Floriculture: Principles and Species

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9780133747034: Floriculture: Principles and Species
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The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and easy-to-use reference/guide to floriculture production. Covers all crop species and incorporates current and historic information from both the United States and international floriculture. Considers most of the potted flowering crops and greenhouse-grown cut flower species being produced today. Features full-length chapters on specific crop species and uses a consistent format in each chapter. Covers all uses of each species (e.g., potted flowering plant, cut flower, hanging basket, etc.), and provides general production information. Considers a variety of miscellaneous species for which relatively little production information exists. Uses nomenclature that follows The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Features extensive tables (e.g., on propagation, production temperatures, tissue nutrient analysis, plant growth regulators, postharvest ethylene sensitivity, harvest stage, and storage temperatures of hundreds of species). For those involved in floriculture crop production and greenhouse management/operations.

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About the Author:

Both John Dole and Harold Wilkins have had a lifelong interest in floriculture. Dole is currently a professor with the Department of Horticultural Science at North Carolina State University. He is a native of West Michigan and received his B.S. degree from Michigan State University. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from the University of Minnesota and served on the Oklahoma State University faculty for 11 years before moving to North Carolina State University. Dole has written hundreds of trade journal articles, scientific journal articles, and book chapters. His research program has focused on specialty cuts, bulbs, Easter lilies, and poinsettias; and on flowering physiology and water and mineral nutrition. As an active member of the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers (ASCFG), Dole has served on the board of directors as Southern Region director, treasurer, and executive advisor. He also coordinates the National ASCFG Trial Programs. In addition, Dole teaches greenhouse management and commercial floriculture crop production. Dole has visited floriculture operations in numerous countries in Europe, Asia, and Central and South America. In 1992 he received the Kenneth Post Award for the Outstanding Graduate Student Paper, in 1995 the ASCFG's Outstanding Service Award, and in 2000 the ASCFG's Allan Armitage Award.

Wilkins is an emeritus professor from the University of Minnesota, former D. C. Kiplinger chair holder at The Ohio State University, and former director of research and development for one of the largest potted flowering plant producers in the country. He is a native of southern Illinois and received all three degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana. He worked as a postharvest physiologist at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research Center, Bradenton, before joining the faculty at the University of Minnesota in 1966. Wilkins' research program has spanned a wide range of species including Easter lilies, freesia, alstroemeria, azaleas, tulips, and poinsettias, as well as topics including light quality, branching, and the interaction of cold and light. In 1989 he joined Nurserymen's Exchange in Half Moon Bay, California, as their research and development officer. From 1992 to 1994 he was a visiting professor, D. C. Kiplinger chair of floriculture, at The Ohio State University. Wilkins is recognized as one of the most highly published authors in floriculture. Wilkins is also widely traveled with visits to numerous countries in western and eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Central America, and South America. In 1987 he was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for study at the University of Norway.

Wilkins career has garnered him and his students numerous awards including Outstanding Floriculture Research Paper from the American Society for Horticulture Science (ASHS) in 1967, 1978, 1980, 1985, and 1992. He has also received the Alex Laurie Award from the Society of American Florists in 1991 and from the Ohio Florists' Association in 1993. He was named a fellow of the ASHS in 1984 and a fellow of Pi Alpha Xi in 1992. In 1988 Wilkins was initiated into the Society of American Florist's Hall of Fame.

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Floriculture Principles and Species is a comprehensive text designed for both industry professionals and academic students and teachers. For the industry this text is used by producers to grow their crops, conduct their business operations, and market their products. This book also provides technical information for advisors, suppliers and sales staff to aid their clientele. Students from all levels of academia, from community colleges to universities, will be able to learn about the diversity and details of floriculture production.


This comprehensive book covers all of the major floriculture crop species and many of the minor species being produced today around the world. Diagrams, photographs, and charts illustrate many important concepts and practices. The index is thorough and allows rapid access to all topics. The book is organized into three sections to allow easy use of the information.

Part I includes 12 chapters providing an introduction to floriculture production, postharvest handling, marketing as well as greenhouse and business management. Extensive, easy-to-use tables are included listing the propagation techniques, production temperatures and crop times, photoperiodic requirements for flowering, foliar nutrient levels, effective growth retardants, postharvest storage temperatures and ethylene sensitivity of hundreds of species.

Part II has 103 genera or family accounts covering all of the major floriculture crops species being commercially grown in the floriculture industry. These chapter are laid out in a consistent manner to allow easy retrieval of the information. (Insert sample chapter format here, in miniature) Enough production information is included in each chapter to allow a grower or student develop a production schedule for the species. Many of the production schedules are presented in tables for easy reference.

Part III contain hundreds of minor crops species and basic production information organized into 6 chapters on bedding plants, cut flowers, foliage plants, herbs, and perennials.

Changes to the Second Edition

We added 19 new chapters which include hundreds of additional commercially cultivated species. Fourteen of the chapters are on specific genera or families, four chapters are general chapters which include hundreds of miscellaneous species, and one chapter is on Flowering Mechanisms which describes what regulates flowering and how flowering occurs.

We have updated and expanded each chapter with the latest information available. In addition, we have added a Key Points section to each of the genera chapters, highlighting the most important aspects of each genus for both the student and the industry professional.


This book is organized into three sections to assist students and growers. Part I contains general production information and basic plant physiology principles. Common production practices are explained and, in some cases, illustrated. Extensive tables on propagation techniques, photoperiodic responses, production temperatures and crop times, tissue nutrient levels, plant growth retardants, harvest stage, postharvest storage temperatures and ethylene sensitivity for hundreds of species provide easy-to-use reference sections.

Chapter 1, Propagation, covers various taxonomy and nomenclature, cultivar licensing, and various propagation methods.

Chapter 2, Flowering Control, discusses flower induction, initiation and development, juvenility, plant habit, and the main environmental stimuli for flowering.

Chapters 3, Temperature, focuses on the importance of day, night, and average daily temperature, DIF and media temperatures.

Chapter 4, Light, explains light saturation and compensation points, acclimatization and light quality. Methods to increase and decrease light in the greenhouse or field are explained.

Chapter 5, Water, covers permanent wilting point, water quality, water treatments, irrigation strategies, irrigation systems, and automation.

Chapter 6, Nutrition, explains the essential elements for plant growth, applying fertilizers, pH, soluble salts, monitoring nutrition, correcting problems, and carbon dioxide injection.

Chapter 7, Media, covers the physical factors and properties of media, media components, developing the best media for plant production, and controlling media-borne pathogens.

Chapter 8, Plant Growth Regulation, lists the endogenous plant growth regulators found within plants and how the growth of floriculture crops is regulated. Specific plant growth regulators have been included because most have been on the market for many years and are likely to remain available in the future.

Chapter 9, Pest Management, details integrated pest management, chemical use and safety, insect pests, diseases, and weeds. Specific pest control products have not been included because materials useful for one firm may not be effective for another. In addition, pesticide availability is subject to rapid change.

Chapter 10, Postharvest, explains the production and postharvest factors that effect how long a cut flower or potted plant lasts after it leaves the grower's control.

Chapter 11, Greenhouse Construction and Operations, covers greenhouse placement, styles, framing, foundations, coverings, benches, beds, production containers, cooling, heating, air circulation, fuels, environmental controls, energy conservation, and alarm systems.

Chapter 12, Marketing and Business Management, discusses the fact the production is only part of a successful business—a firm must also sell the crop and make a profit. Growing a quality crop, marketing and sales, and business management and cost accounting are included.

Part II has comprehensive chapters on 103 specific crop genera and families. Virtually all of the potted flowering plants and cut flowers grown in greenhouses are included. The most important bedding and foliage plants also have separate chapters; however, the large number of species used for bedding plants, perennials, outdoor grown cuts, and potted foliage plants precludes us from covering them all individually. For those segments of floriculture, we trust that the species we have included will serve as representative examples for species we were unable to cover. The species included were chosen due to their current commercial importance or, in a few cases, due to their uniqueness or estimated importance in the future. Note that Part I and Part III chapters contain information on many species for which there are no individual chapters in Part II.

We have attempted to cover all uses of each species such as potted flowering plant, cut flower, hanging basket, and so forth. Nomenclature follows The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening whenever possible. Dozens to hundreds of cultivars are available for many of the species and the most popular of which change annually. We did not attempt to list cultivars but describe the most important attributes of the cultivars which would guide cultivar selection.

One of the keys to producing a crop is the development of a suitable production schedule. Numerous production schedules exist for each crop species since production conditions vary with location, season, cultivar, and desired plant size. One to three sample schedules are included for most species. Since types and quantities of species grown as well as production methods vary from country to country, international references and perspectives are included in many of the sections.

Specific insect and diseases have been listed for each crop. Refer to Pest Management in Part I to find more information on methods to control the pests.

Finally, much information from one section often overlaps that of another section. For example, photoperiod may be found in both Flowering Control and Light sections. When looking for specific information, it may helpful to read the entire chapter to find related, useful information.

Part III has six general chapters that cover basic production information on hundreds of minor species. The chapters are grouped into Bedding Plants, Field Cuts, Foliage Plants, Herbs, Perennials, and Forced Woody Cuts. We did not include general chapters on potted flowering plants or greenhouse cut flowers because most species grown commercially have already been covered in individual genera chapters.


At best, textbooks are never finished. New species, cultivars, techniques, materials, and production methods are constantly being introduced and accepted by the industry. In addition, despite the diligence of both authors, numerous assistants, reviewers, and the Prentice Hall and Carlisle Publishers Services staffs, there are no doubt errors. Please send any corrections, suggestions, and additional information to John Dole for inclusion in the next edition.

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Dole, John M., Wilkins, Harold F.
Published by Prentice Hall (1998)
ISBN 10: 0133747034 ISBN 13: 9780133747034
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John M. Dole; Harold F. Wilkins
Published by Prentice Hall (1998)
ISBN 10: 0133747034 ISBN 13: 9780133747034
New Hardcover First Edition Quantity Available: 1
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