Introduction to Criminology (8th Edition)

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9780130851246: Introduction to Criminology (8th Edition)

Taking a sociological approach to the study of crime and criminals, this volume includes considerable descriptive and historical material and an integrated approach to theory and research. With extensive coverage of conventional topics, the book also features a detailed analysis of violence against women and children, white collar/corporate/state crime, organized crime, public policy, and the criminology of criminal justice. The volume addresses crime data and the methods of criminology, violent crime, violence against women and children, varieties of nonviolent theft, occupational and organizational crime, organized crime, public order crime, criminology, criminological theory, crime and social structure, rationality-opportunity theories of crime, and general theories of crime. For criminal justice professionals and others interested in criminology.

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About the Author:

Hugh D. Barlow, Ph.D., is a professor of sociology and chair of the Department of Sociology at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville.

Dr. Barlow received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Texas at Austin. At SIUE he has developed a variety of courses in crime and delinquency, victimology, and criminal justice; in 1997 he designed a new undergraduate major in criminal justice. Students have nominated Dr. Barlow for teaching awards on numerous occasions, and in 1995 he received the SIUE Teaching Recognition Award.

Dr. Barlow has published articles on homicide and assaults, the spatial aspects of crime, and white-collar crime. He is also the author of Criminal Justice in America. He is coauthor with Theodore N. Ferdinand of Understanding Delinquency, and editor of Crime and Public Policy: Putting Theory to Work. The journal Federal Probation rated this book one of the top ten published works of 1995.

In addition to teaching and research, Dr. Barlow has been active in applied areas and in service to the profession. From January 1986 to December 1989 Dr. Barlow was Editor of The Criminologist, published by the American Society of Criminology. In 1993 he received the Herbert A. Block Award from the ASC for "outstanding service contributions to the American Society of Criminology and to the professional interests of criminology."

On a less serious level, Dr. Barlow enjoys driving, golfing, snow skiing, and playing poker.

David Kauzlarich, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of sociology at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. In 1989 he received his undergraduate degree in Social Justice Professions from the University of Illinois-Springfield. He received both his M.A. (l 991) and Ph.D. (1994) in sociology from Western Michigan University. From 1994 to 1997 Dr. Kauzlarich was a member of the Sociology and Criminal Justice faculty at St. Joseph's University, where he also directed the Graduate Criminal Justice Program.

Dr. Kauzlarich particularly enjoys teaching introductory criminology. As a graduate student teacher at Western Michigan, he was awarded the "Excellence in Teaching Award" three consecutive times. His most challenging but rewarding teaching experience was in the Florence Crane Prison, a medium-security prison for women in Michigan. He is indebted to those students, for he learned from them important lessons about criminal stereotypes and the role of education in preventing traditional forms of crime and criminality.

Dr. Kauzlarich has authored or coauthored over a dozen scholarly articles and one other book, with Ron Kramer, Crimes of the American Nuclear State: At Home and Abroad. He has published on the topics of state and corporate crime, including problems such as environmental crime, human rights abuses, and nuclear weapons experiments. He has also written on theoretical explanations of white-collar crime.

Dr. Kauzlarich enjoys writing and playing music, golf, fishing, and camping. Even more, he enjoys clowning around with his children, Elaina and Jake.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

This eighth edition of Introduction to Criminology makes a significant departure from earlier editions: Dave Kauzlarich has joined Hugh D. Barlow as coauthor of the text. This change has brought new vitality to the writing and new coverage that reflects Dave's special expertise. We believe that users of earlier editions will find that this change has resulted in a better book.

We have saved those features of previous editions that made it a unique introduction to criminology. For example, many chapters still frame their subject matter within a historical context. Learning about history helps students understand how present-day conditions and events came about, and it suggests prospects for the future as well. Crime has a past, and what students learn today may come to influence crime's future.

The book also continues to embrace a social constructionist/labeling approach. This perspective takes nothing for granted, and includes an emphasis on reactions to crime and criminals. Indeed, criminology is not just about studying those who violate laws; it is also about how laws and rules are made and who is subject to them. Thus, many chapters include a discussion of the official and unofficial reactions to crimes.

The chapters continue to be organized in a way that we feel best introduces the student to the field of criminology. After an introduction to basic concepts and definitions, we discuss how information about crime is produced and the major scientific methods used to study it. We then describe and illustrate varieties of crime and criminality. Finally, we delve into the complex business of explanation. Such an inductive approach, it seems to us, helps students at both the front and back ends of the learning process. Only when students have a broad knowledge of the nature and varieties of crime are they ready to contemplate theories to explain it. The number of chapters on theory remains unchanged from the seventh edition, but there is now more on the explanation of whitecollar crime. The last chapter, on general theories of crime, continues to be unique, and now includes Tittle's control balance theory.

In addition to the usual updating of crime statistics, tests of theory, and important studies, several other changes have been made. There are now fourteen chapters rather than eighteen chapters; we believe this makes the book more manageable for the typical course. We have collapsed the former robbery chapter into a new chapter on violence that also covers school violence, gangs, and hate crimes. We now discuss public order crimes in one, rather than two, chapters. Domestic violence is now in a new chapter that focuses on violence against women and that also includes discussion of sexual assault. Perhaps most notably, we have dropped the separate police, courts, and corrections chapters in favor of one chapter that focuses on the relationship between criminology and criminal justice. We have learned that many instructors never assigned the original chapters on police, courts, and corrections, preferring to spend more time discussing the nature of crime and its explanation. We therefore decided to concentrate on the criminology of criminal justice, including the nature and consequences of discretion, the crime prevention function of the police, and the relationship between crime and punishment.

We have added more information in Chapter 2 on research methods in criminology, including a revised section on research ethics. A new review of lesser-known research methods such as ethnography and case study approaches adds balance to the chapter. We have reorganized and rewritten the chapter on white-collar crime to more clearly distinguish occupational from organizational crime. In doing so, we have drawn upon Dave Kauzlarich's special expertise—state crime. We now include sections on human rights violations, economic terrorism, and crimes of the nuclear weapons industry.

Chapter 10 now reads as a stand-alone chapter on metatheory. It explains the nature, form, and history of criminological theory, including issues such as causality, ideology, level of analysis, paradigmatic assumptions, and the scope and breadth of theory. The second section of the chapter discusses the philosophical, scientific, and classical sociological influences on the development of criminology and criminological theory.

Finally, we have attempted to make the writing more accessible to undergraduates without sacrificing quality or oversimplifying a complicated field. We now provide boldfaced key terms within the text, as well as the following end-of-chapter sections: Key Terms, Recommended Readings, and Recommended Web Sites.

SUPPLEMENTS

The supplementary materials that accompany Introduction to Criminology have been carefully created to enhance the topics being discussed. Please contact your school's Prentice Hall representative for more information or to order copies for classroom use upon adoption.

Test Item File

This carefully prepared resource, available in both print and computerized form, includes 470 questions—approximately 34 per chapter—in multiple choice, true/false, and essay formats. The answers to all questions are page-referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Test Manager is a computerized test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams. It is available in Windows and Macintosh formats. Users of this text can also obtain a test preparation service by calling Prentice Hall's toll-free 800 number.

Prentice Hall Criminology PowerPoint Slides

Created by Steve Glennon, this PowerPoint slide set combines graphics and text in a colorful format to help convey criminological principles in a new and exciting way. Created in PowerPoint, an easy-to-use, widely available software program, this get contains over 200 content slides keyed to topics within the text.

ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology

Prentice Hall and ABC News are working together to bring you the best and most comprehensive video ancillaries available for your introductory course. Selected video segments from award-winning ABC News programs such as Nightline, ABC World News Tonight, and 20/20 accompany topics featured in each chapter. In addition, an instructor's guide to the videos includes a synopsis of video and discussion questions to help students focus on how concepts and theories apply to real-life situations. (Volume for Criminology: 013375163-5.)

Criminology Companion Website™

In tandem with the text, students and professors can take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich the learning process in criminology. Features of the Web site include chapter objectives, chapter summaries, and quizzes, as well as hundreds of links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. The address is www.prenhall.com/barlow.

Sociology on the Internet: Evaluating Online Resources, 2001

This guide provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with references related specifically to the discipline of sociology and information on how to use the Companion Website™ for Introduction to Criminology, Eighth Edition. This supplementary book is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with Introduction to Criminology, Eighth Edition.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors have many people to thank. At Prentice Hall, John Chillingworth, Wayne Spohr, Chris DeJohn, and Christina Scalia welcomed the project and gave important symbolic and material support. Kari Callaghan Mazzola of Big Sky Composition made the production process go smoothly—we appreciate her hard work. The Department of Sociology at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, gave us support and encouragement, and special thanks go to professor John Farley and to Barbara Hickman, department secretary, for their valuable support. Thanks also go to the following graduate assistants for their help on this project: Kate Marchioro, Karen Rieser, and Robin Peterson. In particular, Kate made this book easier to write by providing extensive literature reviews, insightful substantive feedback, and sound editorial advice.

The authors are indebted to the critical insights of colleagues around the country. These include professors who have used previous editions, as well as the following reviewers of the new edition: Keith Crew, University of Northern Iowa; Thomas Petee, Auburn University; Ronald Burns, Texas Christian University; Fred Markowitz, Northern Illinois University; Frank Steyn, Kettering College of Medical Arts; and Bernadette Jones Palombo, Louisiana State University at Shreveport. We would also like to acknowledge reviewers of previous editions of this text: Jay Corzine, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Patrick Donnelly, University of Dayton; Pat Dorman, Boise State University; Kevin Early, Oakland University; C. Randall Eastep, Brevard Community College; Jawad Fatayer, West Texas A&M University; David Horton, St. Edwards University; Michael Milakovitch, University of Miami; Robert L. Robinson, Lincoln University; and Javier Trevino, Marquette University.

Since this is Dave Kauzlarich's first involvement with the book—and his first experience as a textbook author—he wishes to thank the following people for their influence on his work as a criminologist: Ronald C. Kramer, Steven A. Egger, Robert K. Moore Jr., Gerald E. Markle, Rick A. Matthews, Paul C. Friday, Eric O. Johnson, Brian B. Smith, Raymond J. Michalowski, Regan Smith, David O. Friedrichs, Larry Golden, Bill Chambliss, and Claire M. Renzetti. Finally, Dave thanks Hugh Barlow for the invitation to join him as coauthor; he promises not to beat him at golf anymore.

We both wish to thank our families. Hugh is indebted to—and grateful for the love and understanding of-his wife, Karen, and his...

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