Tests and Assessment

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9780139049705: Tests and Assessment

This brief paperback is concerned with presenting basic concepts in tests and measurement and contributing to a more intelligent understanding and use of psychological and education tests. Designed for teachers, practitioners in the field.

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From the Publisher:

An introduction to basic concepts, statistics, and applications for psychological and educational tests and measurements.

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Preface

This fourth edition of the book, like the preceding three editions, has two basic assumptions. The first assumption is that assessment is apt to be more sound if based upon meaningful—that is, reliable and valid—information. Second, assessment skills may be developed by improving one's knowledge of tests used to gather meaningful information about people and environments. Thus, in a practical sense a primary objective of this book is to help students develop some assessment skills and improve their knowledge about assessment techniques and tests.

The general rationale of the book is that human behavior tends to be influenced by many determinants, both in the person and in the environment. Therefore, within this framework it is our belief that any assessment of the person is incomplete without some assessment of the environment. People clearly affect and change environments and situations, but at the same time we cannot ignore the fact that environments, like people, have personalities and influence behavior. Thus, within this context our book focuses on theory and assessment techniques used to assess and understand the person, the environment, and behavior.

The past years have been a period of significant advances in psychological and educational testing. Advances in theory, practice, and professional responsibility reflect rapid growth in the field. This fourth edition of Tests and Assessment attempts to reflect this growth by contributing to a more intelligent understanding and use of psychological and educational tests and assessment. This edition updates and expands content areas in an effort to make the book more meaningful and useful for teachers, practitioners, and students in the field.

The most profound revisions were made in Chapters 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 14. Chapter 1 (The History and Meaning of Assessment) was revised to include more elaborate discussion of the DSM-IV, discussion of cross-cultural assessment and standards of equivalence, and an updating of historical events and recent significant tests that have been developed. In Chapter 3 (Reliability, Validity, and Test Construction) computer administered adaptive tests received increased attention and the discussion of effect size and interpreting the differences between scores was expanded. Chapter 4 (Objective Personality Assessment) was updated to include extensive revisions to the California Psychological Inventory, the Comrey Personality Scales, the Jackson Personality Inventory, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and the NEO Personality Inventory (revised). In Chapter 6 (The Nature and Assessment of Intelligence) revisions of the WAIS-R (now WAIS-III), Otis Lennon School Ability Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, and the Culture Fair Intelligence Test are presented and discussed. In addition, the theoretical work of Howard Gardner (Multiple Intelligence); John Carroll, Richard Snow, and Robert Sternburg (Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence); and Philip Ackerman (Model of Adult Intellectual Development) are discussed. Also, updated research on cognitive psychological theories, neurological/biological theories, and research in genetics is presented. In Chapter 7 (The Assessment of Aptitudes) revised and updated descriptions of the ACT Assessment, Scholastic Aptitude Tests, Graduate Record Examination, Miller Analogies Test, General Aptitude Test Battery, and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery are discussed and descriptions of computer administered versions of the DAT-Adaptive and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery are presented. Chapter 8 (The Assessment of Achievement) presents recent revisions of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Stanford Achievement Series, Iowa Tests of Educational Development, Wonderlic Basic Skills Test, and updated information about the Tests of General Educational Development. Chapter 9 (The Assessment of Interests) describes recent revisions in the Strong Interest Inventory, the Self-Directed Search Form R, the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, the Vocational Interest Inventory, and the Campbell Interest and Skills Survey. In addition, the new Kuder Career Search with Person Match is discussed. In Chapter 10 (The Assessment of Work Values, Career Development and Maturity, and Career Indecision) a new section on career barriers is presented that discusses the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory, the Career Barriers Inventory, the Career Factors Inventory, and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. In addition, revisions for a number of other scales are discussed and include the following: Values Scale, Career Maturity Inventory, Career Development Inventory, Cognitive Vocation Maturity Test, Adult Career Concerns Inventory, Career Mastery Inventory, Career Decision Scale, and the Career Beliefs Inventory. This chapter further includes a more extensive discussion of the concept of career related self-efficacies expectations and various measures of those expectations. Chapter 11 (Environmental Assessment) describes recent revisions of the College Student Experiences Questionnaire, the Moos Social Climate Scales, and the Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure. In addition, the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments and the Instructional Leadership Evaluation and Development Program are discussed. Finally, in Chapter 14 (Professional and Ethical Standards and Social Issues in Assessment) the section on race, ethnicity, and culture in tests and assessment was extensively revised and issues in the use of tests and assessments with members of minority groups were presented and discussed.

The book continues to be primarily for courses at the undergraduate or graduate level, in which consideration of tests and assessment is the main objective. Basic principles of tests, measurements, and assessment are reviewed, and some of the most useful and meaningful person-environment assessment techniques are described and evaluated in detail. The book is primarily oriented towards students in undergraduate and graduate psychology courses and programs, including courses in testing and assessment at the undergraduate levels and in graduate programs in counseling psychology, vocational psychology, educational psychology, and industrial psychology. The book would also be useful to students in counselor education, guidance and counseling, social work, educational administration, and other disciplines and areas in which a background in testing and assessment is needed.

This fourth edition is divided into six parts: Foundations of Tests and Assessment; The Assessment of Personality; The Assessment of Cognitive Ability; The Assessment of Interests and Career Development; The Assessment of Environment, Person-Environment Interaction and Human Development; and Ethical Standards of Tests and Assessment. Part I, Foundations of Tests and Assessment, consists of three chapters focusing on the history and meaning of tests and assessment, basic statistical concepts important to testing and assessment, and the concepts of reliability, validity, and test construction. Methods of test construction and item analysis are also covered. These chapters present some basic principles of tests, measurements, and assessment. The second part, The Assessment of Personality, is made up of two chapters. The first focuses on objective personality assessment; the second deals with projective and behavioral personality assessment. This section of the book attempts to highlight the importance of personality and social intelligence in everyday living. Stated differently, a large part of coping successfully on a daily basis involves getting along with people. Part III, The Assessment of Cognitive Ability, consists of three chapters focusing, in order of appearance, on the assessment of intelligence, aptitudes, and achievement. These chapters present basic concepts and techniques concerned with the assessment of cognitive ability. Part IV, The Assessment of Interests and Career Development, includes two chapters. The first focuses on the assessment of interests, the second on the assessment of career development and career maturity. These chapters attempt to show the utility of assessing interests and career development variables in the fields of vocational, counseling, and educational psychology. Part V focuses on the assessment of environment, person-environment interaction, and human development. These chapters focus on the convergence of theory and assessment in the fields of person-environment psychology and human development. Selected theories are reviewed that have implications for assessment and other practical applications. The integration within this book of psychological assessment and person-environment psychology continues to be a unique and valuable feature. The final part of the book focuses on ethical standards of tests and assessments. This is a vital chapter providing extensive coverage of the uses and misuses of t

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Walsh, W. Bruce; Betz, Nancy E.
ISBN 10: 0139049703 ISBN 13: 9780139049705
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