Comprehensive Toxicology : Reproductive and Endocrine Toxicology

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9780080429755: Comprehensive Toxicology : Reproductive and Endocrine Toxicology

Section 1, the section on male reproductive toxicology, starts with a basic overview on the anatomy and physiology of the system. This is followed by reviews on the way molecules are evaluated for male reproductive toxicity in both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries, along with a strategy for evaluating the reproductive function of transgenic animals. The bulk of this section is devoted to reviewing mechanisms and manifestations of toxicants to particular targets within the male reproductive system (Sertoli cell, Leydig cell, etc.). Finally, a significant part evaluates areas of interest not often considered in the toxicologic context (fluid flow, the immune system, paracrine factors, etc.), as well as a part highlighting technical advances and what these mean for the field. Overall, this volume reviews the state of the science in a number of areas, explicitly provides strategies for investigators to use in addressing their own problems, and then looks forward to identify promising areas of future research. It is a most significant contribution to the field.

Section 2 provides a comprehensive overview of the field of female reproductive toxicology. Much interest has recently become focused on this area of toxicology, due to the increase in numbers of women in the workplace, and the impact of female fertility on reproduction issues. This section begins with an overview of female reproductive physiology, with an emphasis on the complexities of its hormonal regulation. Next, the various components of the female reproductive system are described in detail, along with known and potential sites of disruption by xenobiotics. Finally, assessment of human risk is discussed from the standpoint of classical methods of evaluation, as well as recently developed, novel experimental approaches.

Section 3 provides an overview of mammalian development, from fertilization to parturition and early postnatal maturation, in terms of the stage-selective anatomical and functional characteristics of each developmental phase that may underpin the ultimate manifestations of toxicity which have been observed. Several possible mechanisms of developmental toxicity are discussed in terms of the roles of biotransformation, pharmacokinetics, altered gene expression, neurobehavioral development, physiological conditions, and nutritional status. A selected list of chemical agents and environmental extremes known to produce persistent developmental abnormalities is reviewed by class and are discussed in terms of their known toxic effects and possible mechanisms of action. Strategies for the study of developmental toxicants in vivo and in vitro are described, as well as current screening and testing systems for the detection of additional potential disrupters of normal development. This section concludes with a summary and discussion of the critical needs for additional understanding and the future prospects for accurate prediction, prevention and assessment of risk in developmental toxicity.

Volume 10 concludes with five chapters that discuss the effects of chemicals on various endocrine tissues. These include the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the adrenal cortex and medulla, and the insulin secreting beta-cells of the pancreas. Since these tissues secrete hormones that cause profound biochemical and physiological effects on the body, the activities of these glands are tightly controlled, primarily by circulating factors. For example, trophic factors released by the pituitary gland upregulate the activities of the thyroid gland and the adrenal cortex. The pituitary gland is further regulated by releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus. Thus, the hypothalamus-pituitary-endocrine gland axis, provides for the fine regulatory control of hormone secretion. It is apparent, then, that chemicals can affect endocrine function either directly, at the level of endocrine gland, or indirectly at the level of the hypothalamus-pituitary. However, the situation is even more complex. Since chemicals that alter the metabolism of the hormone (i.e. enzyme induction or inhibition in the liver) can cause an imbalance in the "axis", with dramatic effects on the endocrine gland and ultimately on other tissues of the body. The various chapters provide examples of drugs, model toxicants, and environmental pollutants that disrupt endocrine function. These disruptions result in such toxicities such as diabetes, hypertension, thyroid tumors, immune dysfunction, bone disorders, among others.

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About the Author:

AFFILIATIONS

Professor of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona. Research Professor, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jay Gandolfi was born and raised in the San Francisco bay area. He attended college at the University of California at Davis. He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Oregon State University. This was followed by a Post Doctoral Fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in anesthetic fate and toxicity. He joined the University of Arizona in 1978 and is currently Professor of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology. His interests are in the mechanisms of cellular toxicity and cell death. Current studies concentrate on the role of the immune system in fluorocarbon induced hepatotoxicity, the reversal of toxicity using agents adminstered post-intoxication, and the use of in vitro systems to evaluate cell specific injury. The toxicants of interest include: halogenated hydrocarbons, volatile anesthetics, metals, cysteine conjugates, and classical hepatic/renal toxicants. He has served on the Toxicology Study Section for the National Institutes of Health and has held several offices in the Society of Toxicology including President of the Mechanisms Specialty Section. He is currently Chair of the Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology and Associate Director of the Superfund Hazardous Waste Program.

He lives with his wife, Judi, on the "Double J Ranch" on the outskirts of Tucson. They enjoy horseback riding in the mountains of Southern Arizona and playing with their numerous pets. They have three grown sons, two who are engineers and one who is in advertising. E-mail: gandolfi@u.arizona.edu

You can also access Jay Gandolfi's WWW Homepage via: http://aruba.ccit.arizona.edu/~gandolfi/

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Boekelheide, K.; Chapin, R.; Hoyer, P.B.; Harris, C.; McQueen, C.A.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Sipes, I.G.
Published by Pergamon (1997)
ISBN 10: 0080429750 ISBN 13: 9780080429755
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Book Description Pergamon, 1997. Hardcover. Book Condition: New. book. Bookseller Inventory # 0080429750

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