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1) Three models for the description of language. (2) The zero error capacity of a noisy channel. (3) The logic theory machine.

Chomsky, Noam; Claude E. Shannon; A. Newell & H. A. Simon

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Item Description: 1956. (1) Chomsky, Noam (1928- ). Three models for the description of language. In IRE Transactions on Information Theory IT-2 (September 1956): 113-24. (2) Shannon, Claude E. The zero error capacity of a noisy channel. In IRE Transactions on Information Theory IT-2 (September 1956): 8-19. (3) Newell, Allen & H. A. Simon. The logic theory machine. In IRE Transactions on Information Theory IT-2 (September 1956): 61-79. Whole number. Original green printed wrappers. 278 x 218 mm. (1) First edition. Chomsky's revolutionary investigations of the underlying structures of natural languages were first presented in the above paper, read at a symposium on information theory held at MIT a few months before the publication of his Syntactic Structures . In the paper Chomsky introduced two key concepts, the first being "Chomsky's hierarchy" of syntactic forms, which has been widely applied in the construction of artificial computer languages. "The Chomsky hierarchy places regular (or linear) languages as a subset of the context-free languages, which in turn are embedded within the set of context-sensitive languages also finally residing in the set of unrestricted or recursively enumerable languages. By defining syntax as the set of rules that define the spatial relationships between the symbols of a language, various levels of language can be also described as one-dimensional (regular or linear), two-dimensional (context-free), three-dimensional (context sensitive) and multi-dimensional (unrestricted) relationships. From these beginnings, Chomsky might well be described as the 'father of formal languages'" (Lee 1995, 164).The second concept presented here is Chomsky's transformational-generative grammar theory, which attempts to define rules that can generate the infinite number of grammatical (well-formed) sentences possible in a language, and seeks to identify rules (transformations) that govern relations between parts of a sentence, on the assumption that beneath such aspects as word order a fundamental deep structure exists. As Chomsky expressed it in his abstract of the present paper,"We investigate several conceptions of linguistic structure to determine whether or not they can provide simple and "revealing" grammars that generate all of the sentences of English and only these. We find that no finite-state Markov process [a random process whose future probabilities are determined by its most recent values] that produces symbols with transition from state to state can serve as an English grammar. We formalize the notion of "phrase structure" and show that this gives us a method for describing language which is essentially more powerful. We study the properties of a set of grammatical transformations, showing that the grammar of English is materially simplified if phrase-structure is limited to a kernel of simple sentences from which all other sentences are constructed by repeated transformation, and that this view of linguistic structure gives a certain insight into the use and understanding of language" (p. 113). Minsky 1963, 484. Origins of Cyberspace 531. (2) First Edition. "The zero error capacity C0 of a noisy channel is defined to be the least upper bound of rates at which it is possible to transmit information with zero probability of error. Various properties of C0 are studied; upper and lower bounds and methods of evaluation of C0 are given. Inequalities are obtained for the C0 relating to the 'sum' and 'product' of two given channels. The analogous problem of zero error capacity C0F for a channel with a feedback link is considered. It is shown that while the ordinary capacity of a memoryless channel with feedback is equal to that of the same channel without feedback, the zero error capacity may be greater. A solution is given to the problem of evaluating C0F" (p. 8). Shannon 1993, no. 109. Origins of Cyberspace 890.(3) Newell and Simon's logic theory machine (LT), first described in this paper, is a computer program that discovers. Bookseller Inventory # 39347

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