Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (3rd Edition)

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9780130203601: Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (3rd Edition)

This comprehensive introduction to the craft, research, and theory of social studies teaching in the middle and secondary grades examines the origins and evolution of social studies and citizenship topics across the United States. Guidelines are provided to apply theory to classroom practice. Exploration is included of the ferment, controversies, and challenges that characterize today's social studies instruction in middle and secondary grades. The book contains complete coverage of standards related to social studies curriculum—including: the History Standards Project, the Geography Standards Project, the National Council on Economic Education Standards, National Standards for Civics and Government, and the NCSS Curriculum Standards. A full chapter on using technology to enhance instruction discusses multimedia, distance learning, telecommunications, the Internet, and the implication technology has on teaching social studies. This edition also includes expanded coverage of multicultural and global education topics, and an abundance of lesson plans, instructional models, applications, and examples—all thoroughly grounded in proven theory, research, and practitioner wisdom. For social studies teachers at the middle and secondary grade levels.

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From the Publisher:

This comprehensive introduction to the art, science, and craft of social studies teaching in the middle and secondary grades examines the origins and evolving state of the social studies and citizenship across the United States, provides "hands-on" guidelines for applying social studies theory to actual classroom practice, and explores the ferment, controversies, and challenges that characterize social studies teaching in the middle and secondary grades, today. It features an abundance of instructional models, applications, and examples -- all thoroughly grounded in proven theory, research, and practitioner wisdom.

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PREFACE

In constructing this text, my intent was to tap three bountiful wellsprings of information: teacher craft wisdom, research findings relative to instruction, and well-grounded theories. Each of these streams affords both neophytes and experienced teachers abundant insight into how effective social studies instruction can be nurtured and sustained.

Craft wisdom is that residual base of rich, informed, and practical knowledge that effective teachers have shared for centuries, often through oral rather than written histories. It embodies the lode of stories and case studies that experienced successful teachers have passed along about "things that worked well for me" and "the pitfalls I have learned to avoid." Craft wisdom also includes the identification of instructional materials and resources that have been tested under real classroom conditions and found to be exemplary.

Such practitioner craft wisdom is often buttressed neither by theory nor by research—much like aspects of folk medicine. Instead, it derives its credibility and permanency from the number of iterations of success that teachers have encountered in applying it. Teachers are not always sure why something worked or whether others will have similar success under different classroom conditions. What they can affirm are consistent positive results.

Research and theory, in turn, offer complementary insights into how teachers might most effectively teach social studies. These represent the accumulations of scholars' tested conclusions under controlled conditions and in varied settings over time. They also include scholars' hypotheses and reflective deductions undergirded by logic and evidence.

Properly focused, research and theory can yield practical applications and identify areas that require attention in our social studies classes. Researchers and theorists can also aid us in designing and selecting materials and texts that engage students and stimulate reflection. Additionally, they can provide us with models for analyzing our teaching behaviors and generating new instructional strategies.

Old friends comparing the first and second editions with the third will find its foundational themes intact and its point of view burnished. To wit, as a central thesis, I contend a well-balanced social studies program consists of matters of the head, the hand, and the heart. Following on this metaphor, I continue to hold that the fundamental purpose of the social studies should be the development of reflective, competent, and concerned citizens. I also reassert the importance of theory, research, and craft wisdom as beacons for effective social studies teaching. In this context, throughout the text, constructivist approaches that engage students in meaningful activities are emphasized.

FEATURES OF THIS TEXT

This book was designed to assist preservice and in-service middle and high school grades teachers in becoming more effective teachers of social studies. The text is meant to be used in a variety of settings, such as group activities and workshops. Toward these ends, several steps have been taken to make it readable and understandable to audiences with different levels of experience and needs.

Each chapter has a detailed outline on the opening page to serve as an advance organizer. Also, throughout the text, key terms appear in boldface to alert the reader to their importance. At the end of each chapter, two types of activities are suggested to apply and extend learning: those to be completed individually and others to be done in groups.

Numerous field-tested lessons and activities are sprinkled throughout the text. These are borrowed from a variety of sources and reflect a combination of craft wisdom, research, and theory. They primarily cover the middle and high school grades. For easy reference, a list of these lessons and activities appears at the end of the Contents.

ORGANIZATION

The book is divided into three major parts. In part I, we examine the origins and evolving state of the social studies and citizenship education across the United States. This segment provides a window into the dynamics of the profession and a feel for the ferment, controversies, and challenges that characterize social studies teaching in the middle and secondary grades. It also includes a discussion of ways to move the walls of the classroom beyond the school and incorporate the community into the social studies curriculum. This part of the book also offers ideas on how to advance the professional growth of social studies teachers.

Part II focuses on the art, science, and craft of social studies teaching against the backdrop of engaging students in knowledge construction. This part of the text draws heavily upon grounded theory, research, and practitioner wisdom in formulating instructional models, applications, and examples. Illustrations and strategies from a wide range of different social studies projects and materials developed over the past several decades are provided.

The final segment, part III, examines approaches to analyzing and improving social studies instruction while incorporating emerging technologies. These approaches include ways to create a positive classroom environment and provide for students with special needs through individualizing instruction. In addition, this section of the text addresses the implications of global realities on the increasing cultural diversity within our nation.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

There are notable small and large changes in this revision. In order to more adequately address emerging issues concerning national curriculum standards and multicultural education, chapters 4 and 10 have been modified. The most dramatic change, however, deals with technology applications in the social studies—a fast-moving target. Chapter 12 has been extensively updated, but with the discomforting awareness that the swiftness of new advances in computer-based technologies will outpace our capacity to keep the reader current.

Several measures were taken to further heighten the technology strand in the book. At relevant points throughout the text, examples of social studies software are cited. Also, in those sections of the text that call for the use of a computer to illustrate a point, a computer icon will appear in the margin as shown here.

Like its predecessor, this text must ultimately contend with a host of others in the marketplace of ideas, staking out its own claim to uniqueness, credibility, utility, and significance. In that arena, I believe the new book is well armed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I want to thank editor Brad Potthoff and Prentice Hall for their patience and humanity. A special note of thanks is due to Jack Mewborne. He is a most remarkable young man. When the debilitating nature of my Parkinson's disease began to accelerate, Jack joined our production team and helped snatch victory from the jaws of defeat. He is a man of many talents, and I have learned much from him. A second angel who appeared was Mary Evangelista. Her trust, care, concern, and love played a key role in bringing the manuscript to life—she went well above and beyond the call of duty. I hope our paths will cross again.

Thanks to the reviewers of the manuscript for their insights and comments: Linds D. Addo, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; Tim Campbell, University of Central Oklahoma; Thomas B. Goodkind, University of Connecticut; and John H. Litcher, Wake Forest University.

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Martorella, Peter H.
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