Teaching Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities: An Applied Approach for Inclusive Environments

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9780130205735: Teaching Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities: An Applied Approach for Inclusive Environments

This book educates teachers on how to incorporate applied curriculum strategies into their classrooms so ALL students can participate. A unique aspect is its ability to balance inclusive practice with practical, functional instruction and materials. It provides many actual examples of teaching skills in an applied setting. These scenarios, combined with mini case studies, games, and learning activities offer a keen understanding of how to work with those who have moderate to severe disabilities. A three-part organization covers foundations of curriculum, implementation of the curriculum, and instructional environments. For future preschool, elementary, and secondary level teachers of students with moderate to severe disabilities.

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In Teaching Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities, we introduce preservice educators to classroom and community-based curricular strategies and materials for teaching preschool, elementary, and secondary students with moderate to severe disabilities. We describe the underlying structure and process for developing and implementing applied curricula and show you how applied curricula can support learning in the general education classroom, the school, and the community. We also teach you how to level materials and activities to provide the instructional support that allows students with moderate to severe disabilities and their non-disabled peers to participate together in those inclusive learning environments.

The present emphasis on instruction for skill development through adaptation in the general education classroom has replaced the 1980s focus on segregated classes that offered a functional community-based curriculum for students with moderate to severe disabilities. Because we believe it is important for instruction in inclusive classrooms to focus on meaningful activities that further the ability of all students to function outside the classroom, the goal of this text is to combine both community and general education approaches with an emphasis on the application of academic content. Consequently, this text takes the approach that most instruction for all students occurs in general education settings and, beginning with the academic content of typical students, uses applied connections and the concept of leveling to provide adaptation strategies.

TEXT PREVIEW

The text is divided into three sections. Section I presents a general overview of the curriculum for students with moderate to severe disabilities. Section II describes methods of assessment, curricular options, and professional interactions in the various learning environments for these students. Section III provides information on implementing appropriate instruction at both the elementary and secondary education levels for the three environments: general education classroom, school, and community.

Section I: Foundations of Curriculum

Section I consists of four chapters. Chapter 1, "Establishing the Context," provides the theoretical framework and philosophical perspective of the text. It builds a context for the framework and perspective of the text by giving a brief history of the attitudes and treatment of people with moderate to severe disabilities and the various approaches to curriculum development.

Chapter 2, "Characteristics and Strategies for Support," describes the characteristics and educational needs of students with moderate to severe disabilities. The chapter considers relevant characteristics that affect learning in the following areas: physical and health, cognitive, and social development. It also addresses adaptations and supports to facilitate learning.

Chapter 3, "Communication and Technology Supports," introduces strategies for enhancing communicative abilities and personal independence through assistive technology. The chapter begins with an overview of the recent legislation on assistive technology. It then presents a model for considering assistive technology and making informed selections. Enhancement of daily performance through assistive technology is discussed. Finally, the chapter addresses alternative and augmentative communication for persons with moderate to severe disabilities.

Chapter 4, "The Learning Environment," provides perspectives on applied curriculum models and inclusive practice. The chapter begins with an exploration of some of the issues regarding the implementation of inclusive classrooms. Next, it examines theoretical perspectives on functional and applied curricula for persons with disabilities. Finally, strategies for implementing applied curricula for all students in general education environments are presented.

Section II: Implementation of Curriculum

Chapter 5, "Authentic Assessment in Inclusive Environments," considers approaches to authentic assessment and presents strategies for referencing both the student's environment and the standard curriculum of the classroom. Strategies for monitoring student performance are presented.

Chapter 6, "Designing the Instructional Program: The IEP," presents strategies for developing an individual educational plan. Strategies for student and parent participation in identifying goals and services are provided. The chapter also discusses the development and implementation of the IEP document itself.

Chapter 7, "Supporting Inclusive Environments Through Collaboration," addresses strategies for working jointly with others to provide instruction and support. The chapter details the interactions of special education teachers with other teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals, parents, community members, and students. This chapter also addresses collaborative relationships that provide teacher support.

Section III: Instructional Environments

Section III addresses the implementation of appropriate instruction for students with moderate to severe disabilities in the three environments they encounter: classroom, school, and community.

Chapter 8, "Positive Behavioral Supports in Inclusive Environments," addresses classroom organization and proactive approaches to behavior management. The chapter provides positive strategies for building new behaviors that more effectively meet the individual's needs.

Chapter 9, "The Preschool Classroom," provides strategies for addressing the needs of per sons with moderate to severe disabilities in typical preschool settings.

Chapter 10, "The Elementary Classroom," discusses adaptations to the standard elementary school curricula and strategies for creating alternative or parallel curricula and offers strategies for providing peer support.

Chapter 11, "The Secondary Classroom," discusses academic adaptations to the general education curriculum as well as applied and parallel curricula. The chapter also addresses other instructional needs of secondary education students, including interpersonal skill development in the areas of communication, behavior, and social adjustment.

Chapter 12, "The Elementary School Environment;" presents a model of applied curricula for all students at the elementary level. The chapter describes an applied program in which all students can participate, including general education students. In addition, the chapter presents models in which general objectives in the areas of communication, behavior, and social adjustment can be addressed in all settings.

Chapter 13, "The Secondary School Environment," is a companion chapter to Chapter 12 that discusses applied curricula for all students at the secondary education level. The chapter covers appropriate nonacademic and extracurricular activities for students with disabilities, such as school clubs, lunch, and special events.

Chapter 14, "Community-Based Instruction," addresses community instruction for both elementary and secondary students with moderate to severe disabilities. The chapter covers instructional adaptations that provide adjunct activities to the general education curriculum. This chapter also addresses the development of employment opportunities.

Chapter 15, "Educational Transitions," the concluding chapter in the text, brings closure to the preceding chapters on instruction by addressing educational transitions. It presents approaches for helping students transition smoothly into school and from the elementary school to secondary education programs. The chapter also discusses transition from high school to adulthood, including postsecondary education programs, employment options, lifestyle options, and adult services.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We want to thank a number of people who have contributed to this book. We are grateful to Joy Garand-Nichols, Elizabeth Lahm, Laura Owens-Johnson, and Tom Pierce who co-authored several of the chapters with us. We also want to thank Ann Dunlevy for the material she wrote for The Breakfast Place, some of which is included in this book, as well as Suzanne Killy and Diane Perry for sharing their expertise and outstanding instructional programs. Their contributions have greatly enhanced the text. In addition, we want to thank our many colleagues and students who offered their ideas and insights. Their supportive comments and suggestions have added greatly to the content you will read. We particularly want to thank our colleagues, Cynthia Geer, Debora Hess, and Jennifer Kinney, who looked over our shoulders and shared their own insights as well as expert knowledge of general education curricula. We also want to acknowledge the valuable contributions of Jane Rawls, Administrative Specialist, Winthrop University, and our graduate students at Xavier and Winthrop Universities, Debby Abitz, Victoria Haygood, Lenita Knight, Sheila Sherwood, Carrie Tolford, Donna Leiter, and Sara Young, who eagerly pitched in to help us complete this project. We thank the following reviewers: Pamela J. Gent, Clarion University; Christine Givner, California State University, Los Angeles; Deborah Peters Guessling, Providence College; and Tony Russo, Marywood University. Finally, we want to thank our husbands, Jim and Bob, for their patience and support throughout the writing of this text. Their encouragement saw us through the hours of work.

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Hamill, Lee B.; Everington, Caroline
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