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Matthaeus Platearius [attributed] (ca. 1250), Albertus Magnus (before 1200-1280), Walter Agilon (ca. 1240), et alii.

Published by 3rd quarter of the 14th c. (ca. 1369), Northwest Germany: (1369)

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Item Description: 3rd quarter of the 14th c. (ca. 1369), Northwest Germany:, 1369. 29.5 x 21 cm. Folio: 98 lvs. Text in 2 columns of 38 to 44 lines. Complete. A Fascinating & Important 14th Century Pharmaceutical ManuscriptIn A Contemporary Binding Contents: (see also the discussion of these texts on pages 2-3 of this description): I. Matthaeus Platearius (attrib.) ?Circa instans? (p. 1-101); II. Walter Agilon, ?De dosis medicinarum? (p. 101-113); III. Anon., ?Ars medicinarum laxativarum? (p. 113-126); IV. Bartholomeo da Varignana, ?Practica a capite usque ad pedes? (excerpt) (p. 127-133); V. Anon., ?Pirorum due sunt species? (p. 134); VI. Alphabetical medical catalogue from ?A?-?S? (pp. 135-142); VII. Middle Dutch tract, opening ?Dyt zijn de Crachte van den Rosmarijn ?? (pp. 141-142); VIII. John of Parma, ?Practicella sive de medicinis simplicibus? (excerpt) (p. 144); IX. Pseudo-Alexander the Great and Thessalus, son of Hippocrates (attrib.) ?Hortus sanitatis de herbis, plantis et arboribus? (pp. 153-173); X. Albertus Magnus, ?Tractatus de herbis? with his ?Tractatus de animalibus?(excerpt) (pp.169-173). These texts are followed by manuscript recipes , presumably added by the original owner.This manuscript was produced for use by a doctor in the fourteenth century ? the Golden Age of medical exploration and study in medieval Europe. It contains the Circa Instans, one of the foundation stones of the science of Pharmacology and of extreme rarity on the market.Matthaeus' text is a compendium of 13-century botanical science and a prototype of the modern pharmacopoeia. "Copies were circulated throughout Europe, where its value was instantly recognized and where it shaped the literature of botany and pharmacy for the next 300 years" (Frank J. Anderson, "An illustrated History of the Herbal", 1977).The principal work this manuscript contains is the text on ?simples?, or substances that were observed to have medical properties, but were not formed from compounds of other substances ? an area of medicine commonly abandoned to folklore before the composition of this text. It is usually known as Circa instans (from the opening two words of the text: ?Circa instans negotium in simplicibus medicinis ??: ?About the present business, concerning medical simples?). It is anonymous, but was most probably the work of Matthaeus Platearius and the crucial mid-twelfth-century Salerno school of medicine. It was based on Dioscorides? Vulgaris, but went far further than its Classical source, describing hundreds of plants, the drugs that might be obtained from them and their potential applications, forming the first major attempt of Western Pharmacy to go beyond its Greek and Arabic sources and produce a distinct work of European pharmacological medicine.It was trail-blazing in its field and remained the standard work on the subject for the entire Middle Ages, doubtless with copies in the hands of almost every major monastic library as well as the book collections of the universities of Paris, Oxford, Montpellier and Padua (who all taught medicine) as well as private medical practitioners. An academic project run by Iolanda Ventura has so far identified over 200 surviving medieval manuscripts, and it was the first work of its type to be printed in the edition of 1497 published by Octauianus Scotus. No serious library with medical interests can hope to be comprehensive without a copy on their shelves, and copies of the text were avidly collected by institutions from the Middle Ages onwards. Thus, despite this widespread popularity, the text is of extreme rarity on the open market. Apart from the present manuscript, the vast and comprehensive Schoenberg database lists only 2 copies as ever to come for sale: (i) a mid-fourteenth-century copy from France or England, offered by L. Rosenthal in his cat. 130 (1909), no. 85, and now in the Wellcome Library in London; (ii), and a mid-thirteenth-century copy from England, sold by Sotheby?s on 26 June 1913, lot 1346, and also now in the Wellcome Library.To the Circa instans are appended a series of other co. Bookseller Inventory # 2792D

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Item Description: Typis Joannis Blaeu,, Amsterdam:, 1663. FIRST EDITION.. 56 x 38 cm. Two Large Folio Volumes: Vol I: 2 ff. (General printed title conjugate with dedication), 2 ff. ("Ad lectorem"), 1 f. (Dedication), 2 ff. (Printed section title, half title), 1-253 pp., 1 f. (Index leaf). Illustrated with an engraved frontispiece and 74 plates. Vol II: 2 ff. (Title and half title), 54, 40, 315 pp.; 1 ff. (index leaf) Lacking the frontispiece. Illustrated with 44 plates, including a folding plate of the Obeliscus Pamphilius not recorded by Koeman. Rome & The Papal StatesThe Very Rare ?Theatrum Italiae?With 118 Folding & Full page Engraved Illustrations A fine set of one of Joan Blaeu?s most magnificent productions. This set is very rare, owing probably to the fire that ravaged Blaeu?s workshop in 1672, the year before the publication of these ?town books? This copy has an additional plate, not recorded by Koeman, of the Obeliscus Pamphilius, in volume 2.The two volumes are profusely illustrated with town views, architectural plans, ancient, Renaissance, and Baroque architecture (including many villas); and sculpture. The vast majority of these are double-paged, with a number of fold-out plates of obelisks and three very large, composite engravings. The plates are rarely signed and those that are have a variation of ?Excudebat Ioannes Blaeu? A number of the engravings are based on earlier works: many of the obelisks derive from the works of Kircher; the images of the moving of the Vatican obelisk are taken from Fontana.List of engraved plates. All are double page unless otherwise noted. Engravings within the text are noted as ?text engravings.?Volume I:1. Roma Nova: engraved folding map of Rome, with an engraved dedication to Flavio Chigi.2. Ancona3. Arcus Anconitanus (single page) dedicated to Balthasar van der Goes4. Acquapendende5. Rocca Contrada (Arcevia)6. Rimini7. Plan of Rimini (single page)8. Arcus Arimensis (single page)9. Asculum Picenum10. Assissi11. Bononia (with an added paper extension)12. Piazza Maggiore, Bologna (text engraving, p. 68)13. Fons Bononiensis, i.e. Giambologna?s Neptune fountain, signed: ?Excud I: Blaeu? 14. The medieval towers Asinella and Garisenda, Bologna (text engraving, p. 70)15. Plate with four views of Bologna: Palazzo del Podestà, Pa;azzo Maggiore, Studio Publico (ext.), Studio Publico (cortile).16. Plate with two views: San Michele in Bosco and il Convento de? Padri della Certosa (single page)17. Felsina, sive Bononia Antiqua (reconstruction of the ancient city by Ovidio Montalbani (1601-1672))18. Cesena19. Villa Farnese at Caprarola (exterior)20. Caprarolae Interna (cross section of Villa Farnese)21. Ichnographic plan of Villa Farnese22. Plate with two views after a painting by Georg Hoefnagel (1542-1601): Nocera Umbra and Castelnuovo di Porto. The plate is signed ?excudebat Ioannes Blaeu?23. Civitavecchia24. Civita Nova in Piceno25. Gubbio26. Fabriano (with a charming vignette of a paper mill)27. Fanum Fortunae (Fano)28. Faventia, vulgo Faensa29. Ichnographic plan of Ferrara30. Forum Sempronii, vulgo Fossombrone31. Large Folding panoramic view (composed of several plates joined together) of Frascati and the surrounding villas: Mondragone, Villa Tusculana, Villa Borghesia, La Ruffina, La Ruffinella, Belpoggio, Acquaviva, Arrigone, and the hermitage of the Camaldolesi.32. View of the hermitage of the Camaldolesi33. Imola34. Loreto35?40. 6 plates (five folding) of the Basilica of Loreto and the Renaissance enclosure surrounding the House of the Virgin within41. Macerata 42. Monte Fiascone (text engraving, p. 147)43. Neptunium (Nettuno) (text engraving, p. 149)44. Norsia45. View of the hermitage of the Camaldolesi at Monte Corona near Perugia46. Perusia Augusta (Perugia)47. Pesaro48. Pesaro (2nd view)49. Sciographia Templi Fortunae Praenestae, signed ?Ioannes Blaeu excudit?50. Orthographia Templi Fortunae Praenestae51. Senogallia (Senigallia)52. Spoleto53. Terracina54. Tuder, vulgo Todi55. Tibur, vulgo Tivoli56. Temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli (text engraving, p. 186)57. Cascata. Bookseller Inventory # 2157D

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Item Description: Aldus Manutius 1 November, 1495, Venice:, 1495. 29.5 x 20 cm. Folio: A-C8, [Delta]8, E-K8, L-N6, a-c8, d-e6, f-q8, r-s6. 234 unnumbered leaves. Types: R2; S1; Gk1; R1:108 PMM 38The ?Editio Princeps? of Aristotle?s ?Organon?Venice: Aldus, 1495 The Aldine Aristotle was ?the greatest publishing venture of the fifteenth century? and ?alone would suffice to establish Aldus? reputation?(Fletcher). The publication marked not only the beginning of Aldus? ambitious plan to publish the Greek authors in their original language but was itself responsible for the success of the printing venture that produced it.?The fragile undertaking of 1495 was by 1498 a sturdy business which no longer needed or justified the restraint of trade [granted to Aldus by the Venetian Senate in a privilege of 1495], thanks largely to Aldus? own success. That success was founded on the Greek Aristotle. The separate editions issued over the four years 1495-98, each volume bearing an allusion to the privilege granted by the senate, was undoubtedly conceived of as a series, though each was available by itself. Aldus himself distinguished between the volume of logical works (the ?Organon?, or ?instrument?, so called from a poem prefixed to this edition) that was published in November 1495 and the later volumes of ?philosophy? This was the real work that the partnership was set up to create. The other Latin and Greek works of the earliest years were for the most part either quickly produced, easily sold educational texts, or in the nature of private press work for members of Aldus? intellectual and academic circle? ?The Aldine Aristotle? remains, in terms of the labour involved and the magnificence of the result, the greatest publishing venture of the fifteenth century. The centrality of Aristotle in intellectual life of the time can hardly be overstressed. In Latin dress he lay at the heart of any university course in philosophy, as dominant at the end of the Quattrocento as in the preceding three hundred years. The humanist return ad fontes, to the original unobscured by imprecise translation and the encrustations of scholastic commentary, was the indispensable background to the edition.? (Davies, Aldus Manutius, Printer and Publisher of Renaissance Venice (1999) 20-22. Dibner, Heralds of Science, no. 73; Carter & Muir, Printing and the Mind of Man (1967) no. 38; Hook & Norman, The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine (1991) no. 70; Renouard Alde 7.5; Ahmanson-Murphy 4; HC1657*; GW 2334; Pr 5547*; BMC V, 553 (IB. 24392-5); Oates 2162-4; Goff A-959; IGI 791; Pell 1175: Polain 289; IDL 405; Sander 591, Essling 862; Foldr 19.1; Martin Sicherl, Handschriftliche Vorlagen der Editio princeps des Aristoteles, Mainz, 1976. Bound in 18th century red morocco, gilt, with paste-paper endpapers. The binding is in excellent condition with minor, expert repairs. A fresh, broad-margined copy with some light foxing and soiling to the title page and last leaf only. The first headpiece and initial were tastefully colored in the 18th century. A few tiny, pin-prick wormholes appear in the margin of the first and final few signatures. Only one of these makes its way through the volume, in the far outer margin, and is hardly noticeable. There are two small paper repairs: on the first leaf, not affecting the text on the recto and just touching the first letter in 3 lines of the Latin epistle on the verso; and on the lower blank margin of the third leaf. There are a few discreet early corrections in the margins of Books I and II of the Topics, as well as some chapter numbering (in Greek) also in the margins of the same two books. Aside from these very minor points, a truly fine copy.The text is printed using the first two Aldine Greek types (146 and 114 mm.), cut by Francesco Griffo and apparently modeled on the hand of Immanual Rhusotas (see Nicolas Barker, Aldus Manutius, chapters 6 and 7).Contents: A1r three epigrams: anonymous, Scipio Carteromachus (Forteguerri), Aldus, A1v dedicatory letter from Aldus to Alberto Pio of Carpi, in La. Bookseller Inventory # 2191D

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Serlio, Sebastiano (1475-1554?)

Published by Printed [by Simon Stafford and Thomas Snodham] for Robert Peake,, London: (1611)

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Item Description: Printed [by Simon Stafford and Thomas Snodham] for Robert Peake,, London:, 1611. FIRST EDITION IN ENGLISH.. 34.3 x 23.9 cm. Folio: [3], 13, [1]; [2], 26, [1]; [1], 73; 71, [1]; 16 lvs. Collation: Book 1: pi (-pi1) [A] B-H (-H2). Book 2: [A] (-A1) B-N N ( N2 blank). Book 3: A-P Q-2B 2C . Book 4: A-S . Book 5: A-D .Book 2 A1 is cancelled. The First Substantial Architectural Treatise in The English Language "THE EARLIEST CONNECTED WORK ON ARCHITECTURE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE" (Fowler), and ?BY FAR THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL ENGLISH ARCHITECTURAL BOOK OF ITS DAY? The two precedents of this translation of Serlio, Shute's First and Chief Groundes of Architecture (1563), and a translation of Blum's Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio (1601), both derived from Serlio. The only full English edition until recent times, it was financed by the elder Robert Peake (1551?-1619), Sergeant-Painter to Prince Henry from 1607, who signs the dedication to the Prince, and whose name appears in the imprints and colophons; whether Peake himself was the translator is uncertain. The woodblocks had been last used in a German language edition published by Ludwig Königs in Basel, 1609-09, but first appeared in the Antwerp editions of Pieter Coecke van Aelst and his widow between 1539 and 1553. The same blocks were used for the 1606 Amsterdam edition of all five books, published by Cornelis Claesz. The text for this edition was the one used for the English translation, while itself deriving from Coecke's Flemish and French editions of 1539-1553. Due to the practical nature of this work it is rarely found in perfect condition. ?Sebastiano Serlio is one of the four Renaissance authors, along with Vignola, Palladio, and Scamozzi, who surpassed in importance Vitruvius and his sixteenth-century commentators. Serlio was the first to publish an original and illustrated architectural treatise in Italian. Older than Raphael, Peruzzi, and Antonio da Sangallo, he was an exact contemporary of Michelangelo. In his influential treatise, Serlio offered practical rules for architectural design, which were intended for the ordinary reader rather than the elite humanists and ruling aristocrats for whom Alberti had written. [He] transformed the architectural treatise with a series of illustrations of ancient and modern buildings??Serlio had initially planned his treatise in seven parts but left nine different books. His plan for the entire project was set out in the preface of the first published part (Book IV). Of these, only Books I-V and the ?extraordinary? book (all translated in this edition) were published in his lifetime, between 1537 and 1554? Book IV, the ?General Rules of Architecture?, on the orders, was the first to be published, in Venice in 1537. Book III, ?Antiquities of Rome?, on ancient Roman antiquities in the Italian peninsula, was published next in Venice in 1540. Books I and II, on geometry and perspective, were first published together, in French and Italian, in Paris in 1545. Book V, ?On Sacred Temples?, on churches, was published next in a bilingual edition in Paris in 1547. This was followed by the publication in Lyons of the ?Libro estraordinario?, on gates, in 1551.?(Millard, Italian Books)The Third Book: On the Antiquities of Rome:?The third book was the first coherent publication on classical architecture and was supposed to have been the first published. It reflects the double roots of Renaissance architectural theory, in Vitruvius and in the remains of the Roman monuments. While for Alberti these had been two sides of the same medal, the two approaches had parted ways in the later fifteenth-century, reconverging in the work of Raphael, who devoted himself to an exegesis of Vitruvius and a graphic reconstruction of ancient Rome.?Serlio?s editorial contribution consists of elevating the Pantheon to the status of the most beautiful building of antiquity, and of lifting the Roman buildings of Bramante to the status of exempla by including them in this section of the treatise. His illustrations of Bramante?s Tempietto and cloister at San Pietro in Montorio and the Belvedere c. Bookseller Inventory # 2984D

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Horace. Horatius Flaccus, Quintus (65-8 B.C.)

Published by Johann Reinhard, called GrŘninger, 12 March, 1498, Strasbourg: (1498)

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Item Description: Johann Reinhard, called Grüninger, 12 March, 1498, Strasbourg:, 1498. 298 x 222 mm. Folio: Collation: [*]6, A-V6, X-Z6, AA-II6, KK-LL8; [**]6 The Koberger HoraceWith 5 Woodcuts Skillfully Painted by a Contemporary ArtistWith Contemporary Annotations This copy is partially rubricated and is annotated, in Latin, throughout in at least two contemporary hands. The early annotations are intact, having been spared by the binder?s knife, and consist of metrical notations, citations from other authors, and comments. There are also two glosses in Greek (leaves S6v and FF1r) as well as an apparent note in German (leaf FF6). An added manuscript index for the ?Epistolae? is bound after the final text leaf. The readers have also made corrections and a few notable additions (e.g. ?Cunnus CXXIX 3?) to the main index of words. The annotators cite more than twenty authors, both ancient and contemporary, as well as the Bible. Among the ancient authors cited are Aesop, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, Aulus Gellius, Cicero, Ovid, Diodorus Siculus, Juvenal, Lactantius, Pliny, Plutarch, St. Jerome, Seneca, and Virgil. The contemporary and near-contemporary authors cited include: Michael Marullus, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, Mantuan, Antonio Mancinelli (commentary on Juvenal), Badius Ascensius (?Sylvae?), Publio Fausto Andrelini, and Erasmus (?Adagia?).The most frequently cited authors are Juvenal (13 citations) and Badius Ascensius (12 citations from the ?Sylvae?). One reader also shows a fashionable interest in the ?Adagia? of Erasmus. He identifies 23 separate adages in the course of the text and mentions Erasmus? work by name at least three times. He also makes a reference to an epistle of Publio Fausto Andrelini of Forli (1460-1518) that might be the letter that Erasmus asked Andrelini to write as a preface to the ?Adagia? Hain 8898; Goff H 461; BMC I, 112; Polain 1989; Proctor 485; Walsh 182; Fairfax Murray (German) 205; Rosenwald Collection 188; Dibdin, Bibl. Spenceriana II, 87-95. For Grüninger, his illustrated books, and Locher?s edition of Horace, see Mark Morford, Johann Grüninger of Strasbourg in ?Syntagmatia: Essays on Neo-Latin Literature in Honour of Monique Mund-Dopchie and Gilbert Tournoy (Humanistica Lovaniensia, XXVI) 2009 Bound in 19th c. half calf and marbled boards. Illustrated with more than 160 detailed woodcuts. This is an excellent copy with large margins. A contemporary 15th or 16th c. artist has painted five of the large woodcuts with subtlety and a sophisticated use of color and shadow: 1. title page portrait of the author crowned with a laurel wreath; 2. Horace and his patron, Maecenas; 3. Julius Caesar being slain by Brutus and Cassius; 4. Virgil sailing in a ship; and 5. two pairs of lovers discoursing in a landscape. From the libraries of Georg (Franz Burkhard) Kloss (1787-1854), with his bookplate; Arthur Atherley, with his bookplate; and Etienne Reymond, with his bookplate ?Mr. & Mrs. Etienne Reymond? The German physician, philologist and Freemason George Kloss (1787-1854) was an early student of bibliographer and a collector of early books and manuscripts. This book was Lot 2046 in Kloss? sale at Sotheby?s, May 1835.) FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF HORACE and the first edition of the poet?s works to be printed in Germany. The text was edited by the poet laureate Jacob Locher, called Philomusus. The woodcuts were executed by the artist of the Grüninger Terence (November 1, 1496). Bookseller Inventory # 2614D

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Item Description: printed by William Rastell, May 1530, London:, 1530. 26.4 x 18 cm. Folio: Collation: a-z6, A-C6, D4 ?Ye use, my mayster sayth, to look so sadly whan ye mene merrily, that many tymes men doubte whyther ye speke in sporte whan ye mene good ernest.?Thomas More?s ?Dialogue? against Tyndale & Luther The Dialogue against Heresies: Thomas More?s Defense of Catholic Orthodoxy in the face of the Protestant Reformation:?In 1523 More had written the first of his controversial works, the ?Responsio ad Lutherum?, a Latin diatribe in which he answered Luther?s attack upon Henry VIII?s book on the seven sacraments? The procedure he employed for the ?Responsio? inevitably restricted the play of More?s literary abilities. For this new book, the ?Dialogue Concerning Heresies? of 1529, More found a format that gave him freer reign to treat the ?diverse matters? mentioned on the title page. Most of the major issues of the Reformation are dealt with, for More?s purpose was to give a comprehensive review of the errors to which the public would be exposed by heretical books and sermons. The attempt to stem the flow of foreign books at the ports of entry or to confiscate or burn the books that slipped through the net had failed completely. The layman could read of these ?diverse matters? and, realizing this, Bishop Cuthbert Tunstal launched a new stage of the campaign when he sent More a package of heretical books with a license to read them in preparation for his task.?(439-40)The beauty of More?s ?Dialogue?, and what sets it apart from other works of early 16th c. religious controversy, is its literary form and style. Reminiscent of More?s ?Utopia?, the ?Dialogue? between More and his interlocutor, the ?Messenger?, is an intimate, lively, and far-reaching conversation, held in More?s home so that his young visitor, who has come at the suggestion of one of More?s friends, might discuss freely what he has ?heard some men say? concerning heretical topics. The Messenger, an educated but young and still impressionable man, has come under the influence of the reformers. His ability to reason is not so finely honed that he can see the errors of the ideas that have enthralled him, so More, at the behest of his unnamed friend, attempts to steer the Messenger clear of false doctrine. By using the dialogue form, More suggests a blue print for other English families to employ in their own households when debates over heresy arise.The whole of the text is presented in the form of a letter, written after the dialogue has taken place, so that the young man may have recourse to More?s guidance when he returns to the environment in which he first encountered heretical thinkers. The book is to be an ?enchiridion?, a handbook (or dagger) used as a guide the Messenger and others like him back to orthodox belief; it is also a defensive weapon against the dangers of heretical thinking.The ?dyvers maters? of the title constitute a catalogue of the heresies put forth by Luther, Tyndale, and preachers such as Thomas Bilney, who seek to inculcate these pernicious errors in the laity, including well-educated university men such as More?s Messenger.The topics include the veneration of Saints and their images, going on pilgrimage, the central Lutheran doctrines of ?sola scriptura?, (the idea that the Bible contains all the information necessary for salvation) and ?sola fide? (justification by faith alone), predestination, and excommunication. ?The structure of the ?Dialogue? is the course of heresy itself, one digression or bypath leading to another, farther and farther from the common way.?(443)?The consequences of such heresies are set before the Messenger?s eyes in the last book of the ?Dialogue? in the horrifying picture of the Sack of Rome (1527), where the Lutheran troops negotiate ?pacts and promises of rest? without further violence before raping wives and daughters. The Sack of Rome is the final fruit of Luther?s schism, ?of whose opinions or at the least of whose works all this business began.? (445)Weighty topics indeed, yet More?s. Bookseller Inventory # 2546D

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Hyginus, Caius Julius (fl. 2nd century)

Published by Erhard Ratdolt, 14 October, 1482, Venice: (1482)

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Item Description: Erhard Ratdolt, 14 October, 1482, Venice:, 1482. 20 x 14.6 cm. Quarto: Collation: a-f8 g10 (a1 blank, a2r dedication to M. Fabius [Quintilianus?], a3r text, g9r commendatory poem by Jacobus Sentinus, g10r poem and verse colophon by Johannes Santritter, g10v blank). 58 leaves. 31 lines. Types 3:91G (text), 7:92G (heading on a2r), 91 Gk (a few words). Title on a2r printed in red, 11-, 7-, 5- and 3-line white-on-black woodcut initials. 47 half-page woodcuts, probably designed by Johannes Santritter, of the constellation and planet figures. The First Printed Illustrations of the Constellations FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION of Hyginus? ?Poeticon Astronomicon?, illustrated with 47 half-page woodcuts of the constellations and the planets personified. The text is set in a pleasing Gothic. The text of Hyginus was first published in an unillustrated edition at Ferrara in 1475.The ?Poeticon Astronomicon? (more correctly, the ?Astronomica?) is an ancient Roman work on the constellations chiefly based on the work of the Greek scientist Eratosthenes (3rd c. B.C.). The work was traditionally attributed to the first century writer C. Julius Hyginus, the Director of the Palatine Library under the Emperor Augustus, but the extant text is now believed, based on stylistic analysis, to be an abridgement of Hyginus? work made in the late second century. The fact that the order of the constellations in the poem follows precisely that of Ptolemy?s ?Almagest? further strengthens the case for a second century date. A remarkable aspect of Hyginus? text is his insistence on the use of astronomical models, in particular, a celestial globe, as an aid to teaching or explaining astronomical principles and phenomena, particularly for ?discussions on the inter-relationships between the constellations and especially between the constellations and the celestial circles.?(Lippincott p.4)Like Manilius? ?Astronomicon? and Proclus? ?Sphaera? (a text that Hyginus sought to improve upon), the ?Poeticon Astronomicon? was of special interest to early astronomers ?including Copernicus- who desired accurate editions of ancient texts from which they might derive a clear understanding of the astronomical knowledge of the Romans and Greeks, thereby establishing a firm foundation upon which to undertake astronomy?s ?renewal?.One of the chief interests in Ratdolt?s edition of Hyginus lies in the illustrations of the constellations, the first such illustrations to appear in a printed book. These images derive from medieval sources such as those found in manuscripts and paintings ?though a specific source has not been identified. The figures appear in medieval European costume and, in the words of Redgrave, ?There is a vigour and quaintness about these woodcuts which merit recognition.? Hyginus gives detailed accounts of the myths associated with each of the constellations, and these myths served as source material for artists in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, one of the most famous examples of the text?s influence being the splendid ceiling painted around 1511 by Peruzzi for Agostino Chigi in the Sala di Galatea of the Villa Farnesina (See Förster, Farnesina-Studien 1880, p. 40). In many instances these medieval European, often mythological, constellation figures differed notably from those used by Ptolemy and his Islamic successors . Several stylistic conventions, first published in Ratdolt's woodcuts, endured for several centuries, both in the numerous editions of Hyginus and in the various maps derived therefrom.The Contents of Hyginus? ?Poeticon Astronomicon?Hyginus tells us that he intends to give a better description of the celestial sphere than Aratus had done in his ?De Sphaera? Book I gives a brief overview of the cosmography of the universe, the celestial sphere, the Earth and its zones, and the Zodiac. Book II is a compendium of myths related to the constellations, the five planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter) as well as the Sun, Moon, and Milky Way.Book III is Hyginus? star catalogue. It is in this book that Ratdol. Bookseller Inventory # 2526D

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Berenger of Landorra, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (circa 1262-1330), and Gregory of Vorau (ed. Matthias Farinator)

Published by Printer of the 1481 Legenda aurea, 22 March 1482] 22 March 1482], [Strasbourg: (1482)

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Item Description: Printer of the 1481 Legenda aurea, 22 March 1482] 22 March 1482], [Strasbourg:, 1482. FOURTH EDITION (first printed in 1477).. 29.2 x 21.8 cm. Folio: 274 unsigned leaves. [A-C]8, [D]10; [a-m]8, [n]6,[o-z]8, [aa-ff]8, [gg]10. Complete with the initial and final blanks. The Natural World & The Human Soul The arrival of printed books is so often regarded as one of the inaugural moments of the renaissance that it is sometimes forgotten that the first years of print also represented the last great flowering of the Middle Ages. The ?Lumen Anime? (Light of the Soul), is testament to that. Formerly attributed to the Carmelite friar Mathias Farinator of Vienna (who compiled the index), the ?Lumen Anime? is now known to be Berenger of Landorra, General of the Dominican order and archbishop of Campostella from 1317 to 1325.The ?Lumen Anime? is a sprawling manual of natural and moral philosophy, that gathers together quotations on relevant themes from authors as diverse as Aristotle, Theophrastus, the elder Pliny, Ptolemy, Solinus, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Isidore, Hugh of St Victor, and Avicenna. It is broadly organized in three parts beginning with the birth of Christ and other theological material before going on to such worldly matters as abstinence, abjection, adulation, wealth, guilt, love, humility, health, silence, and pride. It then proceeds to the two longer parts: the first, concerned with the natural world of plants, animals and trees; and the second, in more depth with problems of a moral and philosophical kind. It was immensely popular in the fifteenth century as a reference work, and despite its Dominican origins, found its natural home and use in the Benedictine orders of Central Europe.?The natural historical content [of the ?Lumen Anime?] centers as much on astronomy and meteorology as on flora and fauna; it includes a huge number of largely inauthentic citations of frequently exotic-sounding authors and the vast majority of its exempla have a a tripartite structure ? a scientific (or pseudo-scientific ?proprietas? is followed by a moralizing interpretation, whose lesson is then reinforced by a quotation from a theological authority.? In the version of the text edited by Matthias Farinator, which is the basis of the printed editions, ?chapters tend to be much longer [and] the initial natural historical ?proprietas? is often longer and supported by a series of quotations, its components are then analyzed allegorically, and a moralization follows.?(Nigel Harris, ?the Light of the Soul?, 2007)The textual history and authorship of the ?Lumen Anime? are matters of considerable complexity. There are some 195 surviving manuscripts and fragments, as well as four fifteenth and one sixteenth-century printed editions. Of the 195 manuscripts, 35 date from the fourteenth century and the remainder from the fifteenth century, including two that derive from the printed editions.Mary and Richard Rouse have established three principal lines of transmission. ?Lumen A? is the original version as composed by Berenger of Landorra, Archbishop of Compostella between 1317 and his death in 1330. It would appear that the collection took shape with the encouragement and support of Pope John XXII. It is the book?s Spanish origin that explains the presence of both Arabic and Greek material in the collections.By 1332, a copy of the manuscript had reached Austria, where it was revised, modified and expanded by an otherwise unknown monk, Gregory of Vorau. ?Lumen B? is the source of the text that was edited by Matthias Farinator, and printed by Anton Sorg at Augsburg in 1477, and then reprinted again at Augsburg by Gunther Zainer in 1477, at Reutlingen in 1479, and in 1482 at Strasbourg. The Rouses have proposed that Farinator?s manuscript was a direct copy of the complete text of either Vorau 130 or Klosterneuberg 384 (p.51), the earliest surviving witnesses to the B tradition.A third manuscript recension, ?Lumen C?, derives from a compilation of material primarily from the A, but also from the B text. This line of descent dates before 1357. As well as these principal traditions, other manu. Bookseller Inventory # 2823D

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Brant, Sebastian (1458-1521); Barclay, Alexander (1475?-1552) and Locher, Jacob (1471-1528), translators

Published by in Paules Churchyarde by John Cawood printer to the Queenes Maiestie,, London: in Paules Churchyarde by John Cawood printer to the Queenes Maiestie, [1570] (1570)

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Item Description: in Paules Churchyarde by John Cawood printer to the Queenes Maiestie,, London: in Paules Churchyarde by John Cawood printer to the Queenes Maiestie, [1570], 1570. SECOND EDITION (first printed in 1509).. 28.5 x 19 cm. Folio: 6, 6, A-Z6, Aa-Uu6, Xx4, A-G6, A-D6. [12], 259, [3]; [42]; [24] leaves ?A Truly English Poem?The English Ship of Fooles, Illustrated with 116 Large WoodcutsThe Roxburghe Copy Sebastian Brant's celebrated ?Ship of Fooles? ("Narrenschiff"), here in the English translation of Alexander Barclay, printed together with the Latin version of the poem by Jacob Locher. The first edition of Barclay?s translation (1509) is unobtainable. In this second edition there are also additional works by Barclay, ?The Mirrour of good Maners? and ?Certayne Eglogues", which did not appear in the 1509 edition. "The present edition is of considerable interest and value because of the 'Eclogues' appended, the original editions of which are exceedingly rare." (Pforzheimer)Brant first published his "Narrenschiff", in German, in 1494 at Basel; a second, enlarged German edition appeared the following year and this served as the basis for Jacob Locher's Latin translation, "Stultifera Naus? of 1497. In producing his English "Ship of Fooles", Barclay worked from Locher's Latin translation and the French paraphrase of Pierre Riviere. However, Barclay's "Ship of Fooles" is no mere translation; the English "Ship" is four times as long as Locher's Latin version. The result is a truly English poem, reflective of the life and culture of early 16th century England."The year of the accession of Henry VIII was the meeting-point in England of three periods of literature. The Middle Ages were passing away. The new Italian Renaissance gave its first literary product to England when Erasmus wrote his Praise of Folly, which owes its very name to the fact that it was written under the hospitable roof of Sir Thomas More in 1509. And in between there is that curious Interregnum, known as the Early Renaissance, initiated by the Council of Basel and Aeneas Sylvius in Germany; by strange coincidence it was just in 1509 that its chief literary production, the 'Ship of Fooles', was translated into English?."Barclay's 'Ship of Fooles' is not only important as a picture of the English life and popular feeling of his time, it is, both in style and vocabulary, a most valuable and remarkable monument of the English language? In the long, barren tract between Chaucer and Spenser, the 'Ship of Fooles' stands all but alone as a popular poem, and the continuance of this popularity for a century and more is no doubt to be attributed as much to the use of the language of the 'coming time' as to the popularity of the subject. As a graphic and comprehensive picture of the social condition of pre-Reformation England, as an important influence in the formation of our modern English tongue, and as a rich and unique exhibition of early art this medieval picture-poem is of unrivalled interest." (T.H. Jamieson) STC 3546; Pforzheimer 41; Langland to Wither, 18; Wilhelmi, Sébastian Brant (Bibliography) 218; Brant ("500e anniversaire" Exhibition catalogue, Basle 1994), 109 Bound in late 18th-century polished calf, the spine gold-paneled and adorned with two morocco labels. The gilt arms of the third duke of Roxburghe are stamped on the boards. Edges speckled red. The binding is in fine shape, a little rubbed, joints a little cracked. Provenance: John Ker, 3rd Duke of Roxburghe (1740-1804); arms on binding; his sale, Robert H. Evans, 18 May 1812 and 41 following days, lot 3294, £9-19-6 (to Harding). A very fine, tall copy of this important and beautiful book with minor faults. The title is soiled; there are occasional marginal dampstains; there is a naturally occurring paper flaw to the upper corner of T1 torn affecting the shoulder notes. The final leaf is creased and has a repaired tear to the upper corner touching the text. "There are 116 woodcuts in the text of which 8 are repeated twice and 1 once. These illustrations are from the blocks cut for Pynson's edition, 1509, and, with the exception of two or three are very well preserved. These blocks were not copied directly from the original Basel. Bookseller Inventory # 2986D

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Sacrobosco, Johannes de (ca. 1195 ? ca. 1256 A.D.); Regiomontanus, Johannes (1436-1476); Peurbach, Georg von (1423-1461)

Published by Erhard Ratdolt, 6 July 1482, Venice: (1482)

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Item Description: Erhard Ratdolt, 6 July 1482, Venice:, 1482. FIRST COLLECTED EDITION.. 19.5 x 14.3 cm. Quarto: 60 lvs. Collation: a-g8, h4. 30-31 lines, Gothic type Renaissance Science and its Medieval Antecedents A fine copy of Erhard Ratdolt?s beautiful printing of Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere?, the core astronomical textbook from the Middle Ages to the early 16th century. This edition is the first to include key texts by two of the most influential 15th c. astronomers: Johannes Regiomontanus and Georg Peurbach. Working in the vein of the Renaissance humanists, Peurbach and his student Regiomontanus sought out the extant scientific writings of antiquity, the classical foundations of medieval European and Arabic science. Both men gleaned what they could from ancient authorities but more importantly, moved the science forward, adjusting, correcting, and often discrediting their ancient and medieval predecessors, while performing new scientific investigations of astronomical phenomena. These investigations led to important innovations, placing Renaissance astronomy on a new path.The first of the two supplemental texts in this volume, Peurbach?s ?Theoricae Novae Planetarum? (New Theories of the Planets), eventually came to replace Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere? and another 13th c. text, the ?Theorica planetarum communis? (Universal Theory of the Planets), attributed to Gerard of Cremona. Composed about 1454, Peurbach based his ?Theoricae? on the familiar teachings of Ptolemy, Al-Battani, Al-Farghani and caliph Al-Mammun?s astronomer, whose name is unknown. The word ?novae? in the title is not meant to refer to a completely new theory but only to emphasize that this work is a compilation of the latest contemporary scientific knowledge. ?Following Arab astronomers, Peurbach added trepidation to Ptolemy's six motions of the celestial spheres and substituted solid crystal spheres for the hypothetical circles employed in Ptolemy's ?Almagest?.? (Stillwell, Awakenings).In the final text in this volume, ?Disputationes contra Cremonensia deliramenta? (Arguments against the Errors of [Gerard of] Cremona), Peurbach?s student Regiomontanus offers a critique of Gerard?s aforementioned ?Theorica?, and demonstrates the superiority of Peurbach?s ?Theoricae novae.? Adopting the form of a dialogue between ?Viennensis? (the ?man from Vienna?, representing Regiomontanus) and ?Cracoviensis? (?The one from Krakow?, representing Martin Bylica of Ilkusch), Regiomontanus used geometrical proofs, often supplemented by diagrams, to refute specific claims in the earlier ?Theorica.? In the course of his critique, Regiomontanus -renowned for the accuracy of his own predictive tables and calendars- also makes corrections to Gerard?s planetary tables.Sacrobosco?s ?Sphere?:?Sacrobosco?s fame rests firmly on his ?De Sphaera?, a work based on Ptolemy and his Arabic commentators, published about 1220 and antedating the ?Sphaera? of Grosseteste. It was quite generally adopted as the fundamental astronomy text, for often it was so clear that it needed little or no explanation. It was first used at the University of Paris. There are four chapters to the work. Chapter one defines a sphere, explains its divisions, including the four elements, and also comments on the heavens and their movements. The revolutions of the heavens are from east to west and their shape is spherical. The earth is a sphere, acting as the middle (or center) of the firmament; it is a mere point in relation to the total firmament and is immobile. Its measurements are also included. Chapter two treats the various circles and their names- the celestial circle, the equinoctial, the movement of the ?primum mobile? with its two parts, the north and south poles, the zodiac, the ecliptic, the colures, the meridian and the horizon, and the Arctic and Antarctic circles. It closes with an explanation of the five zones. Chapter three explains the cosmic, chronic, and heliacal risings and settings of the signs and also their right and oblique ascensions. Explanations are furnished for the variations in the length of days in d. Bookseller Inventory # 2885D

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Marinoni, Giovanni Giacomo de (1676-1755)

Published by Leopold J. Kaliwoda,, Vienna, (1745)

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Item Description: Leopold J. Kaliwoda,, Vienna, 1745. FIRST EDITION.. 36.6 x 25.4 cm. Folio: [12] ff., 210 pp., [1] f. Collation: [a]2, b-d2, )(2, )()(2, A-Z2, Aa-Zz2, Aaa-Iii2. Including an engraved frontispiece signed Sedlmayr after Bertoli and a title printed in red and black. The text is illustrated with 17 half- to full-page engravings and 43 added engraved folding plates. Complete. An Extraordinary Copy of "One of the Most Exquisitely Illustrated Astronomical Works Ever Printed? -Kenney First edition of this lavishly illustrated description of Marinoni's astronomical observatory in Vienna and its instruments, including the astronomer's numerous telescopes, the (fixed) mural quadrant, the quadrant "ampliatus" and the position micrometer, with its screws, indices and two-lens telescope. One of Marinoni's micrometers, a gift to Eustachio Manfredi, the first Director of the Bologna Observatory, was used by the Bolognese astronomers to observe the transit of Venus in 1761. The various instruments are described in detail along with their actual positions in the building, so that the reader has an exact idea of how an XVIIIth-century observatory was arranged. These same instruments were later used by the Jesuit astronomer Maximillian Hell at the astronomical observatory of the University of Vienna. Thus, this work provides us with a detailed knowledge of the equipment of the first two Viennese observatories."Marinoni was born in Udine, Italy (the Austrian border area) and studied in Vienna. He was appointed Imperial Court Mathematician and in 1726 became director of the Academy of Geometry and Military Science. He visited Bologna and later Paris to see astronomical instruments in use there before designing and building his observatory in Vienna." (Kenney)The observatory, which Marinoni had discussed with Leibnitz as early as 1714, was completed in 1733. Marinoni?s was the first astronomical observatory established in Vienna. Like his great predecessors Tycho Brahe and Jan Hevelius, Marinoni designed his home observatory himself, and constructed many of the instruments used therein. However, Marinoni also imported instruments from Pavia, Venice, Milan (from Pietro Patroni), and London (from the optician and telescope maker Edward Scarlet).The ?De Astronomica Specula Domestica et Organico Apparatu Astronomico? was to the 18th century what Tycho Brahe?s ?Mechanica? was to the 16th and Hevelius? ?Machina Coelestis? to the 17th. All three works provided their contemporary audiences with painstakingly detailed descriptions and depictions of state-of-the art astronomical instruments and the observatories constructed for their use. As a record of the state of astronomical technology in the mid-18th century, Marinoni?s work is a work without equal.After his death in 1755, Marinoni?s instruments became the property of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresia (reg. 1740-1780), who used them to equip the newly established astronomical observatory at the University of Vienna. Marinoni?s own house was deemed to far from the university, so it was decided to construct a four-storey tower and to move the instruments there.The Jesuit astronomer and mathematician Maximilian Hell was appointed as the first director of the observatory and was charged with overseeing its construction and the installation of the instruments. It was from the new observatory, using Marinoni?s instruments, that Hell made his observations for his annual ephemerides and observed the transit of Venus in 1761, using Marinoni?s micrometer and the Newtonian telescope that Marinoni had bought from Edward Scarlet.Hell?s astronomical work brought him to the attention of King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, who invited him to mount an expedition to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Vardö. Upon returning to Vienna, Hell sought to derive the sun?s parallax from his observations of the two Venus transits.Even after the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, Hell continued in his post as director of the university observatory, ably assisted by his colleagues Anton P. Bookseller Inventory # 2336D

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Item Description: Io. Froben, and Excusum per Renatu[m] Beck in aedibus zum Thiergarten, and Jean Petit, In vico Sancti Iacobi, 1515 and 21 June 1515 and 1513, Basel; and Strasbourg;and Paris:, 1515. Large Quarto: 3 works bound in one volume: I. Piccolomini: i-iv, A-B4, C8, D-E4, F8, G-H4, I8, K-L4, M8, N-O4, P6. II. Lactantius: A6, B4, a-z8/4, A-D8/4, E6, F-N8/4, O6, P4. III. ?Praise of Folly?: a-h4, a-z4, A-B4, C6 The 1515 Froben ?Praise of Folly?In a Humanist SammelbandBound in Contemporary Pigskin and Wooden Boards This edition includes the original dedicatory letter to Thomas More, whose name Erasmus plays upon cleverly in the title of the work; and the letter to Martin Dorp in which Erasmus explains his motives for writing the ?Moria?: ?My aim in the ?Folly? was exactly the same as in my other works. Only the presentation was different. In the ?Enchiridion? I simply outlined the pattern of a Christian life. In my little book, the ?Education of a Christian Prince?, I offered plain advice on how to instruct a prince. In my ?Panegyric? I did the same under the veil of eulogy as I had done elsewhere explicitly. And in the ?Folly? I expressed the same ideas as in the ?Enchiridion?, but in the form of a joke.? The Froben edition is augmented with a number of other texts (See the final paragraphs of this description.)Praise of Folly:?The ?Praise of Folly? is Erasmus? most famous and controversial work? In Erasmus? lifetime, the ?Moria? was condemned in 1527 by the theologians of Paris for its attacks on faith and morality and again in 1533 by the Franciscans, who found it full of heresies. The officials of the Sorbonne put it on the list of condemned books in 1542 and 1543, a list that was the basis of the Tridentine Index of 1564??The ?Moria? may start as a learned joke to amuse a fellow humanist [Thomas More] but it moves into sharp criticism of contemporary mores, and ends with a plea for a return to the Christianity of the Gospels? Erasmus writes in a Lucianic spirit of irreverent burlesque of the gods of classical mythology and light-hearted amusement at the irrationality of mankind. Folly argues that she is all that is natural, youthful, fecund, and happy, and that life would be intolerable if it were not ruled by civilized conventions, which necessitate a degree of humbug and illusion. By contrast, the Stoic ideal rational man is a ?kind of marble statue of a man, devoid of sense and any sort of human feeling.? She [then] shifts her viewpoint and lists the people who enjoy her benefits in so far as they try to preserve their illusions or are happy in their ignorance, self-deception, or self-love. She even adds superstitious piety to alchemy, gambling, and the nobility?s obsession with hunting and extravagant building??[Next] Erasmus starts to deliver a sharp and often bitter attack on all the victims of blind folly, those who are deaf to the voice of true religion and lacking the gentler Christian virtues, among whom are sycophants, self-seekers, money-makers, pedants, scholastics, lawyers, theologians, superstitious worshippers of images and relics, courtiers and kings, worldly monks, and irreligious pontiffs. This section culminates in a savage thrust at Pope Julius II, the bellicose pope. The keen wit and ingenuity of the satire can be highly entertaining, but there is no note of gaiety now. As Erasmus surveys the gulf between the Church and the ?true philosophy of Christ? he moves into the final section, where the alternative offered to barren scholasticism is the vision of reality taken from Plato, and folly in the sense used by Saint Paul, that of receptivity to the Christian message by the ?fool in Christ.? All irony is dropped, until the final short epilogue when Folly light-heartedly cuts short her ?hotch-potch of words?; this is a direct and simply worded account of Erasmus? personal belief, moving into an exposition of the Neoplatonist concept that the soul?s ascent to beatitude ends in ecstasy, a form of folly which is its supreme fulfillment.?(Betty Radice, CWE Vol. 27, pp. 78 ff.)Piccolomini?s ?Germania?:Shortly after 1455, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini came into possession of the recently rediscovered man. Bookseller Inventory # 2454D

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Item Description: Jacobus Saçon for Ciriacus Hochperg,, Lyon:, 1517. 30.8 x 21.5 cm. Folio: Collation: Pt. I: 216 lvs. Collation:*10, a-z8, aa-bb8, cc6 (cc6 blank). Pt. II: 342 lvs. Collation: ??8, A-Z8, AA-QQ8, RR-SS6, TT10 The Lyon VergilIllustrated with 208 Woodcuts from the Grüninger Vergil These blocks were cut for Grüninger?s 1502 edition of Vergil, the first illustrated Vergil. The book, edited by Sebastian Brant, was extraordinary in the number and variety of its illustrations. ?Grüninger?s artist applied to the work a skilled hand and a lively imagination? The blocks must have passed to Saçon at Lyon shortly after the printing of the Strasbourg 1515 edition of Thomas Murner?s German translation of the ?Aeneid,? described in Murray?s catalogue of German books, vol. 2, no. 426? The block of Vergil and Calliope is from the title page of the 1502 edition.?(Mortimer) "The subtle detail of Sébastien Brant's woodcuts would certainly escape the spectator who could not read the text and seem, rather, calculated to appeal to one whose familiarity with the poems would allow him to appreciate precise visual allusions. In several cases, Brant's work incorporates details drawn from the commentators' interpretations. As a humanistic scholar, he is said to have placed the stamp of his own thorough knowledge of Vergil upon the book by providing master sketches for the illustrators."(Eleanor Winsor Leach) Brunet V 1282; Baudrier vol 12, pp. 344-346; Renouard, Badius Ascensius, vol. 3 p. 370-372, no. 11. Cf. Eleanor Winsor Leach, "Brant's and Dryden's Editions of Vergil" in "The Early Illustrated Book", pp. 176 ff.) and Rabb, Theodore K. "Sebastien Brant and the First Illustrated Edition of Vergil." in "Princeton University Library Chronicle 21", 1960: 187-99. A fine, complete copy, bound in 18th century calfskin. There are discreet repairs to the fore-edge and foot of the title, affecting two letters on the verso. Leaf CC1 has a tear in the gutter without loss. VERY RARE. This is the first complete copy that I have handled in 15 years of specializing in early editions of Vergil. The only other copy that I have handled lacked the full-page image of Vergil and his muse. FIRST LYON BADIUS EDITION. The third edition with these woodcuts and the last edition to include them all. Two parts in one volume with titles printed in red and black within fine architectural woodcut borders. Illustrated with 207 large woodcut illustrations (64 in the first part and 143 in the second part.) A full-page woodcut of Vergil with the muse Calliope appears on the recto of ?1. Bookseller Inventory # 2624D

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Valentini, Michael Bernhard (1657-1729)

Published by heirs of Johann David Zunner and Johann Adam Jungen,, Frankfurt, (1714)

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Item Description: heirs of Johann David Zunner and Johann Adam Jungen,, Frankfurt, 1714. 38 x 23 cm. Folio: 3 volumes in one. With two engraved titles, 95 engraved plates, of which many double-page, 287 engravings, and 5 woodcuts in text. Collation: Vol. I: ?1 (half-title), 1 (engraved t.p.), ?4, )(4, )()(2, )()()(2, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Ttt4, **2, A-I4, K2, *4, **2, ?2, (A)-(P)4. Vol. II: ?1 (half-title), 1 (engraved t.p.), ?4, )()(6, A-Z4, Aa4, Bb2, a-o4, p2. Vol. III: ?4, [A]-[Z]4, [Aa]-{Ff]4, [Gg]2, a6. Complete. The Single most Valuable contribution to Wunderkammer StudiesThe Complete 3 Volume Edition A wonderful copy of Valentini?s ?Museum of museums?, a comprehensive survey of European Wunder- kunst- und Schatzkammern. ?Valentini was the personal physician to the Margrave of Assia and professor of experimental science and medicine at Giessen. His 'Museum Museorum' is the single most valuable contribution to Wunderkammer studies as it reprints many early collection catalogues [many of which are completely unobtainable now] and gives a list of all the museums known to exist at the time (some 159). Valentini also includes a catalogue of his own cabinet at Giessen and illustrates the interior of the Royal Library and Raritäten-Kammer at Vienna and an unusual view of the bear pit (with an elaborate fountain, tree houses and spectators leaning over the enclosure) at the Dresden Zoo. Valentini began his book by reprinting in its entirety the text of an earlier museological tract of 1674 by Johann Daniel Major (1636-1693). Major discussed the ways in which general collections (naturalia and artificialia) could be arranged, and addressed the basic question of why people collect. He listed the important collections known to him, and gave practical advice on specimen conservation, and on the study of museum materials. He recommended in particular that collectors prepare a catalog or "rarities book" to accompany their collection, describing not only their own specimens but also all other things that would be necessary to fill it out to optimal completeness. Major's work was the first widely circulated essay defining the various types of collections, and by 1700 the "rarities book" had become customary among collectors.?The first volume deals with plants, animals, minerals and metals, their properties and commercial and medical use. The second volume covers stones, fossils, coins, tropical plants, shells, unicorns and monstrosities. Several plates give an early attempt at the reconstruction of fossils skeletons [including a unicorn]. A separate appendix, Ost Indianische Send-Schreiben, is a compilation from Rumph, Kaempfer, Ten Rhyn and others on the rarities, mostly botanical, of the East Indies. The third volume is devoted to experiments in physics and natural philosophy with fine illustrations of the apparatus, and concluding with a dissertation on the divining rod. ?The catalogues printed by Valentini are for the Royal Museum at Vienna, Treasury of the Abbey of St. Denis and the Anatomy Cabinet at St. Victoire, the Royal Museums at Copenhagen and Dresden, the Hesse-Cassel Museum, the Treasury of Loretto, relics in the Liebfraun Kirche at Aachen, the Royal Society of England, the anatomy theatres at Leyden and Amsterdam and the Garden Gallery at Leyden, Apothecary Petiver?s cabinet, the museums of Tobias Reymer of Lüneberg, C.M. Spener of Berlin, Lorentz von Aldershelm of Leipzig, the fossils of J.G. Kisner of Frankfurt, Gottfried Nicolai of Wittenberg, J.C. Ratzel of Halberstadt, the Museum Brackenhofferianum, Professor Weigel of Jena?s astronomical instruments, J.D. Major?s Kunstkammer and the cabinet of an unnamed collector which was for sale? (Grinke, From Wunderkammer to Museum). Cobres I p. 106 n. 9; Eales 1259; Ferguson II pp.493-95; Nissen BBI 2035 and ZBI 4217; Alden 714/146. A superb copy bound in contemporary blind-stamped pigskin over wooden boards with the clasps and catches intact. A very good copy internally. Two plates remargined. One plate slightly shaved. VERY SCARCE. FIRST COMPLETE EDITION, comprising the second. Bookseller Inventory # 2922D

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Item Description: auff Gottfriedt Schultzens Kosten,, Schleswig:, 1674. 20.5 x 17.5 cm. Quarto: Two parts in one volume. First Part: [xii, including frontispiece] 72 [4] pp. with engraved frontispiece and 37 plates; Second part: [iv] 148 [8] pp. with engraved folding plate. Collations: I. A4, b2, A-K4. II. A-K4, a-t4, u2. The Rare Catalogue of the Kunst- und Wunderkammer of Frederick IIIThe First Edition to Include an Image of the Museum Interior The very rare catalogue of the Kunst- und Wunderkammer of Frederick III, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, of Castle Gottorf. It also contains the first appearance of a second work, a genealogy of the House of Schleswig-Holstein, illustrated with a genealogical tree. The frontispiece depicts the Kunst- und Wunderkammer as seen through a portal flanked by two mannequins, one of them wearing a suit of armor brought from Ceylon for display. Inside one can glimpse Egyptian statues, a narwhal horn, taxidermy (fish, marine mammals, and what appears to be an impossibly massive chameleon) hanging from the ceiling, tables with shells, as well as snakes slithering on the floor, and the Russian icon of St. Nicolas. Here also is an additional plate, depicting a giant squid.?The Gottorf Kunstkammer is of great interest, as it incorporated the famous cabinet of Paludanus of Enkhuysen who had travelled widely in the East. The cabinet was acquired for the Duke by Olearius who had himself travelled in Russia and Persia in the 1630s, and became the ducal librarian and keeper of the cabinet in 1649. "The ethnographic collection is particularly important and included Inuit artifacts from Greenland, such as kayaks and costumes, an unusual runic calendar, and an idol from the Davis Straits decorated with feathers. The costumes appear to have been displayed on suitably ethnic models and range from Chinese, Persian and Tartar costumes to a suit of armor from Ceylon and a Mexican woman?s skirt, necklace of animal?s teeth, and headdress. A Russian icon of St. Nicolas and two Russian costumes must have been acquired by Olearius on his journey there in 1633-5. Other treasures included a range of Egyptian figures, a mummy, and an Indian Buddha. One plate illustrates four paintings of portrait heads, representations of the seasons, cleverly composed of fruit, flowers and vegetables, which are quite possibly by the hand of Arcimboldo himself, although not so attributed by Olearius.?The large natural-history collection included specimens from Africa and South America with a variety of horns and antlers, swordfish, squid and turtles, birds of paradise and exotic creatures of every description, shells, coral and fossils.? (Grinke, From Wunderkammer to Museum n 42, 1674 edition) Cobres I p 116 n 2; Grinke 42, and Fearrington, Rooms of Wonder, Grolier Club n 25; Murray I Bound in eighteenth-century half-calf and speckled paper boards, scuffed and with wear to the edges of the boards. The attractive spine is ornately tooled in gold and has a citron morocco label, gilt, in the second compartment. The text is in very fine, clean condition. (The second book on the genealogies, unrelated to the Wunderkammer, is lightly foxed.) Provenance: A small owner's inscription "J. Wood. 1731" appears on the printed title page. A surprisingly fresh copy of one of the rarest of all Wunderkammer books. SECOND EDITION, with the first edition of the second part. Bookseller Inventory # 2785D

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Thucydides (ca. 455-ca. 400 B.C.); Hobbes, Thomas, translator (1588-1679)

Published by Imprinted [at Eliot?s Court Press] for Hen: Seile, and are to be sold at the Tigres Head in Paules Churchyard,, London: (1629)

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Item Description: Imprinted [at Eliot?s Court Press] for Hen: Seile, and are to be sold at the Tigres Head in Paules Churchyard,, London:, 1629. FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE.. 32.5 x 21.8 cm. Folio: [34], 536 [i.e. 535], [13] pp. Collation: A4, a-c4, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Yyy4, Zzz6 (the final leaf is blank and present). With an added engraved title page and five engraved plates, three of which are folding. Hobbes? ThucydidesThe First Edition in a Contemporary Binding Hobbes published his translation in 1629, when he was in his early forties. Yet he tells us in the introduction that the translation, once completed ?lay long by? him, indicating that it had been completed much earlier.?Hobbes was interested in Thucydides less for his style than his subject matter. Nor did he take up the study and translation of the Greek historian simply with a scholar?s antiquarian interest, but with the humanist desire to learn and pass on the lessons of history to his contemporaries. He is not shy of speaking of the utility of history. He talks of Thucydides? writings ?as having in them profitable instruction for Noblemen, and such as may come to have the managing of great and weighty actions.? It is in the history of Thucydides that the purposes of history are most finely embodied: ?For the principall and proper worke of History, being to instruct, and enable men, by the knowledge of Actions past, to beare themselves prudently in the present, and providently towards the Future, there is not extant any other (merely humane) that doth more fully, and naturally performe it, then this of my Author.???Hobbes had very definite ideas about the conclusions to be drawn from Thucydides. In the long introductory essay, ?Of the Life and History of Thucydides?, he derives from the history an account of the political opinions of its author:?For his opinion touching the government of the State, it is manifest that he least of all liked the Democracy. And upon divers occasions, hee noteth the emulation and contention of the Demagogues, for reputation, and glory of wit; with their crossing of each others counsels to the damage of the Publique; the inconstancy of Resolutions, caused by the diversity of ends, and power of Rhetorique in the Orators; and the desperated actions undertaken upon the flattering advice of such as desired to attaine, or to hold what they had attained of authority and sway amongst the common people. Nor doth it appeare, that he magnifieth anywhere the authority of the Few; amongst whom he saith every one desireth to be chiefe; and they that are undervalued, beare it with lesse patience than in a Democracy; whereupon sedition followeth, and dissultion of the government. Hee prayseth the government of Athens, when it was mixed of the Few and the Many; but more he commendeth it, both when Pisistratus raigned (saving that it was an usurped power) and when in the beginning of this Warre, it was Democraticall in name, but in effect Monarchicall under Pericles.??Thucydides here is represented as a closet royalist. The passage to which Hobbes is directly referring, which must have been written after the final defeat of Athens in 404, is Thucydides summary account of the causes of her downfall in Book II. This is a long but crucial passage in Hobbes? translation, a shortcut to the lessons to be learnt from the larger narrative. While there are many factors that contributed to the political philosophy later developed by Hobbes (not least his experience of civil disorder in Britain), it might be argued that the political analysis here of the weakness of the Athenian democracy was influential in defining a problem to which the doctrine of Leviathan was the solution.?(Robin Sowerby, ?Thomas Hobbes? Translation of Thucydides?)"The historical methods of Thucydides, who lived in the fifth century B.C., have never been bettered. His severe standard of historical truth, coupled with his passionate belief in the general significance of particular events, have given his history of the tragic war between Athens and Sparta a universal value to statesmen and historians alike." (Printing and the Mind of Man, 219) STC 24058; Macdonald & Hargreaves, Tho. Bookseller Inventory # 2872D

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Henricus de Herpf (c. 1410-1477)

Published by Peter Drach, [after 17 January 1484, not after 1486], Speyer: (1484)

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Item Description: Peter Drach, [after 17 January 1484, not after 1486], Speyer:, 1484. 31.4 x 21.5 cm. Folio: 428 leaves, 48 lines, two columns. Collation: ?1?8, ?2?10, a-m8, n6, o-p8, q6, r-z8, A-L8, M10, N-Y8, Z6, AA6, BB-FF8. Complete. With all three blanks, a1, B8, and FF8, present. The BMC collation, calling for 8 leaves in signature n, is erroneous. A Fabulous Copy This is an extraordinarily fresh, complete example, rubricated throughout in red, with smaller initials and capital strokes. The leaves have very wide, clean margins throughout. Leaves d1-3, 6-8, N3 and 6 are printed on smaller (chancery) sheets, entirely untrimmed and with their deckled edges preserved. With a neatly written, contemporary inscription to the recto of the first leaf, identifying the work: ?Daily and Seasonal Sermons, Sermons for Saints? Days, On Penance, and The Coming of Christ on Judgment Day.? This copy has only the most minor of faults, hardly worth the mention: a small smudge to leaf f8, a light dampstain to three leaves (A7-8, C2), slight worming at beginning and end, contemporary ms. note to first and small ownership inscription to second leaf. Housed in a custom box with the gilt label of the Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica.There is no colophon, though Drach is the addressee of the introductory epistle (leaf 1b). Drach?s small, attractive printer?s device, modeled on that of Fust and Schöffer, appears on the final leaf of text. Just above it are four lines of type that read:?Reader, take these fruitful sermons of Henricus de HerpfAnd grant that you be in the power of their hospitalityFor if your library should receive them gently,Then you may trust that they will give the great rewards of friendship.?These lines are followed by a contemporary ms. note that appears to be a snide joke: ?"Certain people find them to be tiresome."Peter Drach (d. 1504) operated an extensive printing and bookselling business from Speyer, situated on the Rhine, near Heidelberg in Germany. He participated in the Frankfurt and Leipzig book fairs, and his sphere of trade extended from Antwerp to Bohemia, and from Lübeck to Rome. Drach also sold books in the business centers Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in the university cities of Tübingen and Heidelberg. His most famous client was the humanist Jakob Wimpheling.The Dutch mystic Henricus de Herpf (d. 1477) had a profound impact on later mystical writers, including Francisco de Osuna, who in turn influenced St. Teresa of Jesus.From 1445, Herpf was a rector of the Brothers of the Common Life in Delft and, later, in Gouda, where he encouraged book production in particular. In 1450, on a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the Franciscan Observance (the Capuchin reform) at the Convent of Ara Coeli. Upon his return to northern Europe, he served in several posts for the Franciscan Observants of the Cologne Province, including as provincial of the Province of Cologne (1470?73), then guardian of the convent of Mechlin in present-day Belgium, where he died in 1477.?Herpf?s sermons concentrated on the explication of text and teaching through Scripture. The third sermon deals at length with drinking to excess. Perhaps because of his reputation as a great preacher, Herpf is mistakenly identified here as a member of the ?praedicatorum? (Dominicans). The mistake was caught during the press run, and corrected in print in some later copies to ?minorum? (Franciscans). This copy has the identification corrected in a contemporary hand, probably that of an employee in the printing shop.? (M. Ford, BPH catalogue). Bibliographical references: HC 8527; GW 12225; BMC II, 493; Goff H-38; ISTC ih00038000; Simon, Bibl. Bacchia I, 118 & Gastronomica 839. Bound in contemporary blind-stamped calf over beech wood boards, with a hand-written vellum title strip affixed to the upper board; rubbed at extremities, without central and corner bosses and clasps. A wonderful, unsophisticated copy. The leather of the joints is cracked but the boards are firmly attached by the double rawhide sewing supports. Provenance: Benedictine monastery at Asbach; J.R. Rit. Bookseller Inventory # 2567D

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Item Description: Christoph. Mangius,, Augsburg:, 1615. FIRST EDITION.. 19.2 x 15.5 cm. Quarto: a , b , A-4N , [chi] (final leaf blank and present.) With the engraved title page and the folding plan both present. The Diary of Matteo Ricci?The most influential description of China to appear during the first half of the 17th century.?-Lach The Jesuits were convinced that they had to understand China in order to win converts. Accordingly, they adopted Chinese names, dress, and language, traveled extensively, and immersed themselves in Chinese language, philosophy, art, and literature. Ricci was the first Western scholar to master Chinese, and he brought Confucian philosophy to the West. At the same time, Ricci brought to China western mathematics, scientific instruments, cartography, and astronomy, in part through his published works in Chinese, thereby ushering in a new era of Chinese understanding of the world. In 1592 Ricci famously predicted a solar eclipse with greater accuracy than the court astronomers. As a result, the emperor invited Ricci to Peking.Ricci studied in Rome, before traveling to Goa in 1578, where, apart from a period at Cochin, he remained until he traveled to China via Macao in 1582. Ricci, together with Michele de Ruggieri and other missionaries, gradually penetrated further into mainland China and established residences at Chaoch'ing in 1583 and Shaochow in 1589. From 1589, at the latter residence, Ricci adopted the dress of an educated Chinese and, due to his proficiency with Mandarin, dispensed with the services of interpreters. Despite various setbacks, Ricci's knowledge of the sciences, astronomy, and geography became appreciated by the authorities, and in 1600 Ricci was invited to enter Peking by Emperor Wan-li. Ricci arrived in the city in 1601, and a residence was established there in 1606, where Ricci was based until his death in 1610. During this period he translated a number of works into Chinese (including the first six books of Euclid), which both enhanced his reputation in cultivated Chinese circles and served to propagate Christian theology; however, his reputation stems principally from his letters and his journal, which was posthumously published under the title De christiana expeditione apud Sinas (Augsburg: 1615), edited by the Jesuit Nicolas Trigault, who brought the manuscript back from China to EuropeTrigault?s work was "the most influential description of China to appear during the first half of the 17th century. Trigault, the procurator of the Jesuits' China mission, translated and augmented the pioneer missionary Matteo Ricci's journal, aiming to elicit support for the mission. The ?De Christiana Expeditione?, therefore, is essentially a translation of Ricci's Journal. Trigault, however, did not merely translate the journal; he omitted or changed many passages, rearranged its parts, and added material from other Chinese missionaries to complete the story and to depict China and the Jesuit mission in a more favorable light. The resulting volume contains a history of the Jesuit mission in China from its inception in 1583 until Ricci's death in 1610, the same year in which Trigault arrived in China. It includes a wealth of information about China in the chapters describing Chinese geography, people, laws, government, religion, learning, commerce and the like. The ?De Christiana Expeditione?, despite its departures from Ricci's original journal, provided European readers with more, better organized, and more accurate information about China than was ever before available." (Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, III.512) De Backer-Sommervogel VIII, 239, 6; Streit V, 2094; Cordier, Sinica 809; Löwendahl, Sino-Western Relations, Vol. I, p. 29 ff. No. 54; J. Gernet, China and the Christian Impact (1985) p. 7; Mungello, Curious Land: Jesuit accommodation and the origins of Sinology, Ch. 2; ON the provenance stamp, see Lugt, Les Marques de Collections de Dessins & d?Estampes, 3285 A fine copy bound in strictly contemporary limp vellum, soiled, lacking ties. The text is in truly. Bookseller Inventory # 2773D

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Horace [Horatius Flaccus, Quintus.] (65-8 B.C.)

Published by Joannes and Gregorius de Gregoriis, 17 May, 1483, Venice: (1483)

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Item Description: Joannes and Gregorius de Gregoriis, 17 May, 1483, Venice:, 1483. A Fine Venetian Incunabulum Horace?s Poems With the Commentary of Cristoforo LandinoA Beautiful Copy The works of Horace with the commentary of the celebrated Renaissance humanist Cristoforo Landino (1424-1498), tutor to Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici and member of Marsilio Ficino?s Florentine academy. His literary skills were wide-ranging and his edition of the ?Commedia? marked a watershed in Dante criticism. Landino?s was the first humanist commentary to be written on Horace?s poems.?Horace as the poet of serene balance, of detachment from passion, of moderation: this image is deeply rooted. And the traditional image, in this case as in others, is quite close to the truth. It leads us to sense, first of all, the central role that thought and philosophical culture plays in Horatian lyric. Here it is natural to think of the poet of the Satires and the assimilation, through the diatribe tradition, of concepts and problems of the Hellenistic schools of philosophy; this feature renders Horace?s pronouncements substantially different from those of early Greek lyric. Nonetheless, it is no more than a genuine moral inquiry based on the critical observation of others. In a certain sense one may say that the Odes begin where the Satires leave off, with a thoughtful meditation upon a few fundamental achievements of philosophy, Epicurean philosophy in particular. These basic notions, which, to be sure, also owe something to common sense, receive from Horace a formulation that is so clear and incisive that they have become part of the European cultural heritage, which has often drawn upon Horace?s poetry as a storehouse of maxims."The cardinal point is the awareness of the brevity of life, which implies the need to take the joys of the moment, without getting lost in the fruitless concerns over hopes, ambitions, and fears. The exhortation to Leuconoe is the most famous of all:?Sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invidi aetas: carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero.? ?Be wise, strain the wine; and since time is brief, reduce lengthy hope. While we are speaking, envious life will have fled: seize the day, and do not trust to tomorrow.?[I.II.6 ff.] "The wise man will deal with events as they are and be able to accept them. He relies on the present alone, which he seeks to capture in its flight, and he acts as if each day of life were his last. The ?carpe diem? therefore, should not be misunderstood as a banal invitation to pleasure; in Horace, as also in Epicurus, the invitation to pleasure is not separate from the keen awareness that the pleasure itself is fleeting, as human life is fleeting. The only possibility is to erect, against the imminence of death or misfortune, the solid protection of possessions already enjoyed, happiness already experienced." (Conte, "Latin Literature, A History") Goff H 448; GW 13459; BMC , V 339 Bound in contemporary quarter calf over quarter-sawn wooden boards with expert repairs to the spine. There is a small metal attachment for a now-lost clasp. This is an almost spotless copy with only a light ink smudge on leaf x5v. The margins are broad, the paper crisp, and the text is rubricated in red and blue throughout. There are some contemporary marginal notes and interlinear glosses. Beautiful. Provenance: There is a contemporary or near-contemporary ownership inscription and an old institutional stamp of the Herzoglicher S. Meiningischer Bibliothek both on the blank recto of the first leaf. SECOND EDITION WITH LANDINO?S COMMENTARY. [The editio princeps was printed ca. 1471, also at Venice.]. Bookseller Inventory # 2976D

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Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1533-1603)]

Published by Imprinted? in Povles Churcheyarde by Richard Iugge and Iohn Cavvood, Printers to the Quenes Maiestie,, [London: (1559)

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Item Description: Imprinted? in Povles Churcheyarde by Richard Iugge and Iohn Cavvood, Printers to the Quenes Maiestie,, [London:, 1559. 18 x 13 cm. Quarto: [14] pp. Collation: A-B4 (lacking blank leaf B4) First Edition of Queen Elizabeth?s Visitation ArticlesFrom the Library of the Elizabethan Book Collector Humphrey Dyson (1582-1633) With the signature of the 16th c. book collector Humphrey Dyson (1582-1633) at the foot of the title page. The bookplate of Albert Ehrman, with his motto ?Pro Viribus Summis Contendo? is affixed to the front pastedown. This was lot 270 in the 1978 sale of Ehrman?s library. Very rare. ESTC locates 4 copies in the U.S.: Folger, Huntington, Harvard, Yale.First edition of the first visitation articles established for the reformed church after Elizabeth?s accession. The visitation articles are a series of 56 questions that were to be asked by church commissioners as they visited each parish within the kingdom. They include inquiries into the number of people imprisoned, starved or burned at the stake during Mary?s reign; the number of known drunkards, adulterers, brawlers, sorcerers, book burners, possessors of unlawful books, and minstrels or others who ?do use to synge or saye anye songes or dytties that be vyle or uncleane, and especially in derision of anye godly ordre, nowe sette forth and established? in a given parish.?On 19 July 1559 Elizabeth issued a royal proclamation publishing her fifty-three ?Injunctions,? which set forth to the clergy the form and substance of the Elizabethan Church established by the 1559 Act of Uniformity. Besides calling ?all ecclesiastical persons? to observe all the laws that restored to the Crown the ancient jurisdiction over the ?state ecclesiastical,? the Injunctions specified that educated and licensed preachers should preach the Word of God (or lacking such preachers, that homilies should be read); that accessories for Catholic worship should be removed from churches and that Bibles should replace them? They called upon the Queen?s subjects to live in charity and to avoid religious epithets like ?papist? or ?schismatic? as words of reproach. Among the Injunctions, one called for press licensing to deter printed books against the religious settlement? Besides those statutes that established Elizabeth?s succession and Church settlement, among the earliest acts of Elizaneth I?s first Parliament were those that extended the Marian treason statutes. The first of these included, in the definition of high treason, writing or printing anything saying that the Queen was not entitled to rule or that someone else was. The second act extended the Marian statute that criminalized false, slanderous, and seditious news about the Queen.? (Clegg, Censorship and the Press, (1580-1720) pp. 9-10)That the re-implementation of Protestant reforms was of paramount importance for Elizabeth is reflected in the second and third articles:The second article inquires ?Whether in theyr Churches and chapels, al ymages, shrynes, al tables, Candelstickes, Trindelles, or rolles of Mare, Pictures, Payntynges, and al other monuments of fayned and false myracles, Pylgrymages, ydolatrye, and superstition be removed, abolished and destroyed.? While the third asks whether the vicars? ?openly, playnley, and distinctlye, recite to theyr paryshners in the Pulpit, the Lordes prayer, the Belief, and the tenne commaundements in Englyshe.?Further, each parishioner is to be ?admonished? that they ought not to presume to receive the sacrament of the body & bloud of Christ before they can perfectly [recite] the Lordes prayer, the articles of the faith, and the x. commaundementes in Englyshe.?(Article 12)And of course, the old rite is to be suppressed. In article 9, the Commissioners are asked to discover whether any of the vicars, curates, or ministers declare ?anyte thynge to the extollynge or settynge forth of vayne and superstitious religion, pylgrimages, reliques, or ymages, or lyghtyngge of candelles, kyssinge, knelynge, eckynge of the same ymages.?The question regarding sorcery seems to encompass the work of midwives: ?Whether you knowe any that doe. Bookseller Inventory # 2653D

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Item Description: Giovanni Antonio Bertano,, Venice:, 1574. 15 x 10 cm. Octavo: [64], 505, [9 ] pp. Collation: a-d8, A-Z, Aa-Ii8 The Hammer of WitchesThe Rare 2nd Venice Edition The notorious "Hammer of Witches? laid down procedures for discovering and convicting witches and contributed significantly to the early modern witch craze. This edition includes Sprenger?s ?Apologia autoris? and the original bull, granted by Pope Innocent VIII, affirming the powers of Institor and Sprenger as inquisitors. The text was edited by Raffaele Maffei (1507-1577).All 16th c. editions are octavos and all are exceedingly rare. I have located only 3 copies of this edition in U.S.: Cal State Sutro, UC Berkeley, Harvard."The most important and most sinister work on demonology ever written. It crystallized into a fiercely stringent code previous folklore about black magic with church dogma on heresy, and, if any one work could, opened the floodgates of the inquisitorial hysteria [. it was] the source, inspiration, and quarry for all subsequent treatises on witchcraft" (Robbins, Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology).The primary purposes of the Malleus Maleficarum were to explain the phenomenon of witchcraft (paying special attention to the nature of witches? sorceries and powers, and the exact nature of the evil that they inflict upon the world); to attempt a systematic refutation of arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, to discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, to claim that witches were more often women than men, and to educate magistrates on procedures for prosecuting, torturing, convicting, and executing witches. The first part concerns the three necessary concomitants of witchcraft: 1. The Devil, 2. A witch, and 3. The permission of God that witches may work evil in the world. The pact between the devil and the witch provides the necessary link between the natural and supernatural worlds. Institor and Sprenger explain that a witch must ?perform four deeds for the increase of that perfidy [i.e. their pact with the devil,] that is, to deny the Catholic faith in whole or in part through verbal sacrilege, to devote themselves body and soul to the devil, to offer up to the Evil One himself infants not yet baptized, and to persist in diabolical filthiness through carnal acts with incubus and succubus demons?More specifically, we learn that witches who are midwives ?in various ways kill children conceived in the womb, and procure an abortion.? If they do not kill the children in utero, they offer the newborns to the Devil. The author also explains how men are seemingly turned into beasts or how witches work an illusion ?so that the male organ appears to be entirely removed from the body.?The second part explains the methods by which the works of witchcraft are wrought and directed, and how they may be successfully annulled and dissolved. This part includes such details as how witches copulate with Incubi, how devils entice people to become witches, how they make women barren, and men impotent. It includes a number of remedies for the maladies that witches inflict upon mankind.The third part relates to judicial proceedings (both ecclesiastical and civil) against witches and all other heretics, with grim details on the procedures for imprisonment, the calling of witnesses (and deciding whether the accused may know the names of her accusers), shaving the accused to reveal devils? marks and ?tokens?, and torture while under examination ?to overcome their obstinacy in keeping silence and their refusal to confess.?Weak Women: Powerful WitchesThe rationale behind the authors? assertion that women are more susceptible to becoming witches than are men is, as might be expected, a deeply misogynistic one. Women?s intellectual inferiority, lack of self-governance, weakness of memory, lack of discipline (a ?natural vice?), their ?inordinate affections and passions? (lust, sadness, desire for vengeance, etc.), and their deceptiveness and secrecy, cause them to be more susceptible to the coaxing of. Bookseller Inventory # 2777D

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Item Description: In typographaria officina Ioannis Crespini,, Lyon:, 1529. Two volumes bound as one: Folio: [12], XVII-CCLXVIII, XCV, CCCCCC, [16] p. Collation: a6, b-q8, r6, Aa-Ff8, A6, B-Z8, AA-OO8, PP6, ?8. Complete Illustrated with 199 Woodcuts "The subtle detail of Sébastien Brant's woodcuts would certainly escape the spectator who could not read the text and seem, rather, calculated to appeal to one whose familiarity with the poems would allow him to appreciate precise visual allusions. In several cases, Brant's work incorporates details drawn from the commentators' interpretations. As a humanistic scholar, he is said to have placed the stamp of his own thorough knowledge of Vergil upon the book by providing master sketches for the illustrators."(Eleanor Winsor Leach) Adams V474; See: Eleanor Winsor Leach, "Brant's and Dryden's Editions of Vergil" in "The Early Illustrated Book", pp. 176 ff.) and Rabb, Theodore K. "Sebastien Brant and the First Illustrated Edition of Vergil." in "Princeton University Library Chronicle 21", 1960: 187-99. Bound in near- contemporary quarter-sawn wooden boards with clasps and catches, the leather and clasps renewed in the 19th century (the catchplates are original.) This is probably the book?s second binding. Internally, this copy is in fine condition with a few instances of contemporary annotations in the first part. Aside from occasional light soiling, a fine copy of this beautiful production. The text is illustrated with 199 of the 208 woodcuts originally produced for Sébastien Brant and Jean Grüninger's edition of 1502. These blocks were used a second time, by Jacob Saçon for his Paris edition of 1517. The present edition is the last 16th century edition to contain a substantial number of these images. Bookseller Inventory # 2513D

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Milton, John (1608-1674)

Published by Printed by Miles Flesher, for Richard Bentley and Printed by R. E[veringham]. and are to be sold by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall,, at the Post-Office in Russell-street, and London: (1688)

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Item Description: Printed by Miles Flesher, for Richard Bentley and Printed by R. E[veringham]. and are to be sold by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall,, at the Post-Office in Russell-street, and London:, 1688. 37.5 x 23.8 cm. Folio: I. [A]-B2, C-Z4, Aa-Zz4 II. A-R2; A-H4. With an added engraved portrait of Milton and 12 plates illustrating the first work. A Large Paper Copy of the First Illustrated Edition The engraved portrait frontispiece of Milton is bound opposite the title page. Twelve full-paged engravings accompany the text of ?Paradise Lost? "The Frontispiece is Robert White?s engraved portrait with Dryden?s epigram, tipped in. Illustrations tipped in for each book. Those for Books III, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI by John Baptista de Medina, engraved by M. Burghers; Book IV, by Bernard Lens, engraved by P.P. Bouche; Book XII, by Henry Aldrich, engraved by Burghers; and Books I, II, uncertain but engraved by Burghers." (Shawcross)?The only major English literary work with important engraved illustrations in the 17th century is the first illustrated edition of ?Paradise Lost.?? (Edward Hodnett)"?Paradise Lost? is at once a deeply traditional and a boldly original poem. Milton takes pains to fulfill the traditional prescriptions of the epic form; he gives us love, war, supernatural characters, a descent into Hell, a catalogue of warriors, all the conventional items of epic machinery. Yet no poem in which the climax of the central action is a woman eating a piece of fruit can be a conventional epic. [.] The way of life which Adam and Eve take up as the poem ends is that of the Christian pilgrimage through this world. Paradise was no place or condition in which to exercise Christian heroism as Milton conceives it. Expelled from Eden, our first ?grand parents? pick up the burdens of humanity as we know them, sustained by a faith that we also know, and go forth to seek a blessing that we do not know yet. They are to become wayfaring, warfaring Christians, like John Milton; and in this condition, with its weaknesses and strivings and inevitable defeats, there is a glory that no devil can ever understand. Thus Milton strikes, humanly as well as artistically, a grand resolving chord. It is the careful, triumphant balancing and tempering of this conclusion which makes Milton?s poem the noble architecture it is; and which makes of the end a richer, if not a more exciting, experience than the beginning." (Norton Anthology of English Literature) "Milton writes not only as a literary connoisseur but also as a scholar, appealing in his readers to a love of ordered learning like his own. Even the echoes of ancient phrase should often be considered, not as mere borrowings, conscious, or unconscious, but as allusions intended to carry with them, when recognized, the connotation of their original setting.The extraordinary thing is the way in which this object is accomplished without loss of poetic quality. The secret seems to be the degree to which the materials of learning have become associated with sensuous imagery and with moving poetical ideas. Milton is erudite, but all erudition is not for him of equal value. Winnowed, humanized, and touched with the fire of imagination, his studies have passed into vital experience and afford him as natural a body of poetical data as birds and flowers."(Hanford, A Milton Handbook, "Milton?s Style and Versification - with Special Reference to ?Paradise Lost?") I. Wing M2148; Shawcross 347; Coleridge 93; Pforzheimer 720; Wither to Prior #607; Hofer, Baroque Book Illustration, 16. II. Wing M2154; Shawcross 348; Coleridge 170; Pforzheimer 721 This copy is bound in full 19th century calf, rubbed, the top of the front joint starting. The boards are ruled in blind with grape leaf ornaments at the corners. There is a red morocco label, gilt, on the spine. Internally, this copy is in excellent condition with generous margins, including a few deckled edges. The leaves are clean; the impressions of the plates and portrait are sharp and rich. Two ownership inscriptions appear in the blank margins of the title page. A very fine copy. FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION and the first in folio of Paradise Lost (The first edition of the poem was prin. Bookseller Inventory # 2598D

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Milton, John (1608-1674)

Published by Printed by Miles Flesher, for Jacob Tonson, at the Judge?s-Head in Chancery-lane near Fleet-street, 1688 ANDPrinted by R. E[veringham]. and are to be sold by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall, 1688, London: (1688)

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Item Description: Printed by Miles Flesher, for Jacob Tonson, at the Judge?s-Head in Chancery-lane near Fleet-street, 1688 ANDPrinted by R. E[veringham]. and are to be sold by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall, 1688, London:, 1688. 36 x 22.8 cm. Folio I. [A]-B2, C-Z4, Aa-Xx4, Yy-Zz2, Aa2. II. A-R2; A-H4. With an added engraved portrait of Milton and 12 plates illustrating the first work. A Large Paper Copy of the First Illustrated Edition ?The only major English literary work with important engraved illustrations in the 17th century is the first illustrated edition of ?Paradise Lost.?? (Edward Hodnett)"?Paradise Lost? is at once a deeply traditional and a boldly original poem. Milton takes pains to fulfill the traditional prescriptions of the epic form; he gives us love, war, supernatural characters, a descent into Hell, a catalogue of warriors, all the conventional items of epic machinery. Yet no poem in which the climax of the central action is a woman eating a piece of fruit can be a conventional epic. [.] The way of life which Adam and Eve take up as the poem ends is that of the Christian pilgrimage through this world. Paradise was no place or condition in which to exercise Christian heroism as Milton conceives it. Expelled from Eden, our first ?grand parents? pick up the burdens of humanity as we know them, sustained by a faith that we also know, and go forth to seek a blessing that we do not know yet. They are to become wayfaring, warfaring Christians, like John Milton; and in this condition, with its weaknesses and strivings and inevitable defeats, there is a glory that no devil can ever understand. Thus Milton strikes, humanly as well as artistically, a grand resolving chord. It is the careful, triumphant balancing and tempering of this conclusion which makes Milton?s poem the noble architecture it is; and which makes of the end a richer, if not a more exciting, experience than the beginning." (Norton Anthology of English Literature) "Milton writes not only as a literary connoisseur but also as a scholar, appealing in his readers to a love of ordered learning like his own. Even the echoes of ancient phrase should often be considered, not as mere borrowings, conscious, or unconscious, but as allusions intended to carry with them, when recognized, the connotation of their original setting.The extraordinary thing is the way in which this object is accomplished without loss of poetic quality. The secret seems to be the degree to which the materials of learning have become associated with sensuous imagery and with moving poetical ideas. Milton is erudite, but all erudition is not for him of equal value. Winnowed, humanized, and touched with the fire of imagination, his studies have passed into vital experience and afford him as natural a body of poetical data as birds and flowers."(Hanford, A Milton Handbook, "Milton?s Style and Versification - with Special Reference to ?Paradise Lost?") I. Wing M2147; Shawcross 347; Coleridge 93b; Pforzheimer 720; Wither to Prior #607; Hofer, Baroque Book Illustration, 16. II. Wing M2154; Shawcross 348; Coleridge 170; Pforzheimer 721 Bound in contemporary English calfskin, nicely rebacked. A tall copy with wide margins and only minor faults as follows: There is a repaired tear in leaf E4, not affecting the text. There is minor spotting in the first couple of leaves, sig. R and sig. Dd. Old repair to verso of plate V without loss and minor spot to plate VIII and XI.The engraved portrait frontispiece of Milton is bound opposite the title page. Twelve full-paged engravings accompany the text of ?Paradise Lost? "The Frontispiece is Robert White?s engraved portrait with Dryden?s epigram, tipped in. Illustrations tipped in for each book. Those for Books III, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI by John Baptista de Medina, engraved by M. Burghers; Book IV, by Bernard Lens, engraved by P.P. Bouche; Book XII, by Henry Aldrich, engraved by Burghers; and Books I, II, uncertain but engraved by Burghers." (Shawcross) FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION, TONSON ISSUE, and the first in folio of Paradise Lost (The first edition of the poem was printed in 1667.) This copy is bound together with 1688 edition of the author?s ?Paradise Regain?d? and ?Samson Agonistes?. Bookseller Inventory # 2634D

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Item Description: Excudebat Henricus Stephanus,, [Geneva:], 1588. 32.2 x 21 cm. Folio: Collation: 6, 4, a-z6, aa-zz6, aaa-nnn6, ooo4. "The standards and methods of Thucydides as a contemporary historian have never been bettered. Thucydides has been valued as he hoped; statesmen as well as historians, men of affairs as well as scholars, have read and profited by him" -PMM 102 "The second Estienne edition is generally considered the best sixteenth century edition of the greatest historian of Athens. For this new edition Estienne has corrected the Greek text and scholia, as well as further revised Lorenzo Valla's Latin translation, which is now printed on the same page with the Greek text, in parallel columns, while the Greek scholia are printed at the foot of the page. Estienne has also added marginal concordances to his first edition. Among the other important additions are Estienne's ?Proparasceue? (Preparation) to the reading of the Greek scholia, which is, to this day, a most valuable exposition of the special vocabulary and technical terminology used by the Greek scholiasts; his annotations on the text and scholia of the first two books (Renouard, as well as Carter and Muir in PMM, wrongly attribute these annotations to Isaac Casaubon); the Thycydidean Chronology of David Chytraeus, and the Greek Life of Thucydides by Marcellinus, with a Latin translation by Casaubon." (Quoted from Schreiber's "The Estiennes") Schreiber 216-217; Renouard 152-53, 4; Moeckli 124; Hoffmann III, 749; Printing and The Mind of Man, 102. Bound in contemporary calf, rebacked. The boards are framed by a single gold fillet. Central, wreath-like cartouches, also gilt, are stamped at the centers of both boards. The text is in very good condition, with good margins. There is, however, a bit of worming affecting the text in the first part. SECOND ESTIENNE EDITION, corrected by Estienne and with numerous additions. Printed in two sizes of the ?grecs du roi? types of Claude Garamond. There are numerous historiated initials and decorative head- and tail-pieces. The Estienne "Noli altum sapere" device appears on the title page. Bookseller Inventory # 1936D

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Item Description: In aedibus Aldi et Andreae Soceri, mense Augusto, Venice:, 1519. 30 x 20.5 cm. Folio: [4], 345, [1] leaves. Collation: *4, (lacking blank *4), a[alpha]-z[zeta]8, aa[2alpha]-tt[2tau]8, uu[2upsilon]10 The First Aldine Edition of Plutarch?s ?Parallel Lives?With extensive marginal annotation in Greek and Latin Renouard, p. 87, no. 9; New UCLA 182; Hoffmann III, 175; Schweiger p. 259, col. 2 Plutarch?s ?Parallel Lives?, a series of paired biographies in which the lives of famous Greeks and Romans are compared, is one of the signal achievements of classical literature. While the genre of biography was -in antiquity as it is now- distinct from that of history, Plutarch?s biographies, along with those of his Roman contemporary, Suetonius, provided complex portraits of the great figures of history - Theseus and Romulus; Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, Demosthenes and Cicero- with which successive generations could populate their vision of the historical past. ?The lives display impressive learning and research. Many sources are quoted and although Plutarch had probably not consulted all these at first hand, his investigations were clearly extensive, and compilation must have occupied many years. The form of the lives represents a new achievement, not closely linked with either previous biography or Hellenistic history. The general scheme was to give the birth, youth and character, achievements, and circumstances of death, interspersed with frequent ethical reflections. Plutarch never claimed to be writing history, which he distinguished from biography. His aim was to delight and edify the reader, and he did not conceal his own sympathies, which were especially evident in his warm admiration for the words and deeds of Spartan kings and generals??Plutarch?s later influence has been profound. He was loved and respected in his own time and in later antiquity. Gradually, Plutarch?s reputation faded from the Latin West, but he continued to influence philosophers and scholars in the Greek East, were his works came to constitute a school book. Proclus, Porphyry, and emperor Julian all quote him, and the Greek Church fathers Clement of Alexandria and Clement the Great imitate him without acknowledgment. His works were familiar to all cultivated Byzantines. It was mainly the ?Moralia? which appealed to them, but in the ninth century the Byzantine scholar and patriarch Photius read the ?Parallel Lives? with his friends.?Plutarch?s works were introduced to Byzantine scholars along with the revival of classical learning in the fifteenth century, and Italian humanists had already translated them into Latin and Italian before 1509, when the ?Moralia?, the first of his works to be printed in the original Greek, was printed by the Aldine press. The first Greek text of the lives was printed at Florence in 1517.? (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition) FIRST ALDINE EDITION. Bound in eighteenth-century mottled sheepskin with a citron morocco label, gilt. A fine copy of the Aldine Plutarch with minor faults. The text is printed throughout in Greek, with capital spaces and printed guide letters at the beginning of each life. With the Aldine anchor and dolphin device on the title page and the verso of the final leaf. The title is a little soiled and there are discreetly backed tears in the margins of the first three leaves. A short worm trail has been expertly repaired in the final three signatures, very slightly affecting the text. There are also discreet repairs to the blank, upper corners of the final leaves. The margins of many of the lives have been heavily annotated in Greek and Latin by an unidentified 16th c. reader.This is the second edition in Greek, following the editio princeps printed by Giunta in 1517. The text was edited by Francesco Asulano, Andrea Torresani? son and Aldus? brother-in-law. Renouard, citing Johann Jacob Reiske, reports that there are apparently two editions of this date that differ in a number of textual points ?the first Aldine edition appears to have been formed on the preceding of Giunta; the s. Bookseller Inventory # 2390D

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Imperato, Ferrante (ca. 1550- ca. 1625)

Published by IMPERATO Ferrante.HISTORIA NATURALE di? Napolitano nella quale ordinatamente di tratta delle diversa condition di Minere, Pietre pretiose & altre curiositÓ. Con varie Historie di Piante, & Animali, sin'hora non date in luce. In questa seconda Impressione aggiontovi da Gio. Maria Ferro Spetiale alla SanitÓ alcune Annotationi alle Piante nel Libro vigesimo ottavo.Venezia, Combi & La No¨, 1672in folio, pp. (8), 1, 696, (8), leg. settecentesca cartone rigido. Front. a due colori con gr. vignetta in rame. Dedicat. a Giovan Federico Duca di Brunswick. Con una gr. doppia tav. in rame raffigurante il celebre interno del Museo e la didascalia in calce "Ritratto del Museo di Ferrante Imperato", una vera "wunderkammer" secondo il gusto dell'epoca. Int

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Item Description: IMPERATO Ferrante.HISTORIA NATURALE di? Napolitano nella quale ordinatamente di tratta delle diversa condition di Minere, Pietre pretiose & altre curiosità. Con varie Historie di Piante, & Animali, sin'hora non date in luce. In questa seconda Impressione aggiontovi da Gio. Maria Ferro Spetiale alla Sanità alcune Annotationi alle Piante nel Libro vigesimo ottavo.Venezia, Combi & La Noù, 1672in folio, pp. (8), 1, 696, (8), leg. settecentesca cartone rigido. Front. a due colori con gr. vignetta in rame. Dedicat. a Giovan Federico Duca di Brunswick. Con una gr. doppia tav. in rame raffigurante il celebre interno del Museo e la didascalia in calce "Ritratto del Museo di Ferrante Imperato", una vera "wunderkammer" secondo il gusto dell'epoca. Int. Bookseller Inventory # 2609D

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Item Description: Presso gli heredi di Euangelista Dozza,, Bologna:, 1647. 22.5 x 16 cm. Quarto: 3 volumes: I. ?1 (half-title), [?]4, ??4, a-h4, i6, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Hhh4. II. A6, B-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Yyy4. III. ?4, a-c4, d6, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Vvv4, Xxx6 Vasari?s Lives of the Artists ?Giorgio Vasari invented Renaissance art. In 1550, he published a collection of one hundred and forty-two biographies, his ?Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors from Cimabue to our Times?, and defined a period of artistic activity spanning nearly three hundred years in terms of rebirth (rinascita) and progress. He gave the history of the visual arts in Italy a determined course as they advanced towards the perfection of his own day through the contributions of individual artists. He turned a fragmentary discussion and appreciation into a coherent and forceful representation of achievement that has endured since his time. Scattered notices, dim memories, direct encounters, rumor, gossip, anecdote, and experience were structured and transformed by association with exemplary notions of behavior and shaped by a vision of stylistic development and historical continuity.?Vasari organized the lives in his book into three parts, or ages, roughly corresponding to the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, each defined by their distinctive character. He dated the initial stages of the rebirth or recovery of the lost attainments of antiquity to around 1240, when Giovanni Cimabue was born to kindle ?the first lights of painting? He regarded the arts to be in their infancy in this era, and traced the artists? faltering steps towards the perfection of later years. For Vasari the means of arriving at perfection lay in the mastery of the principles and models offered by ancient art: a correct understanding of the architectural orders and the imitation of the poses, proportions, and dramatic possibilities of ancient sculpture. To these were added the naturalistic rendering of light with harmoniously blended colors and chiaroscuro modeling in painting, and above all, in all the arts, in ?disegno? ?the command of idealized form that resulted from manual dexterity (drawing) and an intellectual perception of beauty (design). In the first era painters and sculptors are described as valiantly, if crudely, overthrowing the stiff, course, and clumsy figures of the style Vasari labeled as Greek, achieving more lifelike poses and expression in their figures. Architects are valued for building with more order, beginning to improve from what Vasari called the German manner, which had prevailed since the invasion of the Roman Empire and the destruction of its monuments. In the second era, Vasari shows how the prime goal of art ?the imitation of nature- is nearly attained as a result of the successive technical discoveries made by the artists of that time through their diligence and study. These included the rediscovery of the measures, proportions, and ornaments of ancient architecture, and the mastery of anatomy and perspective. This era of technical advance is followed by Vasari?s modern age, when, in various ways, artists bring those techniques to their highest realization. They do so on the basis of their immediate past and the recovery and full comprehension of a distinguished repertory of classical models. With this comes the ability to surpass previous accomplishments, going beyond the rules with new and graceful inventions. The conquest of nature is complete. The palm of victory is granted to Michelangelo ?the culminating figure of the ?Lives?.???[Vasari?s] sources in both writing and painting were absorbed and transformed into new expressive forms, whether on palace walls or in artists? lives. Both were meant to charm and please, to be varied and lifelike. They were true to nature but not idealized. Both were modern. The book was more original. Nothing like it had existed before. Literary friends could offer suggestions, but no plan or scheme or program. The ?Lives? are Vasari?s own, and probably greatest inventio. Bookseller Inventory # 2741D

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Gassendi, Pierre (1592-1655); Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642); Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630)

Published by Henry Dickinson,, London: (1683)

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Item Description: Henry Dickinson,, London:, 1683. 18.3 x 11.8 cm. Octavo: 3 parts in one volume: [16], 199, [1]; 173, [1] p., 4 leaves of plates. Collation: A-N8, O4; A-L8 (including the final blank leaf) Including Two of the Most Important Books in Early Observational Astronomy: Galileo's "Starry Messenger" and Kepler's "Dioptrice" Gassendi's "Institutio Astronomica," has been called the first modern astronomy textbook. It is divided into three sections: the first details the so-called theory of the spheres, the second describes astronomical theory, and the third discusses the conflicting ideas of Brahe and Copernicus. The present edition is important for the inclusion of two seminal works of telescopic astronomy: Galileo's "Sidereus Nuncius" (first ed. Venice, 1610), in which announces his discovery of Jupiter's moons, and Kepler's "Dioptrice" (first ed. Augsburg, 1611), Kepler's brilliant explanation of how the telescope works.Galileo's Discoveries with the Telescope:"Galileo's 'Starry Messenger' contains some of the most important discoveries in scientific literature. Learning in the summer of 1609 that a device for making distant objects seem close and magnified had been brought to Venice from Holland, Galileo soon constructed a spy-glass of his own which he demonstrated to the notables of the Venetian Republic, thus earning a large increase in his salary as professor of mathematics at Padua. Within a few months he had a good telescope, magnifying to 30 diameters, and was in full flood of astronomical observation."Through his telescope Galileo saw the moon as a spherical, solid, mountainous body very like the earth- quite different from the crystalline sphere of conventional philosophy. He saw numberless stars hidden from the naked eye in the constellations and the Milky Way. Above all, he discovered four new 'planets', the satellites of Jupiter that he called (in honor of his patrons at Florence) the Medicean stars. Thus Galileo initiated modern observational astronomy and announced himself as a Copernican. (Printing and the Mind of Man)Kepler's Explanation of the Telescope:"In order that the enormous possibilities harbored in the telescope could develop, it was necessary to clear up the theoretical laws by which it worked. And this achievement was reserved solely for Kepler. With the energy peculiar to him, inside of a few weeks, in the months of August and September of the same year, 1610, he composed a book tracing basically once and for all the laws governing the passage of light through lenses and systems of lenses. It is called 'Dioptrice', a word that Kepler himself coined and introduced into optics. [?]"In problem 86 in which he shows 'how with the help of two convex lenses visible objects can be made larger and distinct but inverted' he develops the principle on which the astronomical telescope is based, the discovery of which is thus tied up with his name for all time. Further on follows the research into the double concave lens and the Galilean telescope in which a converging lens is used as objective and a diverging lens as eyepiece. By this suitable combination Kepler discovers the principle of today's telescopic lens. Even this scanty account sows the epoch-making significance of the work. It is not an overstatement to call Kepler the father of modern optics because of it. (Max Caspar, "Kepler", pp. 198-199) Kepler's work is also the first to announce Galileo's discovery that Venus has phases like the moon. Wing G293; Cinti 155; Sotheran, I p. 75 (1476); cf. PMM 113 and Dibner, Heralds of Science, #7 (the 1610 edition). An excellent copy, fresh and beautifully preserved in blind-ruled English calfskin (lower joint starting.) Contemporary signature, "Tho: de Grey". The first title page is printed in red and black. Galileo's "Sidereus Nuncius" and Kepler's "Dioptrice" are introduced by separate title pages. The text is illustrated with astronomical woodcuts including images of the moon, showing its uneven, mountainous surface as discerned by Galileo through the telescope an. Bookseller Inventory # 2776D

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Item Description: Ex Officina Elseviriorum, Acad. Typograph,, Leiden:, 1655. SOLE EDITION.. 35.2 x 22 cm. Folio: pp [xii] 389 [3], Collation: *6, A-Z4; Aa-Zz4; Aaa-Ccc4. With an added engraved portrait and folding engraved title page/frontispiece. ?Sole Edition of the Catalogue of Worm?s Celebrated WunderkammerA summary of the scientific opinion of the times, and a practical exposition of the scope and aims of museology of the 17th century? (Balsinger, p. 497) The catalogue of the celebrated Wunderkammer of the Danish physician Ole Worm (1588-1654). This copy is complete with the added engraved portrait of the author and the famous folding engraving of Worm?s museum, both by Wingendorp. The text is illustrated with 139 woodcuts and 13 engravings of minerals, plants, animals and human artifacts.The work is divided into four books: Book I: fossils and stones (including gems, metals and magnets); Book II: plants, including a number of New World varieties (among them the pineapple, palm tree and peanut plant); Book III: animals (including a raccoon, narwhal, walrus, the first depiction of the great auk, and the first detailed depiction of the bird of paradise, showing that it did indeed have feet); Book IV: man-made artifacts and material culture.?The splendid double-page view of the museum shows the actual arrangement of the specimens on open shelves with boxes and trays of shells, minerals, stones, rare earths and animal bones, the larger specimens on higher shelves mixed up with bronzes, antiquities and ethnographic objects, racks of spears and utensils, horns and antlers and stuffed animals hang on the walls and from the ceiling are suspended large fish, a polar bear and a Greenland kayak.? (Grinke, From Wunderkammer to Museum). ?A gifted polymath, Worm collected many types of objects, especially those of natural history and man-made artifacts, which he carefully arranged and classified, following a rigorous method. He also prepared a detailed catalog, published in 1655 by his son William. His museum, which became one of the great attractions of Copenhagen, included the skull of a narwhal properly described; previously narwhal tusks had been supposed to be the horns of unicorns. There were many prehistoric stone implements, but Worm did not conclude that they belonged to a stone age and were artifacts; he labeled them "Cerauniae?, so called because they are thought to fall to earth in flashes of lightning- a belief widely held at that time. This is curious, because Worm recognized the tip of a stone harpoon point embedded in a marine animal found in Greenland, and also knew of stone tools and weapons from America. On his death, Worm's museum passed to King Frederik III and was installed in the old castle at Copenhagen? (Glyn Daniel in DSB). "Worm's collection took shape between 1620 and his death in 1654. His last great work was the folio volume 'Museum Wormianum' printed in Leiden and Amsterdam and issued the year after his death. It has secured his name as one of the founders not only of Danish but also of European museums. The typographical model of the book was Piso and Markgraf's publication of the 'Historia Naturalis Brasiliae' from which some of the illustrations were also taken. But the best of them were made in Copenhagen from drawings made under Worm?s own supervision. This is true of the frontispiece showing the interior of his museum, from which many single objects are still identifiable. The arrangement of the material followed the principles of Imperato and Calceolari.?(Impey & MacGregor, The Origins of Museums, p. 123). "There were some mouth-watering items in this early museum, including a Great Auk which Worm had once kept as a pet. The year after he died a folio volume describing his treasure was published and ten of its pages are devoted to shells, his nomenclature and classification being taken from the works of Gesner, Aldrovandi and Rondelet, the principal divisions of univalves, bivalves and turbinates being fundamentally Aristotelian" (Dance 14). Nissen ZBI 4473; Cobres p. 98 n. 2;; Eales 456; Dance 358; Wi. Bookseller Inventory # 2786D

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