Understanding Electronic Communications

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9780130818133: Understanding Electronic Communications
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Describes a broad cross-section of file transmission methods while familiarizing printers with networking technologies and applications. Appendices includes a glossary and responses to a survey that asked professionals at seven companies about their networking solutions. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

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Produced by the Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF), this book targets printers and professionals in related fields who want to update their knowledge of networking and the Internet. The book starts off with a history of communications and goes on to describe basic networking and data-transmission concepts, the fundamentals of LANs, and advanced issues such as transmission options, connectivity tools, and wireless networking. Finally, you learn about the Internet and read about how printers use the Internet in marketing and production. A list of industry acronyms, such as HTML, GUI (graphical user interface), and ISDN, as well as a glossary of electronic communications terms help you understand the terminology. An appendix explains the results of a GATF survey, which queried printers about their use of electronic file transfer, servers, the Internet, and databases. Another appendix offers information on the current telecommunications environment, covering, for example, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and international telecommunications standards. --Kathleen Caster

From the Inside Flap:

For the more than eight years that I have taught telecommunications, I have struggled to find a single source of information suited to the task of training printing and publishing professionals. The materials available were too technical or did not devote enough attention to printing and publishing. The primary goals of this text are to provide a template for understanding a broad cross-section of file transmission methods, to familiarize printers with networking technologies and applications, a nd to assist them in making strategic decisions about the use of information systems within their respective organizations.

I would like to acknowledge the support of my students. Throughout this project, they have been a great source of information and joy. I would also like to thank my electronic colleagues Bruce Elbert and Herschel Shosteck for their support with earlier projects that led to this book, and Frank Romano and Frank Cost for the wonderful teaching experience here at RIT. In addition, I'd like to offer my special thanks to the following individuals and organizations: Sabine SŸsstrunk; RIT Communications and Brad Rye; RIT/ETC; Jamie Aymerich—RIT Telecommunications; RIT/ISC; Margie Adams; Keyna Sloan; Natasha Parks-Mahl stedt; My TAs — Jill Clayman, Tara Halod, Tanya Freidman, and Chaweewan Sathapananoon; Joan Sobel; Charles Christopher White — Gamma One; RIT/TPD; RIT/CIAS; Maria Larracuente; Grace Gladney; Joyce Felton; Ed Jungerman III; George Ryan — GATF; Jeff McNamara; David; JMJ; Martha Yates; Rayno Niemi, Steve Jacobs, Wiley McKinzie; Eydie Lawson; and my computers.

This text is lovingly dedicated to my family: Mary Wentworth — Mom; Janis Lucky; Mark Gaddy; Ondria L. Lucky; Lisa and Michael Neale; Taylor and Amaris; and Ses.

A'isha Ajayi Professor Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, New York September 1996

During the 1994 Olympics, Xerox used a print, copy, and distribute paradigm to manage the production of all Games-related materials. Foot messengers carried the official results of each event to the media and to other interested parties as soon as possible. In Atlanta in 1996, this Olympic sponsor's networked printing environment of 119 DocuPrints and four DocuTechs distributed the official results of each event to twenty-eight linked venues less than ten minutes after the scores were determined. At these same 1996 Games, Scitex and Quad Graphics partnered with Sports Illustrated to produce a daily magazine. Without its T1 electronic connection to Scitex, Quad would have been hard pressed to efficiently deliver each issue to the designated sales points by 11:00 a.m. every morning. Meanwhile, over at its mobile imaging and digital transmission unit, Applied Graphics Technologies was helping Allsport Photography supply a global audience with an almost instantaneous visual record of key happenings.

How printing has changed since I joined GATF as an editorial assistant in 1986. It seems that change, once an infrequent occurrence in our industry, has instead become our constant companion. Yet unlike those new media sages who persist in sounding the death knell for print production, I firmly believe that our continued flexibility and our willingness to embrace new technologies goes a long way toward ensuring our future.

This book is designed to familiarize printers with electronic communications — terminology and technology — and to help them prepare for an increasingly digital future. It would not have been possible without the support of the following GATF staff members: George Ryan, the FoundationÕs president; Frank Benevento, retiring director of Technical Information; Tom Destree, editor in chief; Barry Faigen, controller; Frank Kanonik, director of On-Demand Printing; Dillon Mooney, technical consultant; and Frances Wieloch, managing editor of GATFWorld magazine. My thanks to each of you for your time and talents. Phil Green, an instructor at the London (England) College of Printing and author of the GATF text Understanding Digital Color was also an invaluable and enthusiastic resource. Finally, I must offer my special thanks to the printers whose questionnaire responses appear in Appendix A. Your assistance is deeply appreciated.

Pamela Groff GATF Technical Editor Graphic Arts Technical Foundation Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania September 1996

A

Ampere AC

Alternating current; access control ADC

Analog-digital converter A/D

Analog-digital (conversion) ADP

Automatic data processing AI

Artificial intelligence AM

Amplitude modulation ANS

American National Standard ANSC

American National Standards Committee ANSI

American National Standards Institute API

Application program interface ARPA

Advanced Research Projects Agency ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange AT

Attention (command set) ATM

Asynchronous transfer mode B

bytes b

bits BASIC

Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (computer

programming language) BBSs

Bulletin board systems BCD

Binary-Coded Decimal BER

Bit error rate BIOS

Basic input/output system Bit

Binary digit bpi

bits per inch Bps; B/s

Bytes per second bps; b/s

bits per second C, C++

Computer programming languages CAD

Computer-aided design; computer-aided drafting CCITT

Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and

Telephony CD-I

Compact disk — interactive CD-ROM

Compact disk — read-only memory CEN

European Committee for Standardization CENELEC

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization CERN

Conseil European Pour le Recherche Nucleaire (The European

Particle Physics Laboratory) CEPS

Color electronic prepress system CGATS

Committee for Graphic Arts Technologies Standards CGI

Computer graphics interface CMOS

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMYK

Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black COAX

Coaxial cable COBOL

Common Business Oriented Language (computer programming

language) CODEC

Coder-Decoder CPU

Central processing unit CSMA/CA

Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance CSMA/CD

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection DAC

Digital-to-analog conversion DAT

Digital audio tape DBMS

Database management system DC

Direct current DDAP

Digital distribution of advertising for publications DDCP

Direct-digital color proofing DDES

Digital data exchange standards DDL

Document description language DDPP

Direct-digital printing plate DEF

Device exchange formats DES

Data encryption standard DLC

Data-link control DNS

Domain name server DOS

Disk operating system DP

Data processing DTC

Desktop color DTP

Desktop publishing DVD

Digital Video Disk EB

Electron beam EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EDI

Electronic Data Interchange EDP

Electronic data processing EFTA

European Free Trade Association EGA

Extended graphics adapter EISA

Expanded industry standard architecture EMI/RFI

Electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference EOT

End of transmission EPBX

Electronic private branch exchange EPS

Encapsulated PostScript ETB

End of transmission block FAQs

Frequently asked questions Fax

Facsimile FCC

Federal Communications Commission FDDI

Fiber distributed digital interface FDM

Frequency division multiplex FDMA

Frequency division multiple access FIFO

First in, first out FORTRAN

Formula translator (computer programming language) FTP

File transfer protocol G

Giga, or one billion GAN

Global-area network GB

Gigabyte Gb

Gigabit GBps

Gigabytes per second Gbps

Gigabits per second GIF

Graphics interchange format GIGO

Garbage in, garbage out GUI

Graphical user interface HDLC

High-level data link control HDTV

High-definition television HT

Halftone HTML

Hypertext markup language HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol Hz

Hertz IC

Integrated circuit IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers I/O

Input/output (address) IP

Internet protocol IRQ

Interrupt request ISA

Industry standard architecture ISDN

Integrated services digital network ISO

International Standards Organization IT

Information technology; image technology ITU

International Telecommunications Union JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group JND

Just-noticeable difference K

Kilo, or one thousand KB

Kilobyte Kb

Kilobit KBps

Kilobytes per second Kbps

Kilobits per second LAN

Local-area network Laser

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation LCD

Liquid crystal display LD

Laser diode LDN

Long-distance network LED

Light-emitting diode LIFO

Last in, first out LLC

Logical-link control LSI

Large-scale integration (computer chip technology) M

Mega, or one million MAC

Medium-access control MAN

Metropolitan-area network MB

Megabyte Mb

Megabit MBps

Megabytes per second Mbps

Megabits per second MHz

Megahertz MIPS

Millions of instructions per second MIS

Management information systems Modem

Modulator; demodulator MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group n

Nano, or one billionth NetBIOS

Network basic input/output system NIC

Network interface controller (card) NOS

Network operating system OCR

Optical character recognition OPI

Open prepress interface OSI

Open system interconnection PBX

Public branch exchange PCM

Pulse code modulation PDL

Page description language PEL; pixel

Picture element POP

Post office protocol PPP

point-to-point protocol PS

PostScript RAM

Random-access memory RFC

Request for comment RFQ

Request for quote RGB

Red, green, blue RIP

Raster image processor RISC

Reduced instruction set computer ROM

Read-only memory SCSI

Small computer systems interface SDLC

Synchronous data link control SGML

Standard generalized markup language SLIP

Serial-line Internet protocol SMTP

Simple mail transfer protocol SNA

Systems network architecture SNMP

Simple network management protocol SQL

Structured query language SVGA

Super video graphics adapter SYSOP

System operator T

Tera, or one trillion TB

Terabyte Tb

Terabit TCP/IP

Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol TDM

Time division multiplex TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access TIFF

Tagged image file format UART

Universal asynchronous receiver transmitter URL

Uniform resource locator V

Volt VGA

Video graphics adapter VLSI

Very large scale integration (computer chip technology) W

Watt WAN

Wide-area network WATS

Wide-area telecommunications service WORM

Write once read many WWW

World Wide Web WYSIWYG

What you see is what you get

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