S. L. Dingman Physical Hydrology

ISBN 13: 9780023297472

Physical Hydrology

9780023297472: Physical Hydrology
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Dingman's goal throughout Physical Hydrology is to provide an understanding of the conceptual basis of the subject and introduce the quantitative relations involved in answering scientific and water-resources-management questions. The author supplies the basic physical principles necessary for developing a sound intuitive and quantitative sense of the way in which water moves through the land. He outlines the assumptions behind each conceptual approach but also identifies some of the limitations of each. Rich in substance and written to fulfill the needs of future researchers and experts in the field, Dingman treats hydrology as a distinct geoscience that is continually expanding to deal with large-scale changes in land use and climate. The text is organized around four principal themes: the basic concepts underlying the science of hydrology; the global climate, the global hydrologic cycle, and the relation of hydrology to soils and vegetation; the land phase of the hydrologic cycle; and water-resource-management principles and the ways in which hydrologic analysis is applied in that context. Coverage includes approaches for determining regional evapotranspiration rates, the movement of ground water in rock fractures, and the relation of hydrologic regimes to past and future climates. It offers in-depth discussions of hydrologic modeling--model use, modeling terminology, and the process of model development; water-resource-management goals and processes; water supply and demand; water-quality issues; floods and flood-frequency analysis; and drought and low-flow analysis. Outstanding features that facilitate learning include: A tabulation of documented trends in global change of climatic and hydrologic quantities; information on methods for handling missing data; discussions of the BROOK90 model and how it can be used with the text; Internet links to hydrologic information; exercises designed for student exploration; and Excel spreadsheets on the accompanying CD.

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Titles of related interest also from Waveland Press: Chapra, Surface Water-Quality Modeling (ISBN 9781577666059); Fetter, Contaminant Hydrogeology, Second Edition (ISBN 9781577665830) and Gupta, Hydrology and Hydraulic Systems, Third Edition (ISBN 9781577664550).

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The goal of the first edition of Physical Hydrology was to provide a comprehensive text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students that treats hydrology as a distinct geoscience. It attempted to develop an understanding of the conceptual basis of hydrology and an introduction to the quantitative relations that implement that understanding in answering scientific and water-resources-management questions. The text seemed to fulfill a need, and I have been pleased with its reception by my colleagues and students.

My primary goals in revising Physical Hydrology have been to incorporate significant advances in the rapidly developing field of hydrologic science, to provide a more explicit connection of that science to hydrologic modeling, and to make more complete and useful the treatment of the relation between scientific hydrology and water-resources management. The major changes that have resulted are the following:

* Chapter 2 (Basic Hydrologic Concepts) now concludes with an introduction to hydrologic modeling, including discussions of model use, modeling terminology, and the process of model development. It also introduces the BROOK90 model, a physically based, lumped-parameter model that can be readily accessed on the World-Wide Web for student use. Discussions of the ways in which BROOK90 incorporates the physical relations discussed in the text are included as boxes in many of the subsequent chapters.
* Chapter 3 (Global Climate, Hydrologic Cycle, Soils, and Vegetation) now includes a tabulation of documented trends in global change of climatic and hydrologic quantities.
* In Chapter 4 (Precipitation), I have added a more extensive discussion of precipitation recycling and a new section on methods for handling missing data—an almost universal problem in hydrologic analysis. Also, the discussion of methods for estimating areal precipitation has been streamlined somewhat (one of the few places in which I was able to cut!).
* In Chapter 5 (Snow and Snowmelt), I have updated the discussion of ways of estimating energy-balance components and added a discussion of hybrid snowmelt models that combine energy-balance and temperature-index approaches.
* Chapter 6 (Water in Soils) now introduces the concepts of soil-moisture diffusivity and sorptivity, adds a discussion of equilibrium soil-moisture profiles, and expands the discussion of moisture redistribution.
* Chapter 7 (Evapotranspiration) now contains a brief discussion of soil evaporation as well as updates of the treatments of lake evaporation and energy-budget estimation.
* In Chapter 8 (Ground Water), the discussion of ground—water-surface-water relations has been expanded to include hyporheic flow and the Dupuit approximation for unconfined aquifers draining to streams.
* Chapter 9 (Stream Response to Water Input) has been reorganized so that the discussion of the mechanisms of stream response to water-input events now precedes the sections on rainfall-runoff modeling. The treatments of both mechanisms and modeling have been substantially revised and updated, and much of the detailed discussion of open-channel flow has been moved to Appendix B.
* Chapter 10 (Hydrology and Water Resources) has been entirely rewritten and expanded. It now includes a more complete and modern treatment of water-resource management goals and processes; a more detailed discussion of water supply and demand, including the concept of "safe yield" in various ground-water and surface-water settings and an expanded discussion of the estimation and application of flow-duration curves; a more complete discussion of water-quality issues; an expanded section on floods, including flood-frequency analysis; a completely new section on drought and low-flow analysis; and a concluding section on current and projected United States and global water use.
* Appendix A (Hydrologic Quantities) has been reorganized and largely rewritten to provide a more logical presentation of dimensions, units, and significant figures.
* Appendix B (Water as a Substance) now contains the detailed treatment of open-channel flow that was formerly in Chapter 9.
* Appendix C (Statistics) now includes discussions of approaches to fitting probability distributions to data and estimating parameters of distributions, which incorporate the application of L-moments, and a section on statistical criteria for calibrating and validating models.
* In Appendix D (Water and Energy in the Atmosphere), the treatment of turbulent transfer has been substantially revised.
* In Appendix F (Stream Gaging), the section on slope-area estimation of discharge has been completely revised.
* Appendix G is new. It contains links to hydrologic information on the World-Wide Web and is found on the CD accompanying the text.

In keeping with my goal of treating hydrology as a science and of providing an entree to the literature of the field, this edition continues the practice of supporting its discussion with extensive reference citations, in the style of a journal article rather than that of most textbooks. In the revision, over 200 reference citations have been added, and they now total over 800.

In carrying out the primary goals of the revision, I also saw opportunities to improve several other aspects of the text:

* Cross referencing is facilitated by use of a decimal numbering system for headings.
* Many of the exercises have been revised so that they provide more opportunity for student exploration of topics rather than simple "plug-and-chug" work.
* The spreadsheets on the CD that accompanies the book are now in EXCEL, and their formats have been improved and regularized. More modern units are used (kPa instead of mb; J and W instead of cal).
* The notation, especially for statistical quantities, is generally more conventional (and, I hope, less cumbersome).
* The "." symbol for multiplication is used throughout; this allows the use of multi-letter symbols without ambiguity.

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