 September 1929, respectively – took a decisive step forward to develop a consistent theory of quantum electrodynamics." (Mehra & Milton). "Heisenberg’s foremost scientific concern after 1927 involved the search for a consistent extension of the quantum formalism that would yield a satisfactory unification of quantum mechanics and relativity theory. This required the formulation of a covariant theory of interacting particles and fields that accounted for elementary processes at high energies and small distances. In 1929, drawing upon the work of Dirac, Jordan, Oskar Klein, and others, Heisenberg and Pauli succeeded in formulating a general gauge-invariant relativistic quantum field theory by treating particles and fields as separate entities interacting through the intermediaries of field quanta. "The formalism led to the creation of a relativistic quantum electrodynamics, equivalent to that developed by Dirac, which, despite its puzzling negative energy states, seemed satisfactory at low energies and small orders of interaction. But at high energies, where particles approach closer than their radii, the interaction energy diverged to infinity. Even at rest, a lone electron interacting with its own field seemed to possess an infinite self-energy, much as it did in classical electrodynamics. Attention was directed to the resolution of such difficulties for more than two decades." (DSB under Heisenberg). "Heisenberg and Pauli were well aware of the shortcomings of their theory: the divergence difficulties and the problem of negative energies for the electron. However, the importance of the Heisenberg-Pauli theory cannot be exaggerated; it opened the road to a general theory of quantized fields and thereby prepared the tools, albeit not perfect ones, for the Pauli-Fermi theory of beta-decay and for the meson theories." (Mehra & Milton). Mehra & Milton, Climbing the Mountain: The Scientific Biography of Julian Schwinger, pp. 186-87; Pais, On the Dirac theory of the electron. An annotation, in Werner Heienberg: Collected Works, Vol. AII, pp.95-105. 8vo: 229 x 156 mm. In: Zeitschift für Physik, vol. 56, no. 1-2, pp. 1-61; vol. 59, no. 3-4, pp. 168-90. The two complete issues offered here in the original printed wrappers, some light wear to the spine strip of the first issue and two small pieces missing from the lower left corner (front and rear), otherwise very fine with no stamps or other markings. Rare in such fine condition. A fine set, in the original wrappers, of the two papers in which Heisenberg and Pauli gave "for the first time the foundations for quantum electrodynamics in the way we know it today." (Abraham Pais). "Three years before the discovery of the positron Heisenberg and Pauli – in two papers ‘Zur Quantenmechanik der Wellenfelder’ and ‘Zur Quantenmechanik der Wellenfelder II’ of 29 March and 7 September 1929, respectively – took a decisive step forward to develop a consistent theory of quantum electrodynamics." (Mehra & Milton). "Heisenberg’s foremost scientific concern after 1927 involved the search for a consistent extension of the quantum formalism that would yield a satisfactory unification of quantum mechanics and relativity theory. This required the formulation of a covariant theory of interacting particles and fields that accounted for elementary processes at high energies and small distances. In 1929, drawing upon the work of Dirac, Jordan, Oskar Klein, and others, Heisenberg and Pauli succeeded in formulating a general gauge-invariant relativistic quantum field theory by treating particles and fields as separate entities in. Bookseller Inventory # 2627

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From: Jeremy Norman's historyofscience (Novato, CA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **1947. Heisenberg, Werner (1901-76). Research in Germany on the technical application of atomic energy. Offprint from Nature 160 (1947). 10, [1]pp. 212 x 145 mm. Without wrappers as issued. Fine copy. First Edition in English, Offprint Issue. During World War II Heisenberg was one of the principal scientists leading research and development in Germany’s nuclear energy program. At that time the Allies had no idea of how far Germany had progressed in the quest to build a nuclear reactor, but given Germany’s leading role in the advancement of nuclear physics they had every reason to believe that the Nazis were ahead of the game—in fact, the fear of a German "atom bomb" was one of the main reasons behind the establishment of the Manhattan Project. This fear turned out to be groundless: Due to a combination of factors, including Hitler’s dislike of "Jewish science" and the "White Jew" Heisenberg, Germany had fallen far behind the United States in the development of nuclear energy. fter the bombing of Hiroshima Heisenberg became one of the primary crafters of Germany’s official account of its wartime nuclear energy program. In December 1946 he published his first postwar summary of the program in the journal Naturwissenschaften; the present English translation, slightly abridged from the German, appeared in Nature the following August. In the summary Heisenberg argued that Germany’s failure to advance its nuclear program was due both to enormous technical difficulties and to the lack of political and financial support; he also played up his own role in slowing down the project by quashing Nazi officials’ hopes for the imminent development of atomic weapons. "Heisenberg’s self-serving account parallels but overinterprets actual events. He especially did try to maintain scientific control over the [nuclear energy] project. He was also aware of the theoretical possibility of a nuclear explosive by late 1941, he did not demand a crash research and development to build one, and he did seem content to work for the rest of the war on the more modest program of building a reactor. It is difficult to assess his intentions and motives beyond that. But from what we know of his activities and research, there is nothing to support the notion that Heisenberg actually hindered the project in any way to keep an explosive out of Hitler’s hands or even that he himself had that much control of the situation" (Cassidy, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg, p. 510). Bookseller Inventory # 43266

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From: Jeremy Norman's historyofscience (Novato, CA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **1925. Kramers-Heisenberg Formula—Stepping Stone to the New Quantum Mechanics Kramers, Hendrik Anthony (1894-1952) and Werner Heisenberg (1901-76). Über die Streuung von Strahlung durch Atome. Offprint from Zeitschrift für Physik 31 (1925). 681-708pp. Original printed wrappers. Light toning, but fine. First Edition, Offprint Issue. During his 1924 visit to Bohr’s Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, Heisenberg and Bohr’s assistant H. A. Kramers worked together on the problem of atomic structure from the point of view of dispersion theory. "At first, this interest might appear strange because the problems of atomic structure, say, e.g., the calculation of the energy states of helium, would not seem to have any connection with the scattering of light by atoms, which was the principal concern of dispersion theory. However, Bohr and his collaborators had concluded that the problem of atomic structure could not be separated from the problem of the emission and absorption of radiation—and this could be considered as a problem of the dispersion of radiation" (Mehra & Rechenberg, Historical Development of Quantum Theory, 2, p. 170). Kramers and Heisenberg’s joint paper on the dispersion of light by atoms contained the important Kramers-Heisenberg dispersion formula, an expression of the cross section for scattering of a photon by an atomic electron; among other things, the formula explained the phenomenon of inelastic scattering, anticipating the Raman effect. Heisenberg’s work on this paper "was the final touch needed for [him] to fabricate quantum mechanics six months later" (Cassidy, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg, p. 188). Bookseller Inventory # 43379

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From: Lynge & Søn ILAB-LILA (Copenhagen, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Berlin, J. Springer, 1932-33. 8vo. Volume 77 and 78 bound in two uniform contemporary half cloth bindings with gilt lettering to spine. Volume 30 in a contemporary full cloth binding with black leather title-label to spine. Volume 78 and 78 with minor wear to spine, internally two very nice and clean copies. Volume 80 with wear to spine and minor overall soiling to extremities. Ex-library copy with library stamp [Bedford College] to pasted down front free end-paper and title page. Internally a clean copy. [Über den Bau der Atomkernen I, Vol. 77:] Pp. 1-11. [Über den Bau der Atomkernen II, Vol. 78:] Pp. 156-164. [Über den Bau der Atomkernen III, Vol. 80:] Pp. 587-596. [Entire volumes: VIII, 837 pp.; VIII, 857 pp.; VIII, 844 pp.]. First printing of Heisenberg's groundbreaking neutron-proton model. The three papers "mark the transition to the modern view on nuclear forces." (Pais. Inward Bound. P. 413). Shortly after Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932, Heisenberg developed a theory suggesting that atomic nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons. This introduced the concept of the nuclear exchange force and isotopic spin."Soon after the discovery of the neutron in 1932 [By Chadwick], Heisenberg developed a neutron-proton model of the nucleus by introducing the concept of the nuclear exchange force and the formalism of isotopic spin. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics could be applied to the nucleus, Heisenberg showed, as long as long as on did not consider the structure of nucleons. Heisenberg's work served as the basis for contemporary nuclear physics, of fields. In 1935 Heisenberg and his assistants, especially Weizsäcker. Heisenberg preferred to continue the search for a consistent quantum physics, much of which was pursued by his assistant Hans Euler discovered that nonlinear interactions in positron theory, which yielded photonphoton scattering, could be represented by treating the electron as possessing a minimum size, below which the interferences predominated." (DSB).Heisenberg played an important role in the unsuccessful attempt German attempt to build a nuclear reactor.The three volumes contain numerous important contributions by contemporary physicians. Bookseller Inventory # 44765

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Published by Stuttgart, Belser-Presse 1971. (1971)

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From: Antiquariat Eckert & Kaun GbR (Bremen, Germany)

**Item Description: **Stuttgart, Belser-Presse 1971., 1971. Folio, 79 (3) S., 1 Bl. mit drei Lithographien, Orig.-Leinen m. Orig.-Leinenschuber. Eines von 185 (gesamt 205) nummerierten und vom Künstler im Impressum signierten Exemplaren.- Spies-Leppin 198 D I-II; Spindler, Typen 64.7.- (= Siebenter Druck der Belser-Presse).- Tadelloses Exemplar. ***Für unsere Schweizer Kunden: Konto in der Schweiz vorhanden***. Bookseller Inventory # 45711

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From: Max Rambod Autographs (Calabasas, CA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **German Physicist. Developed his famous theory of quantum mechanics and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932. He lead the German effort to make an atom bomb. After the war, he claimed he purposely did not want to create the A-bomb on moral grounds, this has been disputed. Still one of the foremost nuclear physicist of the century. Typed Letter Signed, 1 page, dated January 3, 1950. Heisenberg writes: ".I am going to have so many obligations within the upcoming future because of the research council that I did not know if I could accept your invitation. Well, I do believe now that I could come to Istanbul perhaps just before Easter holidays end March - beginning April. Certainly provided that I get permission from the Allied authorities to travel abroad. I would then travel with the airplane from Frankfurt am Main and flight must go over Italy since I do not think getting permission to fly over Russian assigned territories. Therefore, I will apply for visa permit for an airplane route over Italy." Signed "W. Heisenberg". since he needs permission to travel from the Allied Forces which are still occupying parts of Germany, Heisenberg writes this letter after World War II. It is interesting that he assumes that they will never allow him to fly over Russian assigned territory as Russia had just developed the atomic bomb a few months before our letter and thus changed the balance of power in the world. But Heisenberg was still considered such an important nuclear scientist that they would not even let him fly over Easter Europe. Comes with a letter from the brother of the recipient, who requested and received this Heisenberg letter upon the recipient's death. In excellent condition. Bookseller Inventory # 11277

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Published by Springer 1943; 1943; 1944, Berlin (1943)

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From: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS (Koebenhavn V, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Springer 1943; 1943; 1944, Berlin, 1943. First edition of Heisenberg’s S-matrix approach to the study of elementary particles, complete in three parts (a fourth part was written but not published). Although S-matrix theory was abandoned after the War due to the success of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, it again became very influential in the 1960s when it led to the development of string theory, which is the best-accepted approach to quantum gravity."Heisenberg’s prewar researches in quantum field theory, undertaken in part with Pauli, had led him to the study of cosmic rays, the highest energy particles then available for research. When an extremely high-energy cosmic ray strikes the earth’s atmosphere, it induces a shower of newly created particles and photons. This effect was to be explained on the basis of quantum field theory. Heisenberg’s researches had previously convinced him and others of the inadequacy of field theories for this task. Infinities and divergences plagued all three of the available theories - quantum electrodynamics, Fermi’s theory of beta decay (relating to what is now the weak force), and Yukawa’s meson theory (relating to what is now the strong, or nuclear, force). "The small size of elementary particles and the close approach of the particles to each other in a cosmic ray collision – which triggered the particle shower – indicated to Heisenberg during the 1930s that the difficulties in quantum field theory could be resolved only if a universal minimum length, a new fundamental constant, were introduced into the theory according to Heisenberg, quantum mechanics itself broke down when applied to events occurring within regions smaller than the size of an elementary particle "Pauli had already suggested that Heisenberg, as he did when formulating the 1925 breakthrough in quantum mechanics, should focus only on observable quantities and attempt to exclude all unobservable variables from the theory. Heisenberg now attempted to do so, at the height of the World War. His effort led to what became after the war his widely studied new theory of elementary particles, the so-called S-matrix theory. "In his new approach, Heisenberg used this hypothetical fundamental length to define the allowed changes in the momentum and energy of two colliding high-speed elementary particles. This limitation would help identify the properties of the collision that were observable in present theories. Those at smaller distances were unobservable. For two colliding particles, this yielded four sets of observable quantities with which to work: two of these were the properties of the two particles as seen in the laboratory long before they collide with each other; and two were their properties long after the collision. During the collision they approach within a distance of less than the fundamental length and are thus unobservable. These four sets of observable properties could be arranged in a table, or in this type of work, a matrix, which Heisenberg called the scattering or S-matrix. "Although Heisenberg could not actually specify the four elements of the S-matrix, he demonstrated that it must contain in principle all of the information about the collision. In his second paper, completed in October 1942, Heisenberg further showed that the S-matrix for several simple examples of scattering of particles yielded the observed probabilities for scattering. It also gave the possibility for his favorite phenomenon – the appearance of cosmic-ray explosion showers " one evening in October 1943 Heisenberg presented his new theory to an informal colloquium in Kramers’s home near Leiden in the German-occupied Netherlands During the discussion of Heisenberg’s talk, Kramers made the insightful observation that if the actual elements of the matrix could ever be determined without a complete theory, they would yield a so-called "analytic function" – that is, a function containing real and imaginary parts Back in Berlin, Heisenberg wrote immediately that he. Bookseller Inventory # 3530

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From: Lynge & Søn ILAB-LILA (Copenhagen, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Berlin, J. Springer, 1932-33. 8vo. Bound together in recent attractive marbled boards. Leather title-label with gilt lettering on front board. Title-pages from the three volumes withbound (small rubberstamp). (11),(9),(12) pp. First edition of Heisenberg's neutron-proton model. Shortly after Chadwick discoverd the neutron in 1932, Heisenberg developed a theory suggesting that atomic nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons, -this introduced the concept of the nuclear exchange force and isotopic spin. (DSB 17: p.398). Bookseller Inventory # 26607

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Published by Springer, Berlin (1926)

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From: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS (Koebenhavn V, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Springer, Berlin, 1926. First edition of the explanation of the anomalous Zeeman effect on the basis of matrix mechanics. "By including the spin property of the electron, Heisenberg and Jordan obtained perhaps the greatest triumph of matrix mechanics: they were able to derive all observed phenomena connected with the anomalous Zeeman effect" (Rechenberg, p. 211). This paper was of crucial importance in the early history of quantum mechanics because its success in explaining the hitherto mysterious anomalous Zeeman effect validated not only the new quantum mechanics itself but also the highly controversial concept of electron spin, discovered by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit in the previous year. When an atom is placed in a magnetic field, its spectral lines split into a series of equidistant lines – always an odd number - whose separation is proportional to the field strength. This, the normal Zeeman effect, was explained in 1916 by Debye and Sommerfeld in terms of the ‘old’ quantum theory: the splitting was due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the orbital magnetic moment of the electrons in the atom. However, there is also an anomalous Zeeman effect, observed particularly in atoms with odd atomic number, in which the lines split in a more complex fashion. "During 1920-24, many physicists attacked the problem [of the anomalous Zeeman effect], including Landé, who was able to give a phenomenological explanation of the observed splitting of spectral lines. However, neither Landé, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Heisenberg nor other physicists occupied with the problem could justify their results in terms of quantum theory. "It’s a great misery with the theory of anomalous Zeeman effect," Pauli wrote to Sommerfeld on July 19, 1923" (Kragh, p. 158). After Heisenberg’s introduction of matrix (quantum) mechanics in 1925, one of the first problems he wanted to address using his new theory was the anomalous Zeeman effect. The crucial ingredient was electron spin, which Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit had discovered by studying the regularities in the anomalous Zeeman effect documented by Landé. "Although based originally upon the classical concept of a rotating electron, electron spin is a purely quantum mechanical property intrinsic to the electron. Opinions were strongly divided about the validity of the concept, Pauli taking a strongly negative position, while Bohr, Heisenberg and Jordan took a more positive view. The challenge taken up by Heisenberg was to find a quantum mechanical solution for the anomalous Zeeman effect using the concept of a spin-½ particle within the context of their recently completed matrix formalism. "Despite the less than encouraging views of Pauli, in November 1925 Heisenberg set about [finding] the stationary states and line splittings associated with the anomalous Zeeman effect. Disappointingly, he almost reproduced Landé’s formula for the anomalous Zeeman effect, but the crucial spin-orbit coupling term resulted in a factor of 2 discrepancy from Landé’s expression, a result which cast doubt on the whole scheme. "The solution was, however, at hand thanks to the insight of Llewellyn Thomas who had arrived recently at Bohr’s Institute in Copenhagen as a visiting graduate student Thomas was aware of the fact that there is an additional kinematic effect associated with the orbital motion of a vector, such as the spin vector of the electron, according to the special theory of relativity This purely kinematic effect results in an additional contribution to the precession, and hence interaction energy of the electron and can account completely for the discrepant factor of 2. After considerable debate, even Pauli was convinced and the paper on the quantum mechanical explanation for the anomalous Zeeman effect was published by Heisenberg and Jordan in June 1926. Rechenberg has written in his summary of the history of quanta and quantum mechanics that the explanation of the anomalous Zeeman effect was one of the greatest triumphs of matrix mecha. Bookseller Inventory # 3528

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1922)

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From: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS (Koebenhavn V, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1922. First edition of Heisenberg’s first published paper, describing his ‘core model’ of the atom and its application to solve the problems of the multiplet structure in atomic spectra and the anomalous Zeeman effect, which had defeated all previous attempts. "Just a year after entering Sommerfeld’s program, Heisenberg amazed his teacher by presenting a model of atoms that seemed to resolve every spectroscopic riddle at a stroke. But the model succeeded only because its daring inventor failed to follow the requirements of an acceptable quantum theory" (Cassidy, Beyond Uncertainty, p. 95). Sommerfeld’s own attempt to solve the same problems precedes Heisenberg’s paper in the same issue."The Bohr theory of atoms and molecules, Sommerfeld’s "quantum theory of spectral lines," and the correspondence principle of 1918 formed the foundations of the Bohr quantum theory. This theory provided in turn the basis for model interpretations of most, but not all, existing phenomena of empirical spectroscopy. Two phenomena, multiplet line spectra and the anomalous Zeeman effect, continually resisted explanation by quantized mechanical models" (Cassidy, pp. 191-192). The eighteen-year-old Heisenberg entered Sommerfeld’s institute in the winter semester of 1920-21, and Sommerfeld immediately introduced him to the Bohr theory. In June 1921 Alfred Landé gave a phenomenological explanation of the splittings observed in the anomalous Zeeman effect, but he did not propose any physical interpretation of his theory, writing to Bohr: "With regard to the complicated types of the Zeeman effect, I have found a few empirical rules which permit one to make predictions regarding the neon spectrum. But what these rules signify is entirely incomprehensible to me." Sommerfeld suggested that Heisenberg should try to find a model to explain Landé’s rules. The result was the present paper, submitted in his third semester, when he was just twenty years old. "In it he claimed that he was presenting the essential details of a complete quantum-theoretical "model interpretation" of the empirical regularities of optical multiplet lines in spectroscopy and the anomalous Zeeman effect of these lines in a magnetic field. All previous attempts to explain these lines by mechanical models had failed The model was nevertheless riddled with what Max Born called "conscious deviations" from accepted principles and procedures. "Heisenberg, Sommerfeld’s "vastly gifted pupil," had reduced the previously inexplicable line structure to internal magnetic interactions between the valence electrons and the rest of the atom. The inner orbits and nucleus acted as a solid core possessing on the average a half-unit of angular momentum. Half-integral quantum numbers and magnetic interactions between orbital interactions between orbital electrons had already appeared in the work of Landé and others, but half-integral momenta and a magnetic core had not. They could not be justified in either classical or quantum theory, despite Sommerfeld’s blessing. "Although the model was theoretically untenable, with it Heisenberg could quantitatively account for doublet and triplet term energies. By attributing half-integral angular momenta to the valence electrons, he could also derive the semi-empirical Landé g-factors for the anomalous Zeeman effect and their continuous transition to unity in the Paschen-Back effect. "Heisenberg’s accomplishments were unique, but Bohr judged his "interesting paper" to be "hardly agreeable with the general assumptions" of quantum theory. Not only had Heisenberg introduced real non-integral momenta, but he had also violated the Sommerfeld quantum conditions, classical radiation theory, the Larmor precession theorem, and the semi-classical criterion of perceptual clarity (Anschaulichkeit) in model interpretations. The impact of these violations upon the rational advance of quantum theory spurred Bohr and others to try to derive Heisenberg’s results without straying too far f. Bookseller Inventory # 3527

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From: Lynge & Søn ILAB-LILA (Copenhagen, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Berlin, Julius Springer, 1929 u. 1930. Bound in 2 contemp. uniform hcloth over marbled boards. A stamp to top of titlepages. Gilt lettering to spine. In: "Zeitschrift für Physik. Herausgegeben von Karl Scheel", 56. und 59. Band. VII,867 pp. u. VII,874 pp. (2 entire volumes offered). Heisenberg & Pauli's paper: pp. 1-61 a. pp. 168-190. Internally clean and fine. First appearance of these two papers of seminal importence as Heisenberg and Pauli here laid the foundation , by using a new method, for the quantum field theory, and gave the "relativistic formulation of quantum electrodynamics in the presence off charges and currents"(Pais). They were the first to attempt a general formulation of quantum electrodynamics by setting up a general scheme for the quantization of fields which they hoped would be applicable to the Maxwell field.In the papers they also introduced what is today called "gauge fixing", which from then on are among the precious tools of field theory."Heisenberg and Pauli thus established the basic structure of QFT which can be found in any introduction to QFT up to the present day" (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy). Bookseller Inventory # 48182

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Published by Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1985)

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**Hardcover**
** First Edition **

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From: Secret Knowledge Books (Tualatin, OR, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1985. Hard Cover. Book Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good. First Edition. 8vo - over 7? - 9? tall. 4 thick oversize volumes, XI, 633 pp; X, 717 pp; X, 700 pp; X, 937 pp. cloth hardcover with dustjacket, Heisenberg's complete published scientific papers, reproduced in facsimile, including several top secret papers on the Nazi nuclear project. Text in German and English. Slight un-evenness of the bookblock of serie A vols 2 and 3. A very good set, not ex-library copy. 8vo - over 7? - 9? tall. Bookseller Inventory # 001583

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**Hardcover**

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From: Lynge & Søn ILAB-LILA (Copenhagen, Denmark)

**Item Description: **Berlin, Julius Springer, 1929 u. 1930. Bound in 2 contemp. uniform hcloth. Spine ends a bit worn, cloth broken on fronthinge to vol. 56. (binding not loose). In: "Zeitschrift für Physik. Herausgegeben von Karl Scheel", 56. und 59. Band. VII,867 pp. u. VII,874 pp. (2 entire volumes offered). Heisenberg & Pauli's paper: pp. 1-61 a. pp. 168-190. Internally clean. First appearance of these two papers of seminal importence as Heisenberg and Pauli here laid the foundation, by using a new method, for the quantum field theory, and gave the "relativistic formulation of quantum electrodynamics in the presence off charges and currents"(Pais). They were the first to attempt a general formulation of quantum electrodynamics by setting up a general scheme for the quantization of fields which they hoped would be applicable to the Maxwell field.In the papers they also introduced what is today called "gauge fixing", which from then on are among the precious tools of field theory."Heisenberg and Pauli thus established the basic structure of QFT which can be found in any introduction to QFT up to the present day" (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy). Bookseller Inventory # 48904

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From: Atticus Rare Books (West Branch, IA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE OF TWO SEMINAL PAPERS: Heisenberg's groundbreaking contribution to magnetism and to the identification of the quantum mechanical exchange energy. "Heisenberg's masterly contribution in magnetism lies in identifying the quantum mechanical exchange energy, first appearing in the context of chemical bonding and spectroscopy, to be of central importance in explaining ferromagnetism? The question was this: If every atom has an outer cloud of electrons, then how do atoms approach each other to form a chemical bond? It was Heisenberg who showed that the interaction between electrons, called the exchange energy," was the key (ibid., 60). His "exchange interaction" is a force generated solely by the exchange of positions of two totally indistinguishable quantum particles - "a quantum mechanical effect which increases or decreases the expectation value of the energy or distance between two or more identical particles when their wave functions overlap" (Wikipedia). In the early 20th century physicists did not understand ferromagnetism on an atomic basis. "It was Heisenberg's work in the late 1920's that filled this void. To accomplish this, quantum mechanics had to be discovered first? It was indeed in the fitness of things that the quantum dynamics of the electron left an imprint on another area, namely magnetism, which too had to do with the magnetic effects of electron dynamics" (ibid., 58). What Heisenberg began to understand was the connection between ferromagnetism and electron bonding, two areas that most physicists believed were wholly unconnected phenomena. "It was Heisenberg, who saw the connection and established it in two seminal papers, written in 1926 and 1928 [the two papers offered here]" (Chatterjee, "Heisenberg and Ferromagnetism," Resonance, 2004, 63-64). CONDITION & DETAILS: Berlin: Julius Springer. 4to. (9 x 6.5 inches; 225 x 163mm). Two full volumes. Zeitschrift für Physik Volumes 39 and 49. Handsomely bound in black cloth over marbled paper boards; library labels removed with slight ghosting visible. Very minor rubbing at the edges on Volume 39. Both tightly and solidly bound. Near pristine throughout the interior. Bookseller Inventory # 217

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From: Atticus Rare Books (West Branch, IA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **First editions of the three papers in which heisenberg formulated the final mathematical model of the atom -- the neutron-proton model for the atomic nucleus - and the papers in which he introduced the concept of nucleon isotropic spin (later named "isospin"). The books bear the stamp of Friedrich Hermann Hund, a German physicist well-known for his work on atoms and molecules. "After Chadwick had discovered the neutron, Heisenberg was the first to state that this discovery eliminated the need for assuming the presence of electrons in the nucleus of an atom" (Pais). Chadwick's discovery "made it possible to change the relation between nuclear physics and the domain of unsolved problems. A substantial number of nuclear problems now became solvable by ordinary quantum mechanics" (ibid). Still, "once it was accepted that the nucleus was composed of protons and neutrons and that quantum mechanics could be applied to it, the question remained which force acted between its constituents. Heisenberg assumed it to be an exchange force, i.e., a force based on the symmetry properties of a quantum-mechanical wave function" (Brandt, The Harvest of the Century, pp. 223-224). Only a few months after Chadwick's discovery, Heisenberg used Chadwick's neutron to construct the first quantum mechanical nuclear model. The main mechanism he proposed was an exchange force produced by protons and neutrons passing electrons around like basketball players tossing a ball" (Peacock, The Quantum Revolution, 94). Heisenberg postulated that the proton and neutron were two states of the same particle, the nucleon, differing only in isospin. In his theory, the nuclear force conserved isospin, which accounted for the similarities between protons and neutrons. Other forces, such as electromagnetism, broke isospin symmetry, which explained the nucleons' differences. Heisenberg was wrong about the nature of the proton and neutron, but was correct about the importance of isospin in the weak nuclear force. Heisenberg's theory was "quantitatively insufficient to explain nuclear forces. [and] the riddle of nuclear forces stayed a subject of research for decades to come. The lasting value of Heisenberg's approach lies in the revelation of inner symmetries of elementary particles and of quantum numbers associated with these symmetries. The discovery of further symmetries of this type would lead first to a classification of particles and then to an understanding of the forces between them" (Brandt, 226). CONDITION & DETAILS: In: Zeitschrift für Physik 77 (1932), 78 (1932), 80 (1933). Berlin: Julius Springer. 8vo. (9 x 6.5; 225 x 163mm). Three full volumes. The books bear the stamp (on ffp) of Friedrich Hermann Hund, a physicist well-known for his work on atoms and molecules. Friedrich Hermann Hund "was a German physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules. Hund worked with such prestigious physicists as Schrödinger, Dirac, Heisenberg, Max Born, and Walter Bothe. He published more than 250 papers and essays in total. Hund made pivotal contributions to quantum theory - especially concerning the structure of the atom and of molecular spectra" (Wikipedia). The set is also ex-libris with very, very slight 'ghosting' from the removal of spine labels. Small stamp appears on the rear of the title pages. Bound in black cloth over marbled paper hardboard. Very slightly rubbed at the edges. Tightly bound and very clean. The interior is clean and bright. Very good + condition. Bookseller Inventory # 11

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Published by Julius Springer, Berlin (1926)

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From: Milestones of Science Books (Ritterhude, Germany)

**Item Description: **Julius Springer, Berlin, 1926. Soft cover. Book Condition: Very Good. 1st Edition. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. Offprint from: Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 95, Nr. 5. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1926, pp. 683-705. Bound without wrapper; titel page torn at inner margin. Bookseller Inventory # 001727

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From: Michael R. Thompson Books, A.B.A.A. (Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.)

**Item Description: **All attempts to explain the helium spectra using the old quantum mechanics of Bohr and Sommerfeld had failed. Incorporating both Pauli's exclusion principle and spin into Schršdinger's two-electron wave function, Heisenberg was finally able to derive a good approximation to the emission spectrum of helium. This result marks the second great triumph of wave mechanics after Schršdinger;s treatment of hydrogen. In the course of this derivation, Heisenberg hit upon a new insight and established the principle of "exchange interaction"Ña force generated solely by the exchange of positions of two totally indistinguishable quantum particlesÑwhich turned out to have much wider implications in both solid-state and nuclear physics. Van Vleck won the 1977 Nobel Prize in physics for his "fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems." Octavo. Contemporary blue buckram, with title, issue, and year in gilt on spine. Very good. With the pencil signature of Nobel Laureate John H. Van Vleck. Bookseller Inventory # 7984

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