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Structured around major movements in world history, the lives of leading educators, and the philosophies and ideologies that resulted from their ideas, Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction, Fifth Edition provides a clear interdisciplinary exploration of the development of educational ideas. The author takes a global perspective on the history and philosophy of education, capturing the essence of educational evolution through the biographies of 23 theorists, philosophers, and educators. This biographical focus, combined with an introductory presentation of the inherent connections between education's major movements and its primary movers, helps students better understand the social and historical conditions that have informed today's educational arena.
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Structured around the biographies of acclaimed educators, philosophers and world figures, this text combines both a historical overview of world education and a balanced treatment of leading educational philosophies. It emphasizes both the importance of contexts and situations in the development of educational ideas as well as those features of educational theories that transcend particular historical contexts. The Second Edition has been expanded--now profiling several more educational figures--and updated to reflect recent international developments.From the Inside Flap:
Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction developed from my more than three decades of teaching the history and philosophy of education at Loyola University Chicago and as a visiting professor at Northern Michigan University, Otterbein College, and the University of Glasgow in Scotland. Over time, the identification of the biographies and development of the chapters were stimulated by discussions with my students. The book reflects my belief that educational biography is a valuable, powerful, but too-often neglected medium for preparing teachers, administrators, and other professionals in education. I hope the book's third edition will continue to focus more attention on the use of educational biography in professional education programs. Organization and Coverage
As the book's title indicates, I have organized its contents around three broad themes: major movements in world history, the biographies of leading educators, and the philosophies and ideologies that came from their ideas. As a historian, I have been intrigued by the interaction of individuals in their historical contexts and how they create meaning from their transaction with the cultural situation of living at a given time and place.
As a teacher of the history of Western and American education, I decided to structure the book around the major movements in Western world history: the classical periods of ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Enlightenment, the age of revolution, the foundations of the United States, the Industrial Revolution, the rise of ideologies, the progressive movement, the end of imperialism in the postcolonial world, the rise of African American consciousness, and Marxism (as reflected in the Cultural Revolution of the People's Republic of China). This kind of periodization around broad historical currents helped me to construct a cognitive map on which I could locate people and events and give myself a perspective on the past. However, I also determined that this kind of periodization should not simply be chronological but should be enlivened by lives that represented the efforts, the trials and errors, and achievements of those who shaped the history and philosophy of education.
My interest in biography—the stories of lives—provided a means to give the great movements of human history a personal face. Biography enables us to see ourselves through the lives of others. For each of the great movements in history, I identified an important contributor to educational philosophy and method. For ancient Greece and Rome, there were Plato, the founder of idealism; Aristotle, the founder of realism; and Quintilian, an exemplary teacher of rhetoric. Medieval Christianity was epitomized by the great theologian Thomas Aquinas. Erasmus was the ideal representative of Renaissance humanism. John Calvin and Johann Amos Comenius represented two different ways of interpreting the educational changes produced by the Protestant Reformation. For the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment eras, the figures of lean-Jacques Rousseau and Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi stood out in bold relief. For the age of revolution and republicanism three persons7#151;Thomas Jefferson, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Horace Mann—were leading characters. Jefferson made the intellectual connection between the Enlightenment's rationalism and the republican impulse in North America. Mary Wollstonecraft undertook a revolution for women's rights. Horace Mann was a strong voice for creating public education for the new American republic. Educational responses to the Industrial and Darwinian revolutions came from such theorists as Robert Owen, a utopian socialist; John Stuart Mill, a liberal; and Herbert Spencer, a social Darwinist. Early twentieth-century progressivism is exemplified by Jane Addams, founder of Hull House, and John Dewey, America's leading Pragmatist philosopher. The rights of children were asserted by Friedrich Froebel, founder of the kindergarten, and Maria Montessori, who created her own version of early childhood education. The attack on colonialism came from Mohandas Gandhi, who won India's independence by nonviolent resistance. W E. B. Du Bois's commitment to equality of persons signaled a rising African American consciousness that would lead to pan-Africanism. The ideas of Karl Marx sparked the ready revolutionary activism of China's Mao Tse-tung.
At various times in my academic career, I have taught courses in philosophy of education. As I examined the lives of the great educators in their historical contexts, their views on philosophy of education—what constitutes the educated person—surfaced and came into perspective. I found that my students, too, gained deeper insights into philosophy of education by making connections with founding figures. For example, an examination of Plato's ideas leads to a consideration of philosophical idealism, Aristotle's ideas to realism, Thomas Aquinas to Thomism, Erasmus to humanism, Comenius to Pansophism, Rousseau to naturalism, and Dewey to Pragmatism.
I found that the lives and ideas of certain key figures provided students with an understanding of ideology and how ideology influences educational policy. Here, Robert Owen provides insights into utopianism, Mary Wollstonecraft into feminism, John Stuart Mill into liberalism, Herbert Spencer into social Darwinism, Jane Addams into progressivism, W E. B. Du Bois into pan-Africanism, and Mao into Marxism.
Although the various major historical, philosophical, and ideological currents are rich and complex, how the world's leading educators interacted with the context of their lives to create their own meanings of education cuts across this complexity. Because an individual's life is multifaceted, biography becomes a tool that provides a clear, interdisciplinary way to look at the development of educational ideas. Each educator treated leads us to a broader and more generous appreciation of our educational heritage, and often illuminates current challenges. Format
The book provides students with an interesting and personal but structured way to examine the historical and philosophical foundations of education. The first chapter examines how educational biography can be used in teacher and professional education programs. The following sections are included in each of the subsequent chapters:
The Historical Context that places the educational thinker in the historical, cultural, and philosophical situation of her or his time. A Biography of the educational thinker that analyzes the formative persons and events that shaped his or her educational philosophy or ideology. An Analysis of the Educational Thinker's Philosophy or Ideology that identifies the theorist's principal ideas about truth and value, education and schooling, and teaching and learning. A Conclusion that assesses the educational contributions and significance of the theorist. Discussion Questions, intended for in-class use, that relate the educational thinker to both her or his time in history and to the present situation in education. Research and Essay Topics that lead to analysis of trends and issues in the history, philosophy, and ideology of education. Suggestions for Further Reading that include both long-standing and recent books. Features
Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction, Third Edition, offers the following features:
An examination of the historical, philosophical, and ideological foundations of education through the study of the biographies of the world's leading educational thinkers. An examination of the history and philosophy of education in a single book that is especially useful in courses that integrate these fields. A solid grounding in the historical and philosophical foundations of education based on sustained teaching experience. Discussion questions and research topics that set students on the path to becoming their own historians and philosophers of education. New to This Edition
It is not easy to choose the major figures to treat in a book such as this. Every professor of history and philosophy of education has his or her own favorites. After consultation with professors who used the second edition, I determined to again feature the 22 theorists, philosophers, and educators who were treated in that edition. The second edition had been expanded by adding chapters examining the biographies and educational ideas of Aristotle, Johann Amos Comenius, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, and Mao Tse-tung. The third edition has been updated and the suggested readings revised to include recent publications in the field. In particular, the biographies of Thomas Aquinas, Erasmus, Horace Mann, Friedrich Froebel, Mary Wollstonecraft, Jane Addams, and John Dewey have been expanded. The chapter on Horace Mann more clearly indicates how he was a major leader in creating the state and local governance partnership in American public education. I have revised the chapter on Jane Addams to reflect her pioneering multiculturalism. Dewey is more directly connected to the current revival of Pragmatism and liberalism. Du Bois is shown to have had a larger impact on general historical and sociological scholarship as well as on African American education. The chapter on Mao Tse-tung includes an expanded discussion of the Confucian heritage that Mao sought to eliminate in the People's Republic of China. Acknowledgements
My biographical and historical interests were developed by my graduate education at the University of Illinois in Urbana. Professors J. Leonard Bates, Arthur E. Bestor, Jr., and Norman Graebner were masters in developing for their students the importance of people in historical contexts. My study with Professor Harry Broudy emphasized that educators benefited from having a perspective on the development of educational ideas over time. The experimentalist theme of people interacting within their contexts owes much to the introduction to John Dewey that I received from William O. Stanley and Joe Burnett. Archibald Anderson, my major professor, provided the insights that placed the history of education in its broad cultural context. It was Professor Anderson who encouraged me to write my first biography of an educator, my doctoral dissertation on George S. Counts.
I appreciate the advice, support, and patience of Debbie Stollenwerk, my editor at Prentice Hall, who encouraged me to prepare a third edition. I want to thank Mary Harlan, my production editor, and freelance copyeditor Robert L. Marcum for working with me to bring this third edition to publication.
I also want to acknowledge the insights provided by my colleagues in the history and philosophy of education who reviewed the book and made excellent suggestions that guided my revisions: Carlton E. Beck, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Ellen Stewart Fleishman, Adelphi University; Louise Fleming, Ashland University; John Georgeoff, Purdue University; Albert H. Miller, University of Houston; and Patrick M. Socoski, West Chester State University of Pennsylvania.
I want to thank my wife, Patricia, for her continuing love and support.
—Gerald L. Gutek
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