Taking a practical industry approach, this book provides fashion merchandisers with an understanding of the mass production process of ready-to-wear apparel, and the objective evaluation of its cost and quality. Coverage of practical issues and industry methods, along with the related vocabulary, make this book an excellent reference guide. Chapter topics include government regulations and labeling; the priority of industry and consumers; focus on design development; sizing and fit as the keys to competitive advantage; fabric; quality indicators such as fabric and trim; stitches; seams and edge treatments; garment assembly; and home fashions. For use in retailer- and manufacturer-run libraries, training programs, and testing labs, and for anyone working in the apparel industry.
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A text on evaluating the quality of ready-to-wear apparel, integrating the study of traditional clothing construction with that of apparel mass production, for students pursuing a career in the apparel industry. Includes chapter review questions, key terms, activities, a glossary, and b&w photos. MaFrom the Inside Flap:
The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of the production of ready-to-wear apparel and to present a method for evaluating its quality The book takes an industry approach, integrating the study of traditional clothing design and construction with that of apparel mass production. The resulting body of knowledge and related vocabulary are important tools for anyone pursuing a career in the apparel industry.
To make informed business decisions in the apparel industry, one must understand how apparel products are developed and produced and appreciate the features that affect cost and quality. A familiarity with apparel production and quality and how they are achieved enhances effectiveness on every level:
Designers and merchandisers establish product standards that maximize quality while balancing cost limitations. Suppliers of equipment, materials, and services meet the manufacturers' requirements. Manufacturers communicate quality expectations to contractors. Wholesale representatives educate retail buyers about quality features. Retail buyers choose garments that perform as intended and deliver value to the consumer. Advertisers and marketers promote quality features to the target market. Retail salespeople communicate quality features to consumers. Consumers make informed purchase decisions.
In short, anyone can benefit from a knowledge of apparel quality. WHAT'S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION
An important addition to the third edition is the bonus chapter about Soft Home Fashions. There is an increasing interrelationship between the traditional fashion industry (apparel and apparel accessories) and the home fashions industry. In fact, the two industries are sometimes referred to more broadly as part of the soft goods industry, including all sewn products that share a reliance on textiles as their main component. Therefore, providing information on how these related products are developed, produced, and evaluated will be helpful to many who are interested in apparel fashions but eventually find that their careers lead them to require a knowledge of home fashions as well. This information is included as a bonus chapter for instructors who choose to cover it, encouraging students to broaden their career options. However, other instructors may choose to use the chapter mainly as reference material.
Another exciting addition to the third edition is the inclusion of "Try a Real-Life Scenario" case studies in each chapter. Each of these short cases is adapted directly from a situation that actually occurred in the industry. Each situation challenges students to integrate their reading and experience while discussing what decisions they would make if they were responsible for the outcome of each case. The cases do not have "right" and "wrong" answers, but instead have different possible solutions depending on varying opinions and viewpoints. These cases should provide lively points of discussion as well as prepare students for the types of decisions they will be expected to make every day as apparel/home fashions industry professionals. The discussion of ethics and codes of conduct has been expanded in this edition to assist students in evaluating decisions in an ethical context.
The Related Resources list at the end of the book contains an updated and expanded list of textile- and apparel-related websites. Using this list, one of the most complete you will find anywhere, students can find up-to-the-minute information on the Internet, expanding their study and understanding of many issues discussed in the text. The Related Resources list provides an important professional resource for continuing study and keeping abreast of the most current information on many topics. We encourage you to lead your students on Internet forays to experience the wealth of knowledge waiting there for them.
In the third edition we continue to present information about apparel analysis using an industry approach. The book is organized in the same order in which apparel products and decisions are made. Thus the study of apparel analysis reflects the apparel industry's approach to product development and product assembly. This edition incorporates commonly used industry terminology and the job titles associated with various functions. Readers learn to think, speak, and act like an industry professional and better understand the connections between different elements of the process. They are exposed to both merchandising and assembly decisions and the cost and quality results of those decisions, as well as the ethical considerations in making those decisions. Thus readers receive an orientation to the complexity of the process of bringing apparel products to market.
More photos and illustrations enhance the visual appeal of the text. A number of figures showing industry processes have been added, while the many figures showing close-ups of garment features that communicate much to readers about apparel cost and quality have been retained.
The first four chapters supply the background required for understanding the industry and the context within which decisions that affect product quality are made. These chapters establish the perspective for product development. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the apparel industry and explains its global nature and ever-increasing use of technology. This edition contains a greater global focus, giving equal treatment to both imported and exported products. Readers gain experience in thinking more globally, an important skill in our increasingly global society Chapter. 2 summarizes the regulatory climate within which the industry operates and explains both required and voluntary labeling. This coverage of the government regulations that affect apparel products and the apparel industry allows readers to understand how a company must function within its environment as required by law. Chapter 3 defines apparel quality, establishes a framework for examining how consumers evaluate quality and value, and discusses costing and pricing, It also examines the quality methods employed by the apparel industry. A continued emphasis on standards and specifications and on how products are tested and inspected for compliance helps readers learn how to better communicate quality. requirements and to fully understand how standards and specifications help create quality products. They also gain a sense of how testing and inspection are essential tools used to enhance the quality of apparel products. Chapter 4 outlines the complete mass-production cycle.
The next six chapters explain the factors that must be considered when planning an apparel product. Chapter 5 explains how garments are shaped by darts and dart substitutes and supported by underlying fabrics and other devices. It also defines silhouette and style variations, with emphasis on garment lengths, waistlines, necklines, collars, sleeves, cuffs, pockets, and decorative details integral to the garment. Chapter 6 examines sizing and the evaluation of fit, crucial elements in formulating successful products. Chapter 7 reviews the influence of fibers, yarns, fabric structure, and finishes on the garment; its readers will benefit from a previous exposure to basic textiles. Chapter 8 covers the selection of the findings and trim items required to make garments. Chapter 9 introduces the stitch classes and stitch types contained in ASTM Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams. Chapter 10 discusses the seam classes and types contained in ASTM Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams, seam defects and features that ensure seam integrity, stitchings, and other edge treatments.
The final two chapters explain the execution of the product plan through the assembly of the garments. The assembly portion of the mass-production process continues to be organized according to the "4 Ps Formula: Parts, Panels, Pieces, and Products." This feature helps readers focus on and remember the sequence of apparel construction while learning to recognize variations in the process. Chapter 11 includes the steps performed during preliminary assembly; it covers the preparation of small parts, including the application of zippers, pockets, loops, and underlying fabrics, and the shaping, seaming, and hemming of garment panels. Chapter 12 follows the assembly process as garment pieces, including collars, sleeves, cuffs, waistbands, and linings; are constructed and become completed products. As previously mentioned, Chapter 13 functions as an optional bonus chapter about soft home fashions.
Appendix A lists the major apparel fiber types and summarizes their performance. Appendix B lists the fabric performance specifications available from ASTM. Appendix C contains an apparel sewing thread selection guide by Tex size for major seams. Appendix D contains schematic diagrams of all the seam and stitching types in ASTM Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams. Appendix E outlines the apparel production operations for which each seam and stitching type is used and lists the appropriate stitch types to use.
Throughout the book, the focus is on the functional and aesthetic performance of garments. Each chapter concentrates on identifying the physical features that produce desirable functional and aesthetic performance. At the end of each chapter, a quality checklist, a list of new terms, review questions, and related activities allow the reader to practice and apply the content of that chapter. The concepts come to life when applied to real garments. The "Try a RealLife Scenario" case studies within each chapter reinforce the need for understanding these concepts to enable informed decision making. Further information to aid in answering the questions within each case study is found at the end of the chapter in "Guiding the Discussion." The Related Resources and a Glossary provided at the end of the text aid in pursuing topics further. As readers explore the following pages, we hope they will develop a better understanding of apparel production and an increased appreciation of apparel quality. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thank you to Margaret McWhorter and Kitty Dickerson, who provided the original encouragement for the writing of this book, as well as to the many former professors of ours who will find their influences in this book. Many thanks to the reviewers of previous editions and for the third edition; Betty Dillard, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Rita S. Purdy, Ph.D, Baylor University; Allison Pracht, University of Georgia; Dr. Ellen Goldsberry, The University of Arizona. Samples for photography were kindly lent by Texas Christian University, Johnson County Community College, and The Fashion Group of Kansas City. Texas Christian University also deserves recognition for funding the grant that funded the research leading to this text and Jim Reid of Quick-Rotan for providing an influential trip to the Bobbin Show.
A special thanks to the many individuals in the apparel and related industries who have generously shared their expertise and resources: David Ayscue, Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc.; Sue Barnhill, OshKosh B'Gosh; Susan Black, Bobbin Magazine; Marilyn Borsari, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission; Gene Byrd, Angelica Image Apparel; Lark Caldwell, Texas Christian University; Mary Jo Carroll, Carroll Associates; Julia Cotter, Johnson County Community College; Susan Cowell, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees); Darcy Crocker, The Wool Bureau; Diane Currie, Eddie Bauer HOME; Karen Davis, (TC)2; Gay Dawson, Aviano U.S.A.; Pauline Dellicarpini, Masters of Linen; Eric Essma, The Clorox Company; Ange Fatta, ACTS Testing Labs; Mary Fox, Gerber Garment Technology, Inc.; Mike Fralix, (TC)2; Dorothy Fullam, Juki Union Special, Inc.; William Hamlett, Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc.; Rod Helwig, Universal Fasteners; Jennifer Hixson, Eddie Bauer HOME; Kathy Hooper, American Society of Testing and Materials; Patty Hsiu, Pottery Barn; Sascha jamall, Eddie Bauer HOME; Mike Johnson, The Lee Company; Doug Kanies, Union Special Technical Training Center; Rachel Kasteler, International Down and Feather Testing Laboratory; Sandy Keiser, Mount Mary College; Elizabeth Kellogg, Equest; James Kennedy, Williams Sonoma; Ira B. Livingston, Cotton Incorporated; Kyung Kim, Levi Strauss & Co.; Margaret MacBeth, Atlas Electric Devices Company; Tom Marxer, Angelica Image Apparel; Bill Mason, U.S. Customs Service; Margaret McWhorter, Texas Christian University; Robert Meltzer, American Society of Testing and Materials; Debbie Miller, Textile Industry Affairs; John Mueller, Juki Union Special, Inc.; Stephanie O'Neal, Kurt Salmon Associates; Ron Pacheco, Intertek Testing Services; Pamela Patzke, Lands' End; Gary Peterson, Monsanto Chemical Company; Danielle Pratt, Pottery Barn; Jo Ann Pullen, ASTM D-13 Chairperson; Gail Raiman, American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc.; Lesley Rindosh, ACTS Testing Labs; Del Rose, Gerber Technology, Inc.; Linda Rosenberger, Coats American; Kathy Sargent, The Lee Company; Monica Schmid, Levi Strauss & Co.; Allen Short, Atlas Electric Devices Company; Bill Silveira, Merchandise Testing Laboratories; Theresa Smith, Tultex; Beth Souther, Kurt Salmon Associates; LeeAnn Stevens, Winning Ways; Bob Swift, Crafted With Pride in U.S.A. Council; Mary Thompson, Brigham Young University; Barbara Wagner, International Fabricate Institute; Jerilyn Weiglein, Lands' End; Norma Willis, The Lee Company; Jane Wilsdorf, Patty's mother; Amy Zimney, Eddie Bauer HOME; and Joe Ziolkowski, Upholstered Furniture Action Council.
Thanks to Patty's parents for all they have done through the years, and to the many colleagues, friends, and family who have lent support. And thank you especially to Patty's husband, Paul, who was patient and supportive through it all, and to her young children, Rachel and Adam, for sharing Mom with this book. Thanks to Janett's husband, Joe, who provided encouragement, support, and shared office space during the preparation of this and the previous edition.
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