Prentice Hall Health Professional's Drug Guide 2001

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9780130282934: Prentice Hall Health Professional's Drug Guide 2001

This is the drug guide preferred by physician assistants, physical therapists, occupational therapists--and all health care professionals who need accurate, easily accessed information about their patients' medications. Comprehensive yet user-friendly, this handy resource includes important clinical implications for hundreds of drugs, including adverse reactions, interactions and side effects.

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From the Inside Flap:

PREFACE

The Prentice Hall Health Professional's Drug Guide 2001 is a current, reliable, and convenient reference designed to give health care providers the information needed to make appropriate decisions regarding drug administration. This Drug Guide is a valuable resource for all providers who need information about their patients' medications.

The drug monographs provide up-to-date information on

Actions/Pharmacodynamics Uses Route & Dosages including adjustments for pediatric and geriatric clients and/or those with reduced renal function (creatinine clearance) Pharmacokinetics Contraindications & Precautions Adverse/Side Effects Drug Interactions Diagnostic Test Interferences Clinical Implications

Appendix G contains a list of 36 new drug monographs which are posted on the website for the book. In addition, drug updates and black box warnings are also included in Appendix G and on the website.

The Administration section of each drug monograph offers complete and comprehensive information for IV drugs: directions for reconstitution, dilution, methods of administration, and rate of injection or infusion. Also important for IV drug administration, and shown in individual drug monographs, is Y-site compatibility. A chart is conveniently located inside the back cover of the book for combatibilities of IV drugs administered via Y-site.

The Clinical Implications section of each drug monograph is formatted in an easy-to-use manner so that pertinent information needed by the health care provider is listed under three headings: Administration, Assessment & Drug Effects, and Patient & Family Education. Under these headings the reader can quickly and easily identify needed information and incorporate it into appropriate client care. Therapeutic effectiveness of the drug can be determined by monitoring improvement in the condition for which the drug is prescribed and by using the Assessment & Drug Effects section of the Clinical Implications.

The reader will make the most efficient use of this book and become familiar with its features by referring to How To Use This Book, which follows. The Classification Scheme and Prototype drugs on pages xi-xvi as well as valuable appendixes and the detailed index will also aid in acquiring necessary information. The prototype drug monographs are in a tinted box for easy reference.

The authors wish to acknowledge all those who aided in the preparation of this book. Most of all we wish to express our appreciation to the students who provide the inspiration for this work. It is for these individuals and all who strive for excellence in patient care that this book is published. Margaret T. Shannon
Billie Ann Wilson
Carolyn L. Stang HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

The Prentice Hall Health Professional's Drug Guide 2001 lists all drugs alphabetically according to generic names. Each drug is, however, indexed by both its generic and trade names. Trade names followed by a maple leaf indicate that the drug is available only in Canada. If a drug is not listed in the alphabetical section, it may be a combination drug, which by definition is made up of more than one generic component. These combination drugs are found by their trade names in the index and in a separate Appendix E, Prescription Combination Drugs, which lists the generic components and the amount of each generic drug. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTIVENESS

The information needed for safe and effective drug administration is given for each drug in the alphabetical listing. The reader should review all the information provided. Occasionally the reader will be referred to the Glossary, Appendix F. This glossary of key terms, clinical conditions, and associated signs and symptoms provides valuable information regarding common assessment findings related to therapeutic effectiveness or ineffectiveness of specific drugs.

Drugs have multiple uses or indications; therefore, it is important to know why a drug is being prescribed for a client. Therapeutic effectiveness of the drug may be determined by monitoring for improvement in the condition for which the drug is prescribed and by using the Assessment and Drug Effects section of the drug monographs.

While increasing numbers of health care providers now have prescriptive authority, we refer to the physician throughout the book as a generic term for the professional prescribing medications and supervising care.

For each drug the following information is provided where pertinent:

CLASSIFICATION: The classifications used in this book are based on the classification scheme used by the American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS), which classifies drugs by pharmacologic and therapeutic category. This enables the reader to identify different classes of drugs that have similar therapeutic implications or that primarily affect the same physiologic system. In general, all drugs in a class will have similar actions, uses, side effects, and clinical implications. Therefore we have selected certain drugs representative of a class—prototype drugs—and have discussed them in more detail than the other drugs in that class. In addition, throughout the generic listing the names of prototype drugs are highlighted in tinted boxes. In-depth information on those drugs not extensively discussed may be obtained by referring to the prototype drug. When a drug belongs to a class that has a designated prototype, that prototype is identified directly below the drug classification. The table on pages xi to xvi outlines the classification scheme and lists the drug considered representative for each class.

PREGNANCY CATEGORY: Drugs may be described as category A, B, C, D, or X according to risk-benefit ratio for the mother and fetus, with A being the lowest and X the highest risk. If the FDA pregnancy category is known, it will be indicated. Refer to Appendix C, FDA Pregnancy Categories, for a more complete description of pregnancy categories.

SCHEDULE: In the United States, controlled substances, such as narcotics, are classified as belonging to one of five schedules (I to V) according to abuse potential, with I having the highest and V the lowest potential for abuse. Refer to Appendix B for a more complete description of each schedule.

ACTIONS/PHARMACODYNAMICS: This entry describes the mechanism by which the specific drug produces physiologic and biochemical changes at the cell, tissue, or organ level.

USES: The therapeutic applications of each drug are described in terms of normal (labeled) use and unlabeled use. An unlabeled use is literally one that does not appear on the drug label or in the manufacturer's literature on the use of the drug. The unlabeled use is, nevertheless, an accepted use for the drug supported by the medical literature.

ROUTE & DOSAGE Route is specified as SC, IM, IV, PO, PR, nasal, ophthalmic, vaginal, topical, aural, intradermal, and intrathecal; doses are listed separately for adult, child, geriatric, and those with reduced renal function (creatinine clearance), and according to use. This information is highlighted with shading for quick reference.

PHARMACOKINETICS: This section lists information about onset, peak, and duration of drug action. It also lists the mechanisms of metabolism and elimination when known.

CONTRAINDICATIONS & PRECAUTIONS: Many drugs are contraindicated and therefore should not be used in specific pathophysiologic conditions, during pregnancy, or with particular drugs or food. In other cases the drug should be used with great caution because of a greater than average risk of drug interactions may improve the therapeutic response, lead to therapeutic failure, or produce specific untoward reactions. Only drugs that have been shown to cause clinically significant interactions with the drug under discussion are listed.

ADVERSE/SIDE EFFECTS: Virtually all drugs have adverse or side effects that may be bothersome to some individuals but not to others. In this entry, adverse/side effects are listed according to systems or organs with the most common printed in italics and those that are life-threatening undelined.

DIAGNOSTIC TEST INTERFERENCES: This entry describes the effect of the drug on various diagnostic tests and alerts the reader to possible misinterpretations of test results.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Individual drugs, drug classes, and foods that interact with the drug under discussion are listed. Drugs may interact to inhibit or enhance one another; thus drug interactions may improve the therapeutic response, lead to therapeutic failure, or produce specific untoward reactions. Only drugs that have been shown to cause clinically significant interactions with the drug under discussion are listed.

INCOMPATIBILITIES: Solutions and drug additives physically incompatible with the drug under discussion are listed. Therefore these solutions and drug additives should not be mixed in solution with the drug. The table on the inside back cover contains information related to the compatibility of drugs administered by intravenous Y-site. Additional drugs that should not be administered together are listed in the monographs.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinical Implications are listed under three headings: Administration, Assessment & Drug Effects, and Patient & Family Education. Before administering a drug, all three sections should be read to determine (1) the appropriate administration techniques, (2) the assessments that should be made before and after administration of the drug and indicators of drug effectiveness, and (3) essential patient or family education related to the drug.

From the Back Cover:

Prentice Hall Health Professional's Drug Guide

Free disk and companion web site!

Margaret T. Shannon, A.R.N.P., Ph.D.

Billie Ann Wilson, A.R.N.P., Ph.D.

Carolyn L. Stang, Pharm.D.

Thousands of health professionals agree: this compact drug guide provides all the data you need for safe, effective drug administration!

Current-

* Contains thousands of drugs - including those recently approved by the FDA.
* Provides a free companion website (See prenhall/drugguides) that offers new drug updates, links to drug manufacturers and the FDA, administration techniques, common herbal remedies, a review of pharmacology, and much more.
* Includes a free diskette with the most commonly prescribed drugs.

Comprehensive-

* Gives new pediatric and geriatric dosages where appropriate.
* Features new appendixes with new drugs & FDA warnings, ocular medications, low-molecular weight heparins, and nasal & oral corticosteroids.
* Provides unique appendixes with comprehensive fixed drug combinations and signs & symptoms glossary.

Accessible-

* Lists all drugs alphabetically by generic drug names, with an index that includes both generic and trade names.
* Highlights important IV dosage and administration information.
* Provides quick access to drug interactions, side effects, and patient & family teaching.

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