Shumali Amrika Ke Musalman

 
9780195794182: Shumali Amrika Ke Musalman

This book provides the first in-depth look at Muslim life and institutions forming in North America. It considers the range of Islamic life in North America with its different racial-ethnic and culturla identities, customs, and religious orientations. Issues of acculturation, ethnicity, orthodoxy, and changing roles of women are brought into focus.

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About the Author:

Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad is Professor of the History of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations at Georgetown University. Jane Idleman Smith is at Macdonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations.

From The New England Journal of Medicine:

One of the bits of doggerel that James Whorton missed as he tracked the course of vis medicatrix naturae over the past two centuries came from the prolix pen of Oliver Wendell Holmes (from "The Morning Visit"): Of all the ills that suffering man endures, The largest fraction liberal Nature cures. None knew this better than Holmes's contemporary "irregular" practitioners of the healing art, some of whose theories Holmes demolished with overkill in "Homeopathy and Its Kindred Delusions" (Boston: Ticknor, 1842). The first third of James Whorton's history is devoted to the heyday of alternative medicine in the 19th century, a time when homeopathy, hydropathy, neuropathy, and magnetism were preferable to the mercury purges and bleeding of traditional medicine. In spite of their crack-brained theories, however, the so-called irregulars were ahead of the traditionalists in some ways: they welcomed women into their fold, they emphasized prevention, and they promoted sex education. Those physicians, who, like Holmes, abhorred the heroic "cures" of traditionalists were reduced to a therapeutic nihilism that militated against any placebo effect. None of this is new information, but Dr. Whorton has performed a service by bringing it all together in one place and in relation to the times. He is well prepared for the task, having written two previous books that cover the same period in different contexts. For the present book, in addition to many other sources, he has combed the files of 96 journals, including well-established medical journals, organs of current alternative therapies, and those of historical interest, such as the Kneipp Water Cure Monthly. The object of Nature Cures "is to provide a perspective on the past that will serve health professionals of all affiliations in their interactions today." This Whorton does well. Elsewhere he states that "questions of efficacy cannot be answered by an historian." This is fair enough, but it opens up a gray area where Whorton's selective reporting can be criticized. However, in general he tries not to take sides. The book is easy to read and is sprinkled with amusing doggerel and wisecracks from Mark Twain, H.L. Mencken, and others. Readers may be surprised to learn that many folk maxims derive from the theories of 19th-century alternative medicine: "Starve a fever, feed a cold"; "An apple a day keeps the doctor away"; "Eight glasses of water and a bowel movement every day." Although the book is subtitled "The History of Alternative Medicine in America," the author has wisely chosen to limit himself to what Kaptchuk and Eisenberg describe as those in the "professional system . . . medical movements with distinct theories, practices and institutions" ("Varieties of Healing." Annals of Internal Medicine 2001;135:196-204). To the big four -- chiropractic, acupuncture, homeopathy, and naturopathy -- Whorton has added osteopathy (now part of mainstream medicine) and Christian Science. Other alternative therapies run into the hundreds, cover the gamut from megavitamins to Reiki (which is touched on briefly in the final chapters), and include folk and ethnic medicines; a comprehensive history would require several more books. The second third of the book deals with drugless therapy in the early 20th century. This was a time when surgeons were performing miracles; the germ theory of disease was accepted, yet there were still few effective pharmaceuticals. It was also a period of bitter conflict between the regulars and the irregulars, when the former -- reacting to the Flexner report (Medical Education in the United States and Canada. New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1910) -- began to clean their own house and reestablish the state licensing laws that Jacksonian democracy had done away with. Each side levied extravagant insults against the other. The third part of the book, "The Late Twentieth Century: Holistic Healing," may be the most challenging and, as already hinted, the most contentious. The last survey by Eisenberg and colleagues is five years old ("Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States, 1990-1997." Journal of the American Medical Association 1998;280:1569-1575), and change occurs almost as rapidly in the field of alternative medicine as in traditional biomedicine. From 1962 to 1993, the Index Medicus grouped journal entries under the heading "Therapeutic Cults"; from 1994 to 2001, the heading was "Alternative Medicine"; by 2002, it had become "Complementary Therapies." Whorton describes how, when, and why these changes came about. Acupuncture enters the picture boosted by James Reston's experience in China; osteopaths and their schools are absorbed into mainstream medicine; chiropractors are licensed and accepted under Medicare. Senators Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) and Rep. Dan Burton (R-Ind.) succeed in dragging the National Institutes of Health (NIH) unwillingly into the picture. The NIH has struggled without much success for the past 10 years to justify alternative therapies scientifically. Readers who are not familiar with the earlier history will profit from and enjoy this introduction to it. The conclusion of the book will appeal to all thoughtful readers, whether or not they are history buffs. It includes the seven principles adopted by the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians to govern naturopathic practice: "Respect for the healing power of nature; avoidance of harm to the patient; concentration on the underlying causes of illness rather than treatment of its symptoms; regard for the patient as a whole person; emphasis on prevention; promotion of wellness; the healer should be a teacher." These principles, well enunciated by George Engel many years ago ("The Need for a New Medical Model." Science 1977;196:129-136), are probably taught, to a variable extent, in most medical schools. However, they require the healer to spend time with a patient and to listen. It is one of the more striking paradoxes of our health care system that practitioners of alternative medicine can be paid for applying these principles, whereas orthodox practitioners are pushed to ignore them by those who control the purse strings. Alfred Yankauer, M.D.
Copyright © 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. The New England Journal of Medicine is a registered trademark of the MMS.

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Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane Idleman Smith
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Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane Idleman Smith
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Book Description OUP Pakistan, Pakistan, 2002. Hardback. Book Condition: New. Language: N/A. Brand New Book. This book provides the first in-depth look at Muslim life and institutions forming in North America. It considers the range of Islamic life in North America with its different racial-ethnic and culturla identities, customs, and religious orientations. Issues of acculturation, ethnicity, orthodoxy, and changing roles of women are brought into focus. Bookseller Inventory # AMO9780195794182

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