AIDS Update 2003: An Annual Overview of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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9780130475466: AIDS Update 2003: An Annual Overview of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

This book requires no biology prerequisite and is the most comprehensive, authoritative, accurate, and up-to-date book on HIV/AIDS currently available as it is updated each and every year. It presents the entire 22-year chronology of the AIDS pandemic in a reasonable, logical, and scientific manner that interweaves biological, clinical, social, and legal discoveries in a uniquely readable presentation. The author considers what causes AIDS, biological characteristics of the AIDS virus, immunology of HIV disease, preventing the transmission of HIV, testing for human immunodeficiency virus, and AIDS and society.

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AIDS is a devastating world-wide pandemic. During the past two decades, more manpower and money has been spent on HIV and AIDS research, care, and prevention then into any other disease in history. As we enter the 21st century, it is hoped that our efforts will be successful in eradicating this disease.

We are continually being bombarded with new theories and courses of treatment, while the public awareness of the disease continually evolves and changes. It is important to understand where we have been in order to understand where we are going with this disease in the new millennium. However, keeping up with and interpreting this information is extremely difficult. AIDS UPDATE 2003 presents a balanced review of the latest information and most important aspects of HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. More important, AIDS UPDATE 2003 places this information within a biological, medical, social, and legal framework so we can more fully understand this devastating modern-day pandemic.

Author Gerald J. Stine answers the most common questions people have about the AIDS virus and how, it impacts the stability of nations. Other topics presented are:

  • How the immune system responds to HIV infection
  • Possible origins of the virus
  • How HIV is transmitted
  • Who is most likely to become infected and why
  • The means of preventing HIV infection
  • FDA approved antiretroviral therapies in use, their effectiveness, and limitations
  • The potential for a vaccine and when there will be one
  • Tests available to detect HIV infection, their accuracy, cost, and availability
  • Problems with counseling and confidentiality
  • The alarming number of HIV infections and AIDS deaths nationally and globally
  • The AIDS industry, the national and global costs, and who is going to pay for it
  • The information out of the 2002 XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona, Spain
  • The political, economic, medical, and emotional impact of the AIDS pandemic world wide.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:


I hope that as you read this edition of AIDS UPDATE 2003, you will gain a clearer perspective on the ways in which the issue of HIV/AIDS is paradoxically at the center of controversy and, at the same time, sidelined by the silence about its causes and prevention. The edition of AIDS UPDATE also presents information on how the terrorist attack on September 11th, 2001, on the World Trade Center towers in New York and on the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., impacted financial donations and behaviors with respect to the needs of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. This attack has had ripple effects that altered the lives of so many people worldwide. It-has caused people to re-evaluate their personal goals and shifted public awareness away from long-term problem solving to anxious anticipation of preparedness for the next attack. Regardless, the AIDS crisis in not nearly over—the hardest parts of dealing with this disease are in progress.

—The Author


To place the HIV/AIDS pandemic in perspective, consider Michael Crichton's The Andromeda Strain. The essence of this story revolves around the release of an unidentified and untreatable lethal strain of bacteria into the human population. With a few changes—substituting HIV for bacterium, adjusting the time of death after infection, and describing how one dies from the disease—Crichton could have been writing about HIV/AIDS. But with HIV/AIDS, the onset of a real human tragedy, we are learning about our social contradictions, our strengths and our weaknesses, and we are questioning whether this is a morally acceptable disease. How long will it take for this to become a socially acceptable disease?


As presented in this book, the reader will note the ability of HIV to cause a slow, progressive, and permanent disease. Thus, with no recovery, no loss of infectivity, no development of either individual or group immunity, there is at present no known biological mechanism that can stop the continuing expansion of the disease unless an effective vaccine were to come about, and at present there is no feasible design for such an effective vaccine. The progressive increase in the pool of HIV can, in theory, only lead to an exponential increase in the number of individuals who will become infected until eventually the majority of the sexually active population will be infected unless interventions are at least moderately successful.

It is because this scenario may become reality and because people worldwide are becoming HIV infected every few seconds and dying of AIDS each minute, and because together we must try to prevent the further spread of HIV, that this text continues to be updated.

This text reviews important aspects of HIV infection, HIV disease, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It presents a balanced review of factual information about the biological, medical, social, economic, and legal aspects of this modern-day pandemic.

The intricacy of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has unfolded over the last 22 years. Many of the details of basic research, applied biology, medicine, and social unrest are presented in an attempt to convey the few victories and many setbacks within this ongoing saga. Medical and social anecdotes help to convey a sense of the HIV/AIDS tragedy worldwide. The history of the disease describes how the virus is and is not transmitted. Throughout the text there is a special focus on risk behaviors and risk situations involved in HIV transmission and the means to prevent its transmission. The number of social issues raised by this disease are mind-boggling. Many of these issues are presented—some as open-ended questions for class discussions. Such questions help the student reflect on what he or she has read.


The purpose of this text is to present an understandable scientific explanation of what has been learned about HIV/AIDS over the last 22 years. In addition, it is particularly important to provide students with a conceptual framework of the issues raised by the HIV/AIDS pandemic so that they will be better able to deal with the challenges posed by this disease. Clearly, this pandemic poses new and unforeseen problems with no quick biological solutions. Only through reason can we respond in a socially acceptable fashion.

Because there is a constant stream of new in formation to be interpreted and shared, a new edition will be published every year. What has been learned and what must still be learned to bring HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS under control is valuable information to most, if not all, of us.


This text is intended for use in college-level courses on AIDS and as a supplemental HIV/AIDS resource in medical and nursing schools, in colleges of allied health sciences, in psychology department courses on human sexuality and human behavior, in courses on sexually transmitted diseases, in summer teachers programs, in the training of AIDS counselors, in state-mandated AIDS education courses for health care workers, and for physicians who need a ready source of information on how to prevent HIV infection, HIV disease, and its progression to AIDS, and types of therapy available. This text is suitable in those cases where information and education about the various aspects of HIV infection, disease, and AIDS are either wanted or required.

During the 22 years since HIV/AIDS was defined as a new disease, more manpower and money has been poured into HIV/AIDS research than into any other disease in history. Information on the virus that causes AIDS has accumulated at an unprecedented pace. Since the discovery of this virus in 1982-1983, scientists have learned much about how it functions and how it affects the immune system. More was learned about the virus in the first six years after its discovery than had been learned about the polio virus in the first 40 years of the polio epidemic. During the first six years of AIDS research, the virus's genetic material was cloned, its structure ascertained, and individual viral genes identified. In fact, so many billions of dollars have been spent on HIV/AIDS that many now believe HIV/AIDS research has taken away much-needed resources from other diseases that kill many times more people per year than does AIDS.


Because so much of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has been based on the manipulation of distorted scientific fact, it is necessary to counter these distortions and myths by presenting the most consistent, reproducible, and scientifically acceptable facts as possible. Therefore, this text offers answers to questions many people have about HIV and how their immune systems are affected by it. Covered herein are the activity of the immune system with respect to HIV disease, where the virus might have come from, how it is transmitted, who is most likely to become infected, viral prevalence (geographical distribution of the number of people infected and those expressing HIV disease and AIDS), possible means of preventing infection, signs and symptoms of HIV disease and AIDS, chronological definitions of AIDS, the opportunistic infections most often associated with AIDS, FDA-approved and non-approved drugs and their effectiveness, the potential for a vaccine to HIV, the tests available to detect HIV infection, the accuracy of these tests, their cost, availability, and confidentiality. The last chapter deals with the fear of HIV infection and the social reaction of the uninfected toward the HIV-infected.

The majority of references herein are dated between 1988 and year 2002. Every state in the United States has HIV-infected people and reported people diagnosed with AIDS. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that of 209 countries reporting to it, 194 have reported diagnosed cases of AIDS through year 2002. The virus is truly pandemic and now threatens most-of the human population. Yet it is a preventable disorder, and the steps to prevention are presented in Chapter 9.


The Introduction, a must read, presents examples of fear and ignorance that surrounded previous global pandemics and now AIDS! Also presented is an overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic—its place in the history of pandemics and some of the ways groups and organizations have reacted to this new disease: the 14th World International AIDS Conference, the making of the AIDS quilt, and the founding of World's AIDS Day every December 1. There are photographs of people who, through their deaths from AIDS, brought a focus to this disease that was not there before. Ending the Introduction is a list of national toll-free AIDS hotlines and very timely and useful internet addresses.

Chapter 1 presents information on the discovery of the disease and naming of the illness. Chapter 2 discusses the cause of AIDS and the possible origin of the AIDS virus. Chapter 3 presents the biological characteristics of the virus. Chapter 4 presents current retroviral therapy, and its problems using those drugs to prevent HIV reproduction. Chapter 5 discusses the human immune system as it relates to HIV disease and the loss of the immune system's function. Chapter 6 presents the various opportunistic diseases, how they are affected by the use of retroviral therapy, and forms of cancer associated with HIV disease and AIDS. Chapter 7 discusses the clinical profile of biological indicators of HIV disease and AIDS. Chapter 8 presents the means by which HIV is most efficiently transmitted among humans. Chapter 9 details the most effective means to date of preventing HIV infection and the possibilities for a vaccine. Chapter 10 gives the incidence of HIV infections, HIV disease, and AIDS cases among selected behavioral at-risk persons for HIV infection worldwide and in the United States. Also, this chapter presents more detailed information on AIDS in Africa because no other place on Earth has been so devastated by this disease. Chapter 11 presents the prevalence and problems of HIV disease in women, children, and teenagers. Chapter 12 presents those tests most often used to detect the presence of HIV, biological shortcomings of the tests, the confidentiality or lack of confidentiality before and after test results, and costs. Chapter 13 offers insight to the many social ramifications of having HIV disease or AIDS, human attitudes, and behaviors. This chapter offers a section on the AIDS industry. It presents the billions of dollars spent on this disease by the federal government and private industry over the first 22 years of this pandemic. There is also a new section on financial waste and fraud. There is also a glossary of terms and index and a list of telephone numbers to federal, state, and other groups that offer information and help with all aspects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.


Each chapter contains chapter concepts, a summary, review questions, and references. Answers to questions appear at the back of the book. Chapters also contain definitions for new terms as they are introduced, illustrations, photographs, and tables. All 13 chapters contain boxed information. All of the chapters contain either highlighted points of view, points of information, cases in point, sidebars, side issues, looking back features, points to ponder and pro and con discussions. They illustrate and emphasize important events and information about HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. At certain places in the text, there are sets of class discussion statements and class questions. Instructors may wish to challenge the class in these areas.


Internet addresses, state HIV/AIDS hotlines, toll-free national HIV/AIDS information on prevention, therapy, health care providers, local and state programs relating to specific areas of research and funding, access to information on women, children, and teenage HIV/AIDS programs, and information on where to access materials on what HIV-infected parents may want to tell their children about their condition and the disease in general, can be found within and at the ends of most chapters.


As educators, it is our job to expose our students to the new concepts in biology that are shaping humanity's future. To do that, we must expose them to new vocabulary, new methodologies, new information and new ideas. It is my hope that this text will help in this endeavor.

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Gerald J., Ph.D. Stine
Published by Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co (2002)
ISBN 10: 0130475467 ISBN 13: 9780130475466
New Paperback Quantity Available: 1
Irish Booksellers
(Rumford, ME, U.S.A.)

Book Description Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co, 2002. Paperback. Book Condition: New. book. Bookseller Inventory # M0130475467

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