Invitation to Psychology, Second Edition (Book & Video Classics CD)

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9780130338174: Invitation to Psychology, Second Edition (Book & Video Classics CD)

Written in a compelling manner and loaded with real-world applications, this condensed version of Wade and Tavris' bestseller Psychology maintains its focus on critical thinking, attention to gender and multicultural issues, and commitment to the debates of psychology, and offers the support of companion websites that include test questions, web connections, message board, seven chapter corresponding premium site modules, web news, web survey, interactive lectures, guided reviews, and much more. Covers five major areas—yourself, your body, your mind, your environment, your mental health, and your life. Includes full chapters on the science of psychology; the theories of personality; development over the life span; neurons, hormones and the brain; sensation and perception; thinking and intelligence; memory; learning; behavior in social and cultural context; psychological disorders; approaches to treatment and therapy; emotion, stress, and health; and the major motives of life: love, sex, food, and work. For psychologists, psychotherapists, and readers interested in exploring the inner workings of the human mind. @BULLET = Features chapter-opening vignettes based on real newspaper stories, "Get Involved" hands-on application exercises and demonstrations; end-of-chapter "Taking Psychology With You" sections that draw on research in the chapter end-of-chapter sections—Draws on research in the chapter. @SUBBULLET = Helps students tackle topics of practical concern. Ex.___ @BULLET = "Quick Quizzes"—After each major section of the text. @SUBBULLET = Actively tests students' comprehension. Ex.___ @CONTENTSBEG =

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About the Author:

Carole Wade earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. She began her academic career at the University of New Mexico, where she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course at the university on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for ten years at San Diego Mesa College, then taught at the College of Marin, and is now affiliated with Dominican University of California. She is author, with Carol Tavris, of Psychology, Psychology in Perspective, and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Wade has a long-standing interest in making psychology accessible to students and the general public through lectures, workshops, and general interest articles. For many years. Ale has focused her efforts on the teaching and promotion of critical-thinking skills, diversity issues, and the enhancement of undergraduate education in psychology. She chaired the APA Board of Educational Affairs Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Precollege and Undergraduate Levels of Education in Psychology, is a past chair of the APAs Public Information Committee, has been a G. Stanley Hall Lecturer, and currently serves on the steering committee for the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology. Dr. Wade is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter member of the American Psychological Society. When she isn't busy with her professional activities, she can be found riding the trails of northern California on her Arabian horse, Conde.

Carol Tavris earned her Ph.D. in the social psychology program at the University of Michigan, and as a writer and lecturer she has sought to educate the public about the importance of critical and scientific thinking in psychology. She is author of The Mismeasure of Woman; Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion; and, with Carole Wade, Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. She has written on psychological topics for a wide variety of magazines and professional publications; many of her opinion essays and book reviews for The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times Book Review, Scientific American, and other publications have recently been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using Psychology to Think Critically About Issues in the News. Dr. Tavris lectures widely on, among other topics, critical thinking, pseudoscience in psychology and psychiatry, anger, and the science and politics of research on gender. She has taught in the psychology department at UCLA and at the Human Relations Center of the New School for Social Research in New York. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter Fellow of the American Psychological Society; a member of the board of the Council for Scientific Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry; and a member of the editorial board of the APS's Psychological Science in the Public Interest. When she is not writing or lecturing, she can be found walking the trails of the Hollywood Hills with her border collie, Sophie.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

TO THE INSTRUCTOR

Psychology textbooks have always had a little problem with length. William James's two-volume classic, Principles of Psychology (1890), took him twelve long years to write and weighed in at a hefty 1,393 pages. (And today's students think they have it hard!) Just two years after it was published, James followed it with Psychology, Briefer Course, which was much shorter, under 500 pages. But James was not happy with his briefer book; in a letter to his publishers, he complained that he had left out "all bibliography and experimental details, all metaphysical subtleties and digressions, all quotations, all humor and pathos, all interest in short . . . ." (quoted in Weiten & Wight, 1992).

The great James was probably too hard on himself; he was entirely incapable of writing anything dull or disjointed. Nevertheless, we kept his words in mind as we were working on our own "briefer" introduction to psychology. From the outset, we were guided by a philosophy that we hoped would help us avoid some of the pitfalls of the genre:

  1. A brief book should be brief-not only in terms of pages, but in the number of chapters.
  2. The book's organization should be appealing and meaningful.
  3. Students at all levels need critical-thinking tools for evaluating psychological issues intelligently.
  4. Brief or long, a textbook needs to use examples, analogies, lively writing, and a strong narrative sense to pull students into the material and make it meaningful to their lives.
  5. Students remember more if they learn actively.
  6. Research on culture, gender, and ethnicity is as integral to psychology as is research on the brain, genetics, and hormones.

In the rest of this preface, we describe how we have tried to translate our philosophy about writing this book into reality, and what is new in this second edition.

1. Brevity

Even with a brief textbook consisting of 14 or 15 chapters, instructors often feel hard-pressed to cover the material in a semester or quarter. We decided, therefore, that 13 chapters would be ideal: enough to cover all the major topics, but few enough to give instructors some breathing room. A 13-chapter book allows you to spend some extra time on topics that students sometimes find difficult, such as the brain; to develop your favorite topics in greater depth; to take time at the beginning of the semester to get to know your students; or to use time at the end of the term to summarize and review.

2. A Meaningful Organization

We wanted the organization of this book to do two things: engage students quickly and provide a logical "scaffolding" for the diverse topics in psychology. The first chapter, which introduces students to the field and to the fundamentals of critical and scientific thinking, is followed by six sections consisting of two chapters each. The title of each section invites the reader to consider how the discipline of psychology can illuminate aspects of his or her own life and provides the reader with a personal frame of reference for assimilating the information:

· PART ONE: YOUR SELF examines major theories of personality (Chapter 2) and development (Chapter 3). These are extremely high-interest topics for students, and will draw them into the course right away. Moreover, starting off with these chapters allows us to avoid redundancy in coverage of the major schools of psychology—biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and psychodynamic. Instead of introducing these perspectives in the first chapter and then having to explain them again in a much later personality chapter, we cover them once, in this section.

· PART TWO: YOUR BODY explores the many ways in which the brain, neurons, and hormones affect psychological functioning (Chapter 4), and the neurological and psychological underpinnings of sensation and perception (Chapter 5).

· PART THREE: YOUR MIND discusses the impressive ways in which human beings think and reason—and why they so often fail to think and reason well (Chapter 6)—and explores the puzzles and paradoxes of memory (Chapter 7).

· PART FOUR: YOUR ENVIRONMENT covers basic principles of learning (Chapter 8) and the impact of social and cultural contexts on behavior (Chapter 9). Combining learning and social psychology in the same part is a break from convention, but we think it makes wonderful sense, for these two fields share an emphasis on "extrapsychic" factors in behavior.

· PART FIVE: YOUR MENTAL HEALTH reviews the major mental and emotional disorders (Chapter 10) and evaluates the therapies designed to treat them (Chapter 11).

· PART SIX: YOUR LIFE shows how mind, body, and environment influence emotions, stress, and health (Chapter 12) and the fundamental motives that drive people: eating and appetite, love and sex, and work and achievement (Chapter 13).

Naturally, a brief book will not include every topic that might be found in a longer book, but we have tried to retain all of those that are truly essential in an introductory course. In most cases, you will find these topics in the chapters where you expect them to be, but there are a few exceptions. For example, eating disorders are not discussed in the chapter on psychological disorders; instead, we discuss them in the context of psychological, genetic, and cultural factors in eating, overweight, and dieting (Chapter 13). Likewise, because we wanted to limit the book to 13 chapters, we chose not to include a separate chapter on consciousness, but we have not ignored this material; sleep and dreams are discussed in the brain chapter (Chapter 4), hypnosis in the memory chapter (Chapter 6), and drugs in a section on addiction in the disorders chapter (Chapter 10). If at first you do not see a topic that interests you, we urge you to look for it in the table of contents or the index.

3. Critical and Creative Thinking

Since we introduced critical thinking in the first edition of our longer book, in the 1980s, we have been gratified to see its place in the study of psychology grow. Without critical-thinking skills, learning ends at the classroom door.

In this book, too, our goal is to get students to reflect on what they learn, resist leaping to conclusions on the basis of personal experience alone (so tempting in psychological matters), apply rigorous standards of evidence, and listen to competing views. As in our longer book, we introduce eight basic guidelines to critical and creative thinking right away, in the first chapter, and then teach and model these guidelines throughout the book.

We use a critical-thinking icon—a lightbulb—together with a "tab" like the one in the sample on this page-to draw the reader's attention to some (but not all) of the critical-thinking discussions in the text. The lightbulb and tab are meant to say to students, "Listen up! As you read about this topic, you will need to be especially careful about assumptions, evidence, and conclusions." The critical-thinking lightbulb also appears in Quick Quizzes (see the discussion of active learning on page xiv) to alert students to quiz items that give them practice in critical thinking.

True critical thinking, we have always maintained, cannot be reduced to a set of rhetorical questions or to a formula for analyzing studies. It is a process of evaluating claims and ideas, and thus it must be woven into a book's narrative. We try to model critical thinking for students in our evaluations not only of popular but unsupported cultural ideas, such as ESP and subliminal perception, but also of popular but unsupported academic ideas, such as Carol Gilligan's notion that the sexes differ in moral reasoning or Maslow's concept of a motivational hierarchy. Similarly, we try to model the importance of critical thinking and empirical evidence in our coverage of psychological issues that have evoked emotional debate, such as children's eyewitness testimony, multiple personality disorder, "recovered" memories, parental versus peer influence on children, the role of biology in addiction, definitions of racism and sexism, and many others. An emphasis on critical thinking is also integral to the book's new on-line media program (see below); students are not just given links to relevant web sites—they are encouraged to think critically about the material they find there.

4. Liveliness and Relevance

Virginia Woolf once said that fiction is not dropped like a pebble upon the ground, but, like a spider's web, is attached to life at all four corners. The same principle applies to good textbook writing. Authors of texts at all levels have a unique opportunity to combine scholarly rigor and authority with warmth and compassion in conveying what psychologists know (and still seek to know) about the predicaments and puzzles of life:

The predicaments and puzzles that people care most about, of course, are those that arise in their own lives. Taking Psychology with You, a feature that concludes each chapter, draws on research reported in the chapter to tackle practical topics such as living with chronic pain (Chapter 5), becoming more creative (Chapter 6), improving study habits (Chapter 8), getting along with people of other cultures (Chapter 9), and evaluating self-help programs and books (Chapter 11).

However,: we also want students to see that psychology can deepen our understanding of events and problems that go beyond the personal. Each chapter therefore begins with a real story from the news—about a 63year-old woman giving birth, an eyewitness whose mistaken testimony sent a man to prison for 11 years, the apparent rise of "Internet addiction," a child who died during a session of "rebirthing" therapy in Colorado—and asks students how they might think critically about the issues the story raises.

This Psychology in the News feature is not merely a "motivator" to be quickly forgotten; each story is revisited at the end of the chapter, where concepts and findings from the chapter are used to analyze and evaluate the questions raised earlier. We think this device helps promote critical thinking and also helps students appreciate that psychology is indeed "attached to life at all four corners."

5. Active Learning

One of the soundest findings about learning is that you can't just sit there like a flounder while it happens. You have to be actively involved, whether practicing a new skill or encoding new material. In this textbook, we have included several pedagogical features designed to encourage students to become actively involved in what they are reading.

What's Ahead introduces each major section within a chapter. This feature consists of a brief set of questions that are not merely rhetorical but are intended to be provocative or intriguing enough to arouse students' curiosity and draw them into the material: Why do some people get depressed even though they "have it all"? Why are people who are chronically angry and mistrustful their own worst enemy? What's the difference between ordinary techniques of persuasion and the coercive techniques used by cults?

Looking Back, at the end of each chapter, lists all of the What's Ahead questions along with page numbers to show where the material for each question was covered. This way, students can check their retention and can easily review if they find that they can't answer a question. This feature also has another purpose: Students will gain a sense of how much they are learning about matters of personal and social importance, and will be able to appreciate how much more psychology offers beyond "common sense." Some instructors may want to turn some of these questions into essay or short-answer test items or written assignments.

Quick Quizzes have been retained and adapted from our longer text because of their track record in promoting active learning. These periodic self-tests encourage students to check their progress while they are reading and to go back and review if necessary. The quizzes do more than test for memorization of definitions; they tell students whether they comprehend the issues. Mindful of the common tendency to skip quizzes or to peek at the answers, we have used various formats and have included entertaining examples in order to motivate students to test themselves.

As mentioned earlier, many of the quizzes also include critical-thinking questions, identified by the lightbulb symbol. They invite the student to reflect on the implications of findings and to consider how psychological principles might illuminate real-life issues. For example: What kinds of questions should a critical thinker ask about a new drug for depression? If a woman's job performance is declining, what else besides low achievement might be the reason? How should a critical consumer evaluate some expert's claim that health is entirely a matter of "mind over matter"? Although we offer some possible responses to such questions, most of them do not have a single correct answer, and students may be able to come up with some valid, well-reasoned answers that differ from our own.

Get Involved exercises provide an entertaining approach to active learning. Some consist of quick demonstrations (e.g., swing a flashlight in a dark closet to see how images remain briefly in sensory memory); some are simple mini-studies (e.g., violate a social norm and see what happens); and some help students relate course material to their own lives (e.g., list the extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcers that might be involved in a diverse array of activities, from studying to prayer). Instructors may want to assign some of these exercises to the entire class and then discuss the results and what they mean.

Other pedagogical features include graphic illustrations of complex concepts; summary tables; a running glossary that defines boldfaced technical terms on the pages where they occur for handy reference and study; a cumulative glossary at the back of the book; a list of key terms at the end of each chapter with page numbers so that students can find the sections where the terms are covered; chapter outlines; and chapter summaries in paragraph form to help students review major concepts.

6. Coverage of Human Diversity

When the first edition of our longer textbook came out, some considered our goal of mainstreaming issues of gender, ethnicity, and culture into introductory psychology quite radical—either a sop to political correctness or a fluffy and superficial fad in psychology. Today, the issue is no longer whether to include these topics, but how best to do it.

From the beginning, our own answer has been to raise relevant studies and issues about gender and culture in the main body of the text, and we continue to do so. Are there sex differences in the brain? This controversial and fascinating issue belongs in the brain chapter (Chapter 4). Do people from all cultures experience and express emotion the same way, and do women and men differ in "emotionality"? These topics belong in the emotion chapter (Chapter 12). In addition...

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