Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach (5th Edition)

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9780131497597: Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach (5th Edition)

Completely revised to reflect the new ACI 318-05 Building Code and International Building Code, IBC 2000 and its 2002 modifications, this popular book offers a unique approach to examining the design of prestressed concrete members in a logical, step-by-step trial and adjustment procedure. Integrates handy flow charts to help readers better understand the steps needed for design and analysis. Includes a revised chapter containing the latest ACI and AASHTO Provisions on the design of post-tensioned beam end anchorage blocks using the strut-and-tie approach in conformity with ACI 318-05 Code. Offers a new complete section with two extensive design examples using the strut-and-tie approach for the design of corbels and deep beams. Features an addition to the elastic method of design, with comprehensive design examples on LRFD and Standard AASHTO designs of bridge deck members for flexure, shear and torsion, conforming to the latest AASHTO 2003 specifications. Includes a revised chapter on slender columns, including a simplified load-contour biaxial bending method which is easier to apply in desiign, using moments rather than loads in the reciprocal approach. A useful construction reference for engineers.

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From the Publisher:

Completely revised to reflect the new ACI 318 Building Code, this popular text offers a unique approach to examining the design of prestressed concrete members in a logical, step-by- step trial and adjustment procedure. Encouraging clear, systematic thinking, it integrates handy flow charts to better understand the steps needed for design and analysis. Extensive discussions on material properties and concrete performance are provided, as well as an in-depth analysis of prestressing of circular tanks for liquid and gas containment and their prestressed shell roofs.

From the Inside Flap:

PREFACE

Prestressed concrete is a widely used material in construction. Hence, graduates of every civil engineering program must have, as a minimum requirement, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressed concrete. The high technology advancements in the science of materials have made it possible to construct and assemble large-span systems such as cable-stayed bridges, segmental bridges, nuclear reactor vessels, and offshore oil drilling platforms— work hitherto impossible to undertake.

Reinforced concrete's tensile strength is limited, while its compressive strength is extensive. Consequently, prestressing becomes essential in many applications in order to fully utilize the compressive strength and, through proper design, to eliminate or control cracking and deflection. Additionally, design of the members of a total structure is best achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section and then analyzing it. Hence, design and analysis are combined in this work in order to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of prestressed concrete design.

This third edition of the book extensively revises the previous text so as to conform to the new ACI 318-99 Code and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, for seismic design. The text is the outgrowth of the author's lecture notes developed in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past forty years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph.D. level. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can become familiarized with the properties of plain concrete, both normal and high strength, and its components prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks on the subject in that the major topics of material behavior, prestress loss, flexure, shear, and torsion are self-contained and can be covered in one semester at the senior level and the graduate level. The in-depth discussions of these topics permit the advanced undergraduate and graduate student, as well as the design engineer to develop with minimum effort a profound understanding of fundamentals of prestressed concrete structural behavior and performance.

The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 3 on basic principles, the historical development of prestressed concrete, the properties of constituent materials, the long-term basic behavior of such materials, and the evaluation of prestress losses should give an adequate introduction to the subject of prestressed concrete. They should also aid in developing fundamental knowledge regarding the reliability of performance of prestressed structures, a concept to which every engineering student should be exposed today.

Chapters 4 and 5 on flexure, shear, and torsion, with the step-by-step logic of trial and adjustment as well as the flowcharts shown, give the student and the engineer a basic understanding of both the service load and the limit state of load at failure, thereby producing a good feel for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 4 in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of post-tensioned members as required by the latest ACI and AASHTO codes, inclusive of the "strut and tie" method of end anchorage design. All examples using single-tees were replaced by double-tees since use of single-tees is no longer current. Chapter 5 presents, with design examples, the provisions on torsion combined with shear and bending, which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. SI units examples included in the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples throughout the book. Additionally, a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the mechanisms of shear and torsion, the various approaches to the torsional problem and the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their interaction.

Furthermore, inclusion in this edition of new design examples is SI Units and a listing of the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves with the tools for using either the lb-in. (PI) system or the international (SI) system.

Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of the basic concepts method, the C-line method and the load-balancing method presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 7 was revamped and all the examples were changed using double-tees for deflection computation for both noncomposite and composite members. The chapter discusses in detail the design for camber, deflection, and crack control considering both short- and long-term effects using three different approaches: the PCI multipliers method, the detailed incremental time steps method, and the approximate time steps method. A state-ofthe-art discussion is presented, based on the author's work, of the evaluation and control of flexural cracking in partially prestressed beams. Several design examples are included in the discussion. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members, including the buckling behavior and design of prestressed columns and piles and the P-Δ effect in the design of slender columns. A new section was added presenting a modified easier to use reciprocal method for biaxial bending design of columns.

Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yield-line behavior of two-way action prestressed slabs and plates. The service load behavior utilizes, with extensive examples, the equivalent frame method of flexural design (analysis) and deflection evaluation. Detailed discussion is given on shear-moment transfer and on deflection of two-way plates with computational examples. Extensive coverage is presented of the yield-line failure mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions, including the design expressions for these various conditions. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for dapped-end beams, ledge beams, and bearing, in addition to the design of the beams and corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion.

This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. Presented are the basics of the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed, semi-fixed, hinged, and sliding wall bases, as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axisymmetrical shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks.

A new and extensive Chapter 12 was added using the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO specifications for the design of prestressed bridge deck girders for flexure, shear, torsion and serviceability, including the design of end-anchorage blocks. Several extensive examples are given using bulb-tees and box girder sections. The chapter also includes the AASHTO requirements for truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications.

A new and extensive Chapter 13 was added dealing with the seismic design of pre stressed precast structures in high seismicity zones based on the latest ACI 318-99 and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, on sesimic design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile moment-resistant connections in high-rise buildings and parking garages in high seismicity zones and a unique approach for the design of such ductile connections inprecast beam-column joints. It also contains examples of the design of shear walls and hybrid connections— all based on the state of the art in this field.

It is important to emphasize that in this field, the use of computers is essential. Access to personal and handheld computers has made it possible for almost every student and engineer to be equipped with such a tool. Accordingly, Appendix A-1 presents a typical computer program in Q-BASIC for personal computers for the evaluation of time dependent losses in prestress. Other programs as described in the appendix can be purchased from N.C.SOFTWARE, Box 161, East Brunswick, New Jersey, 08816. The inclusion of extensive flowcharts throughout the book and the discussion of the logic involved in them makes it possible for the reader to develop or use such programs without difficulty.

Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from research work published by the author with many of his MS and Ph.D. students at Rutgers University over the past four decades. Additionally, photographs of some major prestressed concrete "landmark" structures, are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed concrete. Appendices have also been included, with monograms and tables on standard properties, beam sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections, as well as representative tables for selecting sections such as PCI double-tees, PCI/AASHTO bulb tees, box girder, and AASHTO standard sections for bridge decks. Conversion to SI metric units are included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book.

The topics of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need for instructional details. The major portions of the text can be used without difficulty in an advanced senior-level course as well as at the graduate level for any student who has had a prior course in reinforced concrete. The contents should also serves as a valuable guideline for the practicing engineer who has to keepabreast of the state-of-the-art in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 318-99 Building Code and the International Building Code (IBC 2000), as well as the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressing.

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