Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing

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9780130415820: Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing

This textbook provides the most current, authoritative, and comprehensive information on psychiatric-mental health nursing. The theme of this book is global mental health, with an emphasis on cultural competence, community, evidence-based nursing practice, and global issues of mental health care. The five units of this book focus on the theoretical basis for psychiatric-mental health nursing practice, the processes and competencies for effective care, the nursing care far clients with mental disorders, vulnerable populations, and various nursing intervention strategies. FEATURES *Using Research Evidence--demonstrates haw the reader can develop nursing interventions based on current research citations. *Nursing Self-Awareness--engages the reader in a process of introspection and self-inquiry. *Rx Communication--provides verbatim examples of possible responses to a client and the rationales far alternatives help the reader apply therapeutic communication principles. *Critical Thinking Challenges--begin each chapter with a case-based scenario that encourages readers to analyze an issue or an assertion related to the chapter topic.* Caring for the Spirit--reinforces the inter-connection of body, mind, and spirit far a holistic perspective. *Culture, Family, and Medication Icons--highlight content that develops cultural competence, includes the family as partners in psychiatric-mental health care, or relates to psychapharmacalagy. *Case Studies, Nursing Care Plans, DSM-IV-TR Classification, Client/Family Teaching, MediaLinks, and more! INTERACTIVE MEDIA RESOURCES *Free Student CD-ROM--an interactive program with NCLEX-style questions and rationales, an audio glossary, animations, video clips, and a link to the Companian Website. *Free Companion Website www.prenhall.com/kneisl--with additional NCLEX-style review questions, critical thinking activities, case studies, care plan assignments, links to related resources, and more! *Online Course Companions for schools using course management systems such as, Blackboard, WebCT, and Course Compass.

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About the Author:

Carol Ren Kneisl, RN, MS, APRN, DABFN, has had a variety of psychiatric-mental health nursing experiences as a Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Psychiatry-Mental Health. She has taught psychiatric-mental health nursing in a diploma school, a baccalaureate program, and a master's program that prepared clinical specialists in psychiatric-mental health nursing. She has been a staff nurse, a nurse manager, and a nursing supervisor, and has supervised the group therapy of clinical nurse specialists and psychiatry medical residents.

Carol is also a nurse entrepreneur. She is the President of Nursing Transitions, a corporation that provides continuing education for psychiatric-mental health and corrections/forensic nurses. Her company sponsored the first national nursing conference focused on AIDS. She is a national and international speaker and consults with nurses and mental health and forensic agencies on topics such as group therapy, stress management, self-awareness issues and strategies, implementation of client rights, competency to stand trial, and negligence and malpractice in psychiatric-mental health nursing.

Carol has authored or contributed to 18 nursing textbooks and several nursing journals. She has been an associate editor of a psychiatric nursing review journal and has served on several editorial boards. She is a Diplomate in the American College of Forensic Examiners, Board of Forensic Nurse Examiners (DABFN). Carol was among the first nurses in the country to develop clinical specialist certification in conjunction with nurses from New York and New Jersey. Their work formed the basis for the national certification granted through the American Nurses Credentialing Center of the American Nurses Association.

She is a graduate of one of the oldest diploma schools in the country, the Millard Fillmore Hospital School of Nursing in Buffalo, New York, from which she received the Alumna of the Century award on the occasion of the school's 100-year anniversary. Carol has a BS in nursing from the University of Buffalo and an MS as a Clinical Nurse Specialist in psychiatric nursing from the University of California at San Francisco, and holds a certificate in community mental health administration from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

Carol is a docent of the Pensacola Museum of Art and the mother of two adult children—a daughter who is a right-brained artist and a son who is a left-brained mathematician. She writes and consults from her home on the beach in Orange Beach, Alabama.

Holly Skodol Wilson, BSN, MSN, PhD, is aProfessor Emerita in the Department of Community Health Systems at the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing. Her most recent funded research focused on Quality of Life Assessment for ethnically diverse HIV-infected persons and symptom management and medication adherence among HIV/AIDS patients. She has taught psychiatric-mental health nursing assessment and qualitative research methods across all programs at UCSF since 1969. Dr. Wilson earned her BSN from Duke University, where she subsequently received the distinguished alumnae award, her MSN in psychiatric nursing at Case-Western Reserve University and her PhD in the Sociology of Psychiatry and Education at the University of California, Berkeley.

Dr. Wilson has published over 80 scientific and scholarly articles in the professional literature and is author, co-author and contributor to 18 books, foremost among them are her award-winning Psychiatric Nursing and Nursing Research texts. She has also served on the editorial boards of numerous peer-reviewed nursing journals. Dr. Wilson is a national and international speaker and consultant on topics including psychiatric assessment, qualitative clinical research and nursing education. She was among the few nurses selected as a Kellogg National Leadership Fellow and has presented papers or served as visiting Professor throughout Asia, New Zealand, Australia, Kenya, Israel, Egypt, Scandinavia, South America, Puerto Rico, and Canada, as well as the United States. She was elected a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing in 1979, and has served as a Distinguished Lecturer for Sigma Theta Tau.

Holly is the single mother of three adult daughters and enjoys her young grandchildren, who live near her home in Mill Valley, California. When not writing, consulting, teaching, and traveling, Holly is a nature enthusiast and a fan of film and the arts.

Eileen Trigoboff, RN, APRN/PMH-BC, DNS, DABFN, is a Clinical Nurse Specialist with a specialty in Adult Psychiatry-Mental Health in a private psychotherapy practice in Western New York. An important part of her practice is the national and international interdisciplinary supervision of, and consultation with, other mental health and health care professionals. She has a position as a Clinical Nurse Specialist in psychiatry at the Buffalo Psychiatric Center in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Trigoboff is the Chair of the Institutional Review Board at the facility that reviews, modifies, and supervises all scientific research in health-related issues conducted in a large part of New York State under the Office of Mental Health's auspices. She has taught associate degree, bachelor's degree, and graduate-level nursing students on all aspects of the nursing process, research methodologies, statistics, and pharmacology. Dr. Trigoboff has also been the Nurse of Distinction, an honor awarded to outstanding nurse clinicians.

Dr. Trigoboff earned her BSN, her MS as a Clinical Nurse Specialist in psychiatric nursing, and her Doctorate in Nursing Science (DNS) in psychiatric nursing from the State University of New York at Buffalo. Dr. Trigoboff received a National Institutes of Mental Health Individual National Research Service Award Pre-Doctoral Research Fellowship for her dissertation research on medication teaching and psychopharrnacology. Her research interests span nursing interventions from the use of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluations (NOSIE) for assault predictions with seriously and persistently mentally ill clients to the effectiveness of a relaxation audiotape program on psychiatric inpatients. She is a member of the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society for Nursing and is a Diplomate in the American College of Forensic Examiners, Board of Forensic Nurse Examiners (DABFN). Dr. Trigoboff is author, co-author, and contributor to 12 books and numerous journal articles. She has presented internationally on a wide variety of clinical, research, and professional topics to health care, governmental, and corporate organizations. She continues to be an international speaker and consultant on topics including professional issues, assessment, psychopathologies, and interventions. She also serves on the editorial boards of several professional journals. She is active in community service venues, including clinical settings and family support groups. She also serves as a computer systems consultant to facilities in her local area and belongs to numerous professional nursing organizations.

Eileen enjoys her devoted clinical psychologist husband, her interesting relationship with her Congo African Grey parrot, a large and loving family, good friends, international travel, reading, and gardening.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Millions of people worldwide suffer from mental health disorders. In fact, five of the leading causes of disability in the world today are psychiatric in nature. Psychiatric-mental health nursing is a specialized area that employs a wide range of explanatory theories and research on human behavior as its science and the purposeful use of self as its art. Understanding people who are searching for meaning through interaction in complex times demands the most authoritative and contemporary knowledge and clinical competence. It is through the power of knowledge and clinical competence that psychiatric-mental health nurses can help clients from diverse cultures to live with uncertainty, unfamiliarity and unpredictability and to pursue creative healing on psychobiologic and spiritual levels. Our goal for this textbook, Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, and its companion supplements is to provide students and practicing psychiatric-mental health nurses with the most up-to-date, evidence-based, culturally competent, authoritative, comprehensive resource available and to present it in an accessible, clinically relevant, and professional format.

UNDERLYING THEMES

Throughout this textbook, we as authors try to remain true to values of humanism, interactionism, cultural competence, the relevance of meaning, and the importance of empathy and empowerment in the nurse-client relationship. We believe that psychiatric-mental health nursing is concerned with the quality of human life and its relationship to optimal psychobiologic health, feelings of self-worth, personal integrity, self-fulfillment, spirituality, and creative expression. The psychiatric-mental health nurse's scope of practice is broad enough to include issues such as alienation, identity crises, sudden life changes, and troubled family relationships. It may involve issues of poverty and affluence, cross-cultural disparities in access to health care, and the human experiences of birth, death, and loss. Psychiatric-mental health nursing is concerned with sustaining and enhancing the mental health of both the individual and the group, while its practice locale is often found in the community.

In exploring the theme of global mental health, each unit of this book opens with compelling photographs and stories of individuals from around the world who face a variety of mental health issues. By presenting the readers with this global perspective, we hope to promote awareness of the relevance of those same global issues in our own culturally diverse society.

Along these lines, we selected a Mandela to represent the essence of this book. Mandela is the Sanskrit word for circle and symbolizes wholeness or organization around a unifying center. The goal of this book is to explore science, art, and spirituality as a path toward our shared vision of global mental health. It is synthesis of elements important to a holistic view. The Mandela used throughout this book and on its cover is entitled The Great Mother, created by Cynthia Cunningham Baxter. It consists of hands and a mother tree, which is consistent with nursing's goals of care, compassion, and comfort.

CONTEMPORARY TRENDS

The themes, ideas, knowledge, tools, and organization of this textbook were expressly designed for psychiatric-mental health nursing students and clinicians who are committed to developing the habits of mind, responsibility, and practice that will make a difference in view of contemporary trends. Specifically, this text prepares students to tailor and humanize interventions for traditional as well as "new" psychiatricmental health clients often encountered in forensic settings, homeless shelters, and in other community-based and rehabilitation-oriented settings.

Furthermore, because advances in neuroscience and the study of the human genome are redefining our conception of the basis for mental disorders, a solid grounding in psychobiology is threaded throughout the book. Brain imaging assessment and concise yet comprehensive information on the expanding array of psychopharmacologic treatment is yet another strong emphasis. We recognize that psychiatric-mental health clients are racially and culturally diverse and include growing numbers of mentally ill elders, children, adolescents, and people with coexisting substance use disorders or comorbidities with other chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS. Therefore, we devote separate chapters to each of the above topics. We feel confident in entitling this book Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing because of its explicit links to contemporary trends in our field.

ORGANIZATION

The detailed table of contents at the beginning of the book makes its clear organization easy to follow. The book is divided into five parts. Unit I clusters six chapters that provide comprehensive coverage of the theoretic basis for psychiatric-mental health nursing. In Unit II, we address topics traditionally associated with psychiatric-mental health nursing, such as using the nursing process, therapeutic communication, assessment, advocacy and client rights, and creating a therapeutic environment. Unit III focuses on caring for clients with specific DSMIV-TR mental disorders. First, we outline the defining characteristics of each disorder, then we cover the biopsychosocial theories necessary to understand them, and finally we apply the nursing process to caring for clients with these disorders. Unit IV shifts the focus to vulnerable populations that require comfort and care from `psychiatric-mental health nurses. These populations include people at risk for self-destructive behavior, abuse, or violence; psychiatric-mental health clients with HIV/AIDS; and specific age groups. Unit V of the book provides authoritative coverage of nursing intervention strategies and desired outcomes, including a wide range of modalities, from individual, group, and family interventions to psychopharmacology and complementary and alternative healing practices. Throughout the book, experts contributed their knowledge and skills on all the topics covered.

FEATURES

The following noteworthy features weave together the threads of research, theory, and practice into a comprehensive and contemporary fabric of knowledge and competencies essential to psychiatric-mental health nursing. The content and processes are clearly applicable to the care of identified psychiatric-mental health clients, yet they are also relevant when integrated into the care of all those with whom we interact as professional nurses.

  • Using Research Evidence. In addition to a full chapter devoted to evidence-based psychiatric-mental health nursing practice (Chapter 3), each chapter includes a clinical vignette illustrating how research evidence shapes the plan of care for a particular client.
  • Case-Based Critical Thinking Challenges. Because critical thinking skills are essential to evidence-based practice, a Critical Thinking Challenge begins each chapter, challenging readers to analyze a case scenario that is related to the chapter topic. The discussion points for the critical thinking challenge appear in the Instructor's Resource Manual accompanying this text.
  • Caring for the Spirit. These boxes reinforce the belief in the interconnection of mind, body, and spirit. They appear throughout the book and are designed to promote the understanding of the client's essence, meaning, and purpose in life, as well as the nurse's role in supporting spirituality.
  • Culture and Family Awareness icons throughout the book call the reader's attention to content that bears on the importance of developing cultural competence and the value of including the family as partners in psychiatric-mental health care.
  • Medication icons throughout identify sections of the text that discuss psychopharmacology.
  • Case Studies and Nursing Care Plans are found in each of the clinical chapters. These plans use NANDA, NOC, and NIC nomenclature and illustrate linkages among them when caring for clients diagnosed with specific mental disorders according to the DSM-IV-TR.
  • Assessment Guidelines, Intervention Guidelines, Client-Family Teaching boxes all present clinically relevant strategies in a succinct, user-friendly format. Assessment Guidelines contain lists of assessment points. Intervention Guidelines list specific nursing intervention strategies along with their rationales. Client-Family Teaching boxes provide specific client-oriented information that contains sample language a nurse can use when working with clients.
  • Nursing Self-Awareness. Appearing throughout the book, these boxes engage the reader in a process of introspection and self-questioning that is essential to the therapeutic use of self.
  • Rx Communication. Each of the clinical chapters focuses on clients within a particular psychiatric diagnostic category and includes a specially designed box to offer sample dialogues of what a nurse can say in response to clients. In addition, we provide the rationale for at least two different but helpful alternatives. This feature is designed to provide students with a beginning repertoire of communication interventions useful when interacting with psychiatricmental health clients.
  • Case Management, Community-Based Care, and Home Care. Each of the psychiatric disorders chapters and vulnerable populations chapters includes specific information that reflects the fact that the setting for much of psychiatric nursing practice today is found in the community rather than in the hospital.
  • MediaLink and EXPLORE MediaLink. At the beginning of each chapter, a MediaLink box lists specific content, animations and videos, NCLEX review questions, tools, and other interactive exercises that appear on the accompanying Student CD-ROM and the Companion Website. Special MediaLink tabs appear in the margins throughout the chapter that refer the student to the topics and activities on the medi...

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