Introduction to Data Communications and Networking

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9780130138286: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking
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Written to introduce readers to the fundamental concepts of electronic communications systems, data systems, and networks, this book provides extensive coverage of a wide range of data communications and networking issues while offering preliminary information on basic electronic communications and telecommunications systems. Topics explored include wireless and wireline telecommunications systems, basic data communications networks and systems, local area networks, internetworks, and the Internet including TCP/IP protocol suite. For professionals with a career or interest in electronic communications, data communications, and/or networking, as well as ECT, EET, and CET technologists.

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From the Back Cover:

This text provides a comprehensive coverage of data communications fundamentals, telephone system operation, local area networks, internetworking, and Internet communications. Each chapter contains numerous examples emphasizing the most important concepts presented. Questions and problems are included at the end of each chapter, and answers to selected problems are provided at the end of the book.

Significant material is provided on the following:
  • Analog and digital electronic communications systems
  • Metallic and optical fiber cable systems
  • Digital transmission and multiplexing
  • Wireless communications systems, including free-space electromagnetic wave preparation
  • Wireline, cellular, and PCS telephone theory
  • Codes, data formats, error detection and correction, modems, UARTs and USARTs, and serial interfaces
  • Data-link protocols, including XMODEM, YMODEM, KERMIT, SDLC, and HDLC
  • Transmission formats, LAN topologies, and basic internetworking devices
  • IEEE 802 Project including access methodologies, and MAC and LLC sublayers
  • IEEE 802.3 Ethernet and DIX Ethernet II
  • IP addressing, subnets, supernetworks, and IP classless and classful addressing hierarchies
  • Layer 3 networking protocols, such as ARP, IPv4, and ICMP; and Layer 4 transport protocols, such as UDP and TCP
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and Internal Control Management Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Configuration and domain name protocols, including DHCP and DNS
  • Application layer protocols, including Telnet, FTP TFTP, SMTP, POP, and HTTP
  • Integrated Services Digital Network and Digital Subscriber Loop
  • Broadband WAN access technologies such as X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

This book introduces the fundamental concepts of electronic communications systems, data communications, and networks. Topics covered include wireless and wireline telecommunications systems, basic data communications networks and systems, local area networks, internetworks, and the Internet, including the TCP/IP protocol suite. The text describes how the networks themselves work; it does not describe how the software applications that utilize the network work.

Readers with previous knowledge in basic electronics, including fundamental digital concepts and binary number systems, will have little trouble understanding the topics presented. Each chapter contains numerous examples that emphasize the most important concepts presented. When appropriate, questions and problems are included at the end of each chapter, and answers to selected problems are provided at the end of the book. Chapters and topics within chapters do not need to be covered in the same sequence as they are presented in the book.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

Chapter 1 gives a brief history of data communications and introduces the fundamental concepts of data communications and networking. Topics covered include definitions of network architectures, topologies, classifications, and data communications protocols and standards. Several primary standards organizations are described along with a brief description of their purpose, including a description of the International Organization for Standardization Open System Interconnect protocol hierarchy. The fundamental components of a data communications circuit, including explanations of data communications circuit arrangements, are also described. This chapter also introduces fundamental network components (e.g., clients, servers, local and network operating systems, network models) and network classifications such as local and metropolitan area networks.

Chapter 2 gives a brief explanation of signal analysis for single-frequency sinusoids and complex repetitive waveforms. Electrical noise and interference are described along with the concept and significance of signal-to-noise ratio. This chapter also gives a brief explanation of conventional analog modulation systems, such as AM and FM. More common digital modulation techniques, such as frequency-shift keying and phase-shift keying, and how digital modulation relates to information capacity, bit rate, and baud are also discussed.

Chapter 3 presents the fundamental concepts of metallic transmission media, including the principles and characteristics of transverse electromagnetic wave propagation. The characteristics of the most common types of metallic transmission media are described, and a detailed explanation is given for the classifications used with standard shielded and unshielded twisted-pair cable. This chapter also includes descriptions of the losses typical to metallic cables.

Chapter 4 compares the advantages and disadvantages between metallic transmission media and optical fiber transmission media. The fundamental concepts of wave propagation over optical fiber cables are given, including explanations for velocity of propagation, refraction, reflection, and modes of propagation commonly used for propagating signals over optical fibers. This chapter also describes the losses typical to optical fiber cables, and optical sources and detectors.

Chapter 5 introduces the advantages and disadvantages of digital (pulse) transmission. The fundamental principles of pulse code modulation, including the concepts of quantization and digital companding, and the steps necessary to produce a basic DS-0 digital signal, are explained.

Chapter 6 describes how signals from multiple sources (both analog and digital) can be multiplexed to improve the capacity of a transmission medium. A detailed explanation is given on how DS-0 signals are combined into T -carrier systems capable of carrying information from thousands of sources simultaneously. This chapter also covers the basic principles of frequency- and wavelength-division multiplexing.

Chapter 7 describes the fundamental concepts of wireless communications systems, including free-space electromagnetic wave propagation. It also describes the basic principles of microwave and satellite radio communications systems.

Chapter 8 introduces the basic concepts of telephone instruments and signals. The operation of a basic telephone set is described along with descriptions of the call progress tones and signals associated with completing a basic telephone call.

Chapter 9 gives a detailed description of a typical telephone circuit, including local loops and trunk circuits. This chapter also describes the transmission parameters for private-line voice and data circuits, including descriptions of typical telephone circuit impairments.

Chapter 10 gives a detailed description of the public telephone network, including descriptions of central office switches and how they are interconnected in tandem to complete local and long-distance telephone calls. The pre- and post-divesture North American Telephone Switching Hierarchies as well as the Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) switching system are also discussed.

Chapter 11 describes the evolution and the fundamental concepts of cellular telephone systems, including descriptions of the basic concepts of cell splitting, frequency reuse, interference, roaming, and cellular telephone call processing. Chapter 12 expands the basic cellular concepts presented in Chapter 11, including descriptions of first- and secondgeneration personal communications systems (PCS). The basic concepts of analog and digital cellular telephone systems, including descriptions of AMPS, DAMPS, NAMPS EIA IS-54, IS-136, IS95, and TDMA and CDMA multiple-accessing technologies are also described.

Chapter 13 covers the fundamental concepts of data communications codes, asynchronous and synchronous data formats, and error control. Several means of providing error detection and correction, such as VRC, LCR, CRC, ARQ, and the Hamming code are described.

Chapter 14 introduces fundamental data communications hardware components, including descriptions of data terminal equipment and data communications equipment. The fundamental concepts of UARTs and USRTs are covered along with an introduction of serial interfaces and a detailed description of the RS-232 interface.

Chapter 15 expands the coverage of data terminal and data communications equipment. Data communications modems are explained with detailed descriptions for Bell System-compatible modem standards and current ITU-T modem recommendations. The AT command set is also described.

Chapter 16 gives a detailed description of the data-link protocols used on private data communications networks. Character- and bit-oriented protocols are defined and described along with their applications. Protocols described in detail include XMODEM, YMODEM, KERMIT, Bisync, SDLC, and HDLG.

Chapter 17 gives a detailed description of networking and internetworking fundamentals, including transmission formats, LAN topologies, and collision and broadcast domains. Detailed explanations of the common connectivity devices, such as repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, and gateways, how they affect collision and broadcast domains, and how they are interconnected to create networks and subnetworks are given.

Chapter 18 gives a detailed description of local area networks, including a comprehensive coverage of the IEEE 802 project. Topics include the various access control methodologies, such as multiple access, carrier sense multiple access, carrier sense multiple access with collision detect, and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance. This chapter also includes detailed descriptions of the frame formats and operation of IEEE 802.3 Ethernet and Ethernet II, as well as current Ethernet technologies, such as switched Ethernet, 100 Mbps fast Ethernet, and 1000 Mbps Ethernet.

Chapter 19 introduces the TCP/IP protocol suite and Internet Protocol (IP) addressing. It includes detailed descriptions of the classes of IP addresses available on the global Internet and explains the differences between global, reserved, private, and broadcast addresses.

Chapter 20 gives a detailed description of how Glassful and classless networks, subnetworks, and supernetworks are formed, including a comprehensive coverage of subnet masks and how they are used to separate a network into subnetworks. Numerous examples are given to illustrate how subnet masks are used in modern IP-based networks. This chapter also describes supernetting and classless IP addressing.

Chapter 21 covers layer 3 networking protocols and gives detailed explanations of address resolution and the address resolution protocol (ARP). It also describes the format for an IP datagram, the functions of each field within the header, and IP options.

Chapter 22 gives a detailed description of Internet control management protocol (ICMP) and shows how ICMP messages are encapsulated within an IP datagram and used to carry diagnostic and error-reporting messages. This chapter emphasizes how ICMP is used to improve the performance of the Internet Protocol.

Chapter 23 introduces port numbers, sockets addresses, and transport-layer protocols. A detailed description is given for the user datagram protocol (UDP) and transmission control protocol (TCP), including the functions of the fields that make up each of their headers. This chapter gives a comparison between connectionless, unreliable and connection-oriented, reliable protocols.

Chapter 24 introduces IP version 6 (IPv6) and compares IPv6 to IPv4. Descriptions are given for hexadecimal colon notation, addressing types, and address allocation. IPv6 header fields, extensions, and extensions headers are described. ICMP version 6 is also described and compared to the current version, ICMPv4.

Chapter 25 describes configuration and domain name protocols, including dynamic host configuration protocol and domain name system. Detailed descriptions are given for the format for domain names and the process of domain resolution.

Chapter 26 introduces several application-layer protocols and the processes they perform. Protocols covered include Telnet, file transfer protocol, trivial file transfer protocol, simple mail transfer protocol, post office protocol, and hypertext transfer protocol.

Chapter 27 discusses integrated services data networks and broadband access technologies. Detailed descriptions are given for public-switched data networks, ISDN, and DSL. Value-added networks, switching networks, ATM, and the CCITT X.1 and X.25 protocols are also described.

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