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9780130669971

Chemistry: The Central Science, Ninth Edition

Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; Bruce Edward Bursten; Julia R. Burdge

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The acknowledged leader and standard in general chemistry, this book maintains its effective and proven features—clarity of writing, scientific integrity, currency, strong exercises, visual emphasis and consistency in presentation. It offers readers an integrated educational solution to the challenges of the learning with an expanded media program that works in concert with the book, helping them to approach problem solving, visualization, and applications with greater success. Chapter topics cover: Matter and Measurement; Atoms, Molecules, and Ions; Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry; Thermochemistry; Electronic Structure of Atoms; Periodic Properties of the Elements; Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding; Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories; Gases; Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids; Modern Materials; Properties of Solutions; Chemical Kinetics; Chemical Equilibrium; Acid-Base Equilibria; Additional Aspects of Equilibria; Chemistry of the Environment; Chemical Thermodynamics; Electrochemistry; Nuclear Chemistry; Chemistry of the Nonmetals; Metals and Metallurgy; Chemistry of Coordination Compounds; and The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry. For individuals interested in the study of general chemistry.

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About the Author:

Theodore L. Brown received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 1956. Since then, he has been a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he is now Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. He served as Vice Chancellor for Research, and Dean, The Graduate College, from 1980 to 1986, and as Founding Director of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology from 1987 to 1993. Professor Brown has been an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow and has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1972 he was awarded the American Chemical Society Award for research in Inorganic Chemistry, and received the American Chemical Society Award for Distinguished Service in the advancement of Inorganic Chemistry in 1993. He has been elected a Fellow of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Pacific Lutheran University (Washington) and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1966 from the University of Illinois (Urbana). He then joined the faculty of the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Chemistry. He has enjoyed Visiting Professorships at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, at the University College of Wales in Great Britain, and at the University of California, Los Angeles. Professor LeMay is a popular and effective teacher, who has taught thousands of students during more than 35 years of university teaching. Known for the clarity of his lectures and his sense of humor, he has received several teaching awards, including the University Distinguished Teacher of the Year Award (1991) and the first Regents' Teaching Award given by the State of Nevada Board of Regents (1997).

Bruce E. Bursten received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1978. After two years as a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Texas A&M University, he joined the faculty of The Ohio State University, where he is currently Distinguished University Professor. Professor Bursten has been a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar and an Alfred P Sloan Foundation Research Fellow. At Ohio State he has received the University Distinguished Teaching Award in 1982 and 1996, the Arts and Sciences Student Council Outstanding Teaching Award in 1984, and the University Distinguished Scholar Award in 1990. In addition to his teaching activities, Professor Bursten's research program focuses on compounds of the transition-metal and actinide elements. His research is currently supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

Julia R. Burdge received her B.A. (1987) and M.S. (1990) degrees in Chemistry from the University of South Florida (Tampa), and her Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Idaho (Moscow) in 1994. She then joined the faculty of the University of Akron, where she directed the general chemistry program from 1994 to 2001. Professor Burdge implemented the use of new educational technologies and put significant resources in place to enhance the general chemistry curriculum, including a state-of-the-art computer laboratory for use by general chemistry students. She is a well-liked teacher, known for her ability to explain the principles of chemistry in ways that students can understand and appreciate. Professor Burdge recently accepted a position at Florida Atlantic University's new Honors College in Jupiter, Florida, where, in addition to teaching, she will pursue environmental research with undergraduates.

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To the Instructor

Philosophy

Throughout the evolution of this text, certain goals have guided our writing efforts. The first is that a text should show students the importance of chemistry in their major areas of study, as well as in their daily lives. We believe that students are more enthusiastic about learning chemistry when they see its importance to their own goals and interests. With this in mind, we have included interesting and significant applications of chemistry. At the same time, the text provides the background in modem chemistry that students need to serve their professional interests, and, as appropriate, to prepare for more advanced chemistry courses.

Second, we want students to see not only that chemistry provides the basis for much of what goes on in our world but also that it is a vital, continually developing science. We have kept the book up to date in terms of new concepts and applications and have tried to convey the excitement of the field.

Third, we feel that if the text is to support your role as teacher effectively, it must be addressed to the students. We have sought to keep our writing clear and interesting and the book attractive and well-illustrated. Furthermore, we have provided numerous in-text study aids for students, including carefully placed descriptions of problem-solving strategies. Together, we have over a hundred years of teaching experience. We hope this is evident in our pacing and choice of examples.

Organization

In the present edition the first five chapters give a largely macroscopic, phenomenological view of chemistry. The basic concepts introduced—such as nomenclature, stoichiometry, and thermochemistry—provide necessary background for many of the laboratory experiments usually performed in general chemistry. We believe that an early introduction to thermochemistry is desirable because so much of our understanding of chemical processes is based on considerations of energy change. Thermochemistry is also important when we come to a discussion of bond enthalpies.

The next four chapters (Chapters 6-9) deal with electronic structure and bonding. The focus then changes to the next level of the organization of matter: the states of matter (Chapters 10 and 11) and solutions (Chapter 13). Also included in this section is an applications chapter on the chemistry of modern materials (Chapter 12), which builds on the student's understanding of chemical bonding and intermolecular interactions.

The next several chapters examine the factors that determine the speed and extent of chemical reactions: kinetics (Chapter 14), equilibria (Chapters 15-17), thermodynamics (Chapter 19), and electrochemistry (Chapter 20). Also in this section is a chapter on environmental chemistry (Chapter 18), in which the concepts developed in preceding chapters are applied to a discussion of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

After a discussion of nuclear chemistry (Chapter 21), the final chapters survey the chemistry of nonmetals, metals, organic chemistry, and biochemistry (Chapters 22-25). These chapters are developed in a parallel fashion and can be treated in any order.

Our chapter sequence provides a fairly standard organization, but we recognize that not everyone teaches all the topics in exactly the order we have chosen. We have therefore made sure that instructors can make common changes in teaching sequence with no loss in student comprehension. In particular, many instructors prefer to introduce gases (Chapter 10) after stoichiometry or after thermochemistry rather than with states of matter. The chapter on gases has been written to permit this change with no disruption in the flow of material. It is also possible to treat the balancing of redox equations (Sections 20.1 and 20.2) earlier, after the introduction of redox reactions in Section 4.4. Finally, some instructors like to cover organic chemistry (Chapter 25) right after bonding (Chapter 9). With the exception of the discussion of stereochemistry (which is introduced in Section 24.3), this, too, is a seamless move.

We have always attempted to introduce students to descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry by integrating examples throughout the text. You will find pertinent and relevant examples of "real" chemistry woven into all the chapters as a means to illustrate principles and applications. Some chapters, of course, more directly address the properties of elements and their compounds, especially Chapters 4, 7,12,18, and 22-25. We also incorporate descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry in the end-of-chapter exercises.

Changes in this Edition

Our major goal in the ninth edition has been to strengthen an already strong textbook while retaining its effective and popular style. The traditional strengths of Chemistry: The Central Science include its clarity of writing, its scientific accuracy and currency, its strong end-of-chapter exercises, and its consistency in level of coverage. In making changes to this edition, we have tried to be responsive to the feedback we received from the faculty and students who used the eighth edition. Students appreciate the student-friendly style of writing, and we have preserved this style in the, ninth edition. Sections that have seemed most difficult to students have in many cases been rewritten and augmented with improved artwork. In order to make the text easier for students to use, we have tried for an even more open, clean design in the layout of the book.

We have also continued to strengthen the art program, to better convey the beauty, excitement, and concepts of chemistry to students. The expanded use of computer-generated molecular art gives students a greater sense of molecular architecture through ball-and-stick and space-filling representations of molecules. In addition, we have added charge distribution maps in selected cases where we believe they can enhance student understanding. We have continued a greater emphasis on three-dimensional representations in the line art. Our goal continues to be to use color and photos to emphasize important points, to focus the student's attention, and to give the text an uncluttered, inviting look.

We still emphasize concept-oriented learning throughout the text. A new feature in this edition is the What's Ahead summary at the opening of each chapter. What's Ahead gives the student a brief overview of the major ideas and relationships that the chapter will cover. We expect that students will begin their shady of the chapter with more confidence for having a sense of the direction in which their study will take them. Concept links continue to provide easy-to-see cross-references to pertinent material covered earlier in the text. The essays titled Strategies in Chemistry, which provide advice to students on problem solving and "thinking like a chemist," continue to be an important feature. We have added more conceptual exercises to the end-of-chapter exercises. The Integrative Exercises, which give students the opportunity to solve more challenging problems that integrate concepts from the present chapter with those of previous chapters, have also been increased in number.

We have kept the text fresh by keeping it current. References to current events, help students relate their studies of chemistry with their everyday life experiences. New essays in our well-received Chemistry at Work and Chemistry and Life series emphasize world events, scientific discoveries, and medical breakthroughs that have occurred since publication of the eighth edition. We maintain our focus on the positive aspects of chemistry, without neglecting the problems that cane arise in an increasingly technological world. Our goal is to help students appreciate the real-world perspective of chemistry and the ways in which chemistry affects their lives.

You'll also find that we've:

  • Revised the end-of-chapter Exercises, with particular focus on the black-numbered exercises (those not answered in the Appendix).
  • Integrated more conceptual questions into the end-of-chapter material. For the convenience of instructors, these are identified by the annotation in. the Annotated Instructor's Edition, but not in the student edition of the text.
  • Updated the eMedia Exercises in the end-of-chapter material. These exercises take advantage of the integrated media components and extend student's understanding, using the advantages that interactive, media-rich presentations offer.
  • Continued the practice of using a Student Activity icon in the margins to indicate where students can extend understanding of a concept or topic by looking at an activity located on the Web site or the Accelerator CD-ROM.
  • Carried the stepwise, Analyze, Plan, Solve, Check, problem-solving strategy into a majority of the Sample Exercises of the book to provide additional guidance in problem solving.
  • Added dual-column problem-solving strategies in selected Sample Exercises that outline the process underlying mathematical calculations to teach students how to better perform mathematical calculations.
  • Reviewed and revised all chapters based on feedback from reviewers and users. For example, we have:
    • Added a brief introduction to organic chemistry in Chapter 2.
    • Improved the presentation of the first law of thermodynamics in Chapter 5.
    • Expanded the discussion of superconductivity in Chapter 12.
    • Revised the introductory treatment of equilibrium to eliminate the artificial distinction between equilibrium constants in gas and aqueous phases.
    • Added a new section on Green Chemistry, which focuses on the environmental impacts of chemical processes.
    • Improved the treatment of coordination compounds in Chapter 24.

Please see the next pages for more specific details about how the Ninth Edition's integrated learning program will help your students succeed.

Supplements

For the Instruct...

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Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; Bruce Edward Bursten; Julia R. Burdge Author
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