Brief yet detailed, this book provides a thoughtful history of human civilizations while maintaining a balance between the Western world and the rest of global civilization. It covers the general intellectual and material history of human societies and cultures that have left some kind of written and/or archeological record behind. A four-part organization covers the coming of civilization, empires and cultures of the ancient world, consolidation and interaction of world civilizations, and the world in transition. For anyone trying to understand the historical experiences that have informed and shaped the world's cultures.
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Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching Professor of History at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he took his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration (1961), and, with others, of East Asia, Tradition and Transformation (1978). He is the editor of Japan, A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970). At present he is engaged in research on the thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi. For eleven years (1976-1987) he was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo Universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.
William A. Graham is a Professor of the History of Religion and Islamic Studies, Chairman of the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and Master of Currier House at Harvard University. From 1990-1996 he directed Harvard's Center for Middle Eastern Studies. He has taught for twenty-six years at Harvard, where he received the A.M. and Ph.D. degrees after graduating with an A.B. in comparative literature from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He also studied in Gottingen, Tubingen, and Lebanon. He is the author of Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977); awarded the American Council of Learned Societies History of Religions book prize in 1978, and of Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987). He has published a variety of articles in both Islamic studies and the general history of religion and is one of the editors of the forthcoming Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. He serves currently on the editorial board of several journals and has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships.
Donald Kagan is Hillhouse Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 19581959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received four awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969), The Archidamian War (1974), The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981), and The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); and On the Origins of War (1995). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings.
Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of nine books. The Age of Reform, 1250-1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Four of his books: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), and The Burgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996) were selections of the History Book Club. His most recent book is Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999).
Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, and Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University (1996). Since 1996 he has served as a Trustee of Connecticut College.Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
The twenty-first century is upon us, and its arrival demands, as never before, an understanding of human history in a global context. The pressures of the present—of a new century and a new millennium—draw us to seek a more certain understanding of the past.
The idea of globalization was once just that, an idea. It is now a pressing reality in the life of nations, affecting the standard of living, the environment, and war and peace. Globalization is also a daily reality in the lives of ordinary people. Not only are global markets linked as never before, but the internet quickly delivers all manner of information to the readers of this book. People with different cultural heritages, religious beliefs, and economic and political expectations are being drawn into ever closer contact with one another. If that experience is to be one of peace and mutual respect, then understanding the historical experiences that have informed and shaped the world's cultures is essential. Globalization demands of world citizens greater historical knowledge than ever before. The Heritage of World Civilizations provides a path to such knowledge.The Roots of Globalization
Globalization itself has resulted from two major historical developments: the closing of the European era of world history and the rise of technology. From approximately 1500 to the middle of the twentieth century, Europeans gradually came to dominate the world through colonization (most particularly in North and South America), political organization, economic productivity, and military power.
That era ended during the third quarter of the twentieth century after Europe had brought unprecedented destruction on itself during World War II and as the nations of Asia, the Near East, and Africa achieved new positions on the world scene. Their new political independence, their control over strategic natural resources, and the expansion of their economies (particularly those of the nations of the Pacific rim of Asia), and in some cases their access to nuclear weapons have changed the shape of world affairs.
The second historical development that continues to fuel the pace of globalization is technology, associated most importantly with transportation, military weapons, and electronic communication. The advances in transportation over the past two centuries including ships, railways, and airplanes made more parts of the world and its resources accessible to more people in ever shorter spans of time. Military weapons of increasingly destructive power over the past century and a half enabled Europeans to dominate other regions of the globe Now, the spread of these weapons means that any nation with sophisticated military technology can threaten any other nation, no matter how far away. Most recently, the electronic revolution associated with computer technology in all its forms has sparked an unprecedented speed and complexity in global communications. It is astonishing to recall that personal computers have been generally available for less than twenty years and that rapid communication associated with them has existed for less than a decade.
Why not, then, focus only on new factors in the modern world, such as the impact of technology and the end of the European era? To do that would ignore the very deep roots that these developments have in the past. Modern technology and society were shaped by the values, ingenuity, and expectations of people centuries old. For that reason, The Heritage of World Civilizations continues to pay particular attention to the emergence of the major religious traditions. These link today's civilizations to their most ancient roots and continue to exert a powerful influence worldwide. We believe this emphasis on the great religious traditions recognizes not only a factor that has shaped the past but also one of the most dynamic, influential forces of today.
We also bring a comparative perspective to our survey, tracing the threads of interaction that have linked civilizations throughout history. In the end, students should emerge more culturally sensitive citizens of the global, twenty-first century.The Brief Edition
We prepared the brief version of our text, The Heritage of World Civilizations, Fifth Edition, in response to the demand for abridged textbooks in the field, by instructors who wanted to use readings, computer simulations, or a variety of other sources of information as well as a textbook in their courses.
The brief edition is about half as long as the complete version. We eliminated 25 percent of the text, and made up the rest of the cuts by removing some photographs, maps, and source documents. We also eliminated the part essays, comparative perspectives, and religions of the world essays from the complete version of the text, but these, as well as the source documents cut from this version, may be found on the companion website for this text, at www.prenhall.com/craig. Throughout the abridgement process we made sure that the text retained the coherency of the full-length version. Every effort was made to keep the narrative lively and engaging.Strengths of the Text
Balanced and Flexible Presentation. In this edition, as in past editions, we have sought to present world history fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to its great variety. History has many facets, no one of which can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of civilization from a single perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story.
Historians have recently brought a vast array of new tools and concepts to bear on the study of history. Our coverage introduces students to various aspects of social and intellectual history as well as to the more traditional political, diplomatic, and military coverage. We firmly believe that only through an appreciation of all pathways to understanding of the past can the real heritage of world civilizations be claimed.
The Heritage of World Civilizations is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in world civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others will select among them to reinforce assigned readings and lectures.
Clarity and Accessibility. Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. Our goal has been to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising on vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.
Recent Scholarship. As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the expanding concerns of professional historians.
Pedagogical Features. This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, helping to make the text accessible to students, reinforcing key concepts, and providing a global, comparative perspective.
Content and Organization. The many changes in content and organization in the 5th edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations reflect our ongoing effort to present a truly global survey of world civilization that at the same time gives a rich picture of the history of individual regions.
In an effort to draw students into both a comparative and, in this case, transatlantic perspective, we have omitted the separate chapter on North America in the nineteenth century, transferring most of that material to chapters which deal with related topics in European history. Thus, for example, the Civil War in the United States appears in the chapter on nineteenth-century nation-state consolidation (Chapter 27). Similarly, the late nineteenth-century social development of the United States now appears with the contemporaneous developments in Europe (Chapter 28). We hope that such integration will enable students to understand the broad strands of the development of the United States in a broader context.
Revisions of specific chapters include the following:
A Note on Dates and Transliterations. We have used B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of our Lord) to designate dates.
Until recently, most scholarship on China used the Wade Giles system of romanization for Chinese names and terms In order that students may move easily from the present text to the existing body of advanced scholarship on Chinese history, we have used the Wade-Giles system throughout. China today, however, uses another system known as pinyin. Virtually all Western newspapers have adopted it Therefore, for Chinese history since 1949 we have included the pinyin spellings in parentheses after the Wade-Giles. Also, we have followed the currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words. For example, today Koran is being replaced by the more accurate Qur'an; similarly Muhammad is preferable to Mohammed and Muslim to Moslem. We have not tried to distinguish the letters 'ayn and hamza; both are rendered by a simple apostrophe ('), as in shi'ite.
With regard to Sanskritic transliteration, we have not distinguished linguals and dentals, and both palatal and lingual s are rendered sh, as in Shiva and Upanishad.Ancillary Instructional Materials
The Heritage of World Civilisations, Brief Edition, comes with an extensive package of ancillary materials.
The ancillary package also includes an extensive list of multimedia supplements.
History on the Internet. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the History discipline and how to use the Companion Website™ available for The Heritage of World Civilizations. This supplementary book is free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.
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