Foundations of American Education (5th Edition)

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9780131716704: Foundations of American Education (5th Edition)
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Why is the understanding of the fundamentals of American education important to today’s teachers? Explore this book for answers to this fundamental question and gain an understanding of how the evolution of education impacts today’s teaching and learning. Become a highly qualified teacher by connecting theory and practice, and by examining the philosophical and historical roots of education, its current structures, and the future of the field. This 5th edition invites the reader to reflect on historical issues, consider and respond to current educational issues, and become a professional, highly qualified teacher.

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From the Publisher:

Designed to help aspiring teachers make informed decisions about their professional goals, this valuable informational guide to elementary/secondary education and teaching uses an interdisciplinary approach that concentrates on both theoretical and applied aspects of education. Balancing past, present, and future applications of education, it offers practical coverage of the historical and philosophical roots of education, current educational structures, recent developments, and projected futures.

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Public and political attention has been focused in recent years on improving the quality of public education. A quality teaching force is central to achieving this goal. "Efforts to improve teacher quality and to advance the professionalization of teaching have focused on the development of standards and increased testing for certification. In fact, furthering the professionalization of teaching is one of the most important movements in teaching in the last half-century.

Our primary goal in writing this fourth edition has been to provide current and useful information that will help those interested in careers in elementary and secondary education develop an understanding of the philosophical and historical roots of education, current educational structures and practices, and projections for the future. With this understanding they can make informed decisions about their professional and career goals. There is general agreement about the need for able persons in education; however, the decision to become a teacher should come only after careful deliberation. Before making the decision to enter teaching, individuals need to understand the complexities of the teacher's role, the many and diverse duties and responsibilities of the profession, and the commitment of time and energy required to be a successful teacher.

ORIENTATION OF THE TEXT

To help the student develop an understanding of education, this book follows a sequenced presentation of major topics: the status of the teaching profession and efforts to increase the professionalization of teaching; the philosophical foundations and historical background of education; the relationship between schools and society; educational responses to an increasingly diverse and multicultural society; the particular challenges of working with diverse populations and at-risk youth; the law and its effect on teachers and students; the organization and financing of elementary and secondary schools; the current and evolving process of teaching and learning; and projected demographic, social, technological, and organizational and governance changes and their impact on education. In this interdisciplinary approach we explore both the theoretical and the applied aspects of education. We have prepared a text that includes a balance of past, present, and future applications in a context that students will find both readable and challenging.

Interdisciplinary Emphasis

One of the strengths of the text is the extensive use of relevant concepts from the social sciences. The philosophical roots of education are identified and discussed. Historical materials were used in developing the extensive discussion of the evolution of schooling for the past several centuries. Disciplines such as sociology, economics, politics of education, political science, public administration, finance, and law have been used to provide an understanding of the current and developing context of education. Research from the field of psychology is used extensively in the discussion of teaching, learning, and meeting the needs of at-risk children and youth.

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Education

Through the use of current research we have emphasized the connections between theory and research and the applied world of teaching. Unlike many foundation texts that concentrate primarily on pedagogical knowledge and academic skill domains, this text provides a comprehensive application of research and theory to actual classroom/teaching situations and practice. Through margin notes, special features, and discussion questions, the educational implications of research and theory are reinforced in ways that will be understandable to both practicing and prospective teachers.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

In order to provide an integrated and more current perspective, this edition:

  • Emphasizes the major efforts to increase the professionalization of teaching.
  • Shows the interrelationship of the standards movement, the push for accountability, increased testing of teachers and students, new models of teacher compensation, and the redesign of teacher education.
  • Provides important information about the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) standards and the National Board for Professional Standards
  • Links portfolio development activities to INTASC standards.
  • Suggests a variety of prevention and intervention strategies to address school violence.
  • Provides increased attention to issues of multiculturalism and equal educational opportunity.
  • Provides expanded discussion of the major school improvement models being implemented by school districts nationwide.
  • Integrates current and relevant videos from the ABC News/Prentice Hall library and links them to chapter content through Video Insights.
  • Emphasizes the impact of technology as well as the emerging research on teaching and learning.
  • Elaborates on the various forms of school choice.
  • Provides Professional Reflections and advice to new teachers from teachers who have received board certification from the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards.
  • Includes Portfolio Development Activities that provide students the opportunity to develop materials for inclusion in their professional portfolios.
  • Suggests Field Experiences to expand students' understanding of chapter topics and contribute to their growth as professional educators.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

Several features have been designed to help the student use the text for study and review.

Vignettes
The basic concepts of each chapter are reflected in the opening vignettes. They present teachers in real-life situations that reflect the many challenges and rewards of teaching. Vignettes may be used to stimulate interaction between teachers and students using this text.

Objectives
Each chapter begins with a series of objectives to be achieved through study and discussion. They may be used as guides for class discussion and as tools for studying and reviewing the material.

Margin Notes
Notes in the margins of each chapter ask students to reflect on their personal experiences or share their insights or knowledge related to the material presented.

Figures and Tables
Figures and tables enhance and supplement the text and add additional content. These visual features not only give an additional dimension to the chapters but also help students develop a better understanding of major concepts.

Video Insights
Video Insights in Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14 link chapter content to ABC News video programming and can be used to promote classroom discussions of the important and sometimes controversial education issues presented in the videos.

Summary
The key points are summarized at the end of each chapter. These can be used as guides for class discussion and for study and review sessions.

Key Terms
Key terms are identified in italic type in the text, referenced at the end of each chapter, and defined in a glossary at the end of the book.

Discussion Topics
At the end of each chapter, discussion questions provide an overview of the basic concepts. They may be used as oral or written assignments, topics for class discussion, or for review of chapter concepts.

References
References at the end of each chapter provide bibliographic information for all citations. The reference lists can be used in further study to develop a better understanding of specific topics and as beginning points for identifying sources and topics for research papers.

Glossary
A glossary defines the key terms identified throughout the book. It ensures consistent definitions in the use of terms throughout the book and will help the student better understand the key concepts.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Each chapter contains pedagogical features designed to enrich learning opportunities by including historical notes and discussion stimulators drawn from current and past educational developments, current issues, or applications of educational principles in real-life situations. Special features include the following topics:

  • Historical Notes provide background information about specific educational developments that have resulted in changes in education, or about individuals who have exerted leadership in some aspect of education. They supplement text content and illustrate the educational contributions of various role models.
  • Ask Yourself features stimulate reflective thought and help students develop a better understanding of teaching as a career. They contain a series of questions that expand upon the text and stimulate exploration of specific concepts and issues in greater depth. These enrichment activities can be used by groups or individuals.
  • Controversial Issues present a dichotomy of arguments, pro and con, about a variety of educational issues. As students reflect on and discuss these controversies, they will address a range of values and beliefs concerning important educational concepts.
  • Professional Reflections are direct quotations from state Teachers of the Year and teachers who have earned national certification from the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards. They provide focused thoughts and advice based on experiences with students, parents, peers, and administrators.

ANCILLARIES

The following ancillaries have been developed for the instructor and the student:

  • The Instructor's Manual contains instructional resources for each chapter, featuring a chapter outline, student objectives, a lecture and discussion guide, a guide to the use of transparencies, extended projects and ...

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