Book may have numerous typos, missing text, images, or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1909. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... CHAPTER XIV.-DEDUCTIVE FALLACIES 85. Classification Of The Deductive Fallacies. --Fallacy is the generic term applied to errors in the process of reasoning, whether inductive or deductive, and especially in syllogistic reasoning. While engaged upon the deductive syllogism we noticed certain tendencies toward formal errors in the construction of arguments. We shall now name all the more common errors incidental to deduction, and shall describe more particularly those errors that lie not in the form but in the subject-matter of deductive reasoning. No classification of such errors can be perfectly satisfactory or scientific, because many of the types are extremely subtle and are easily confounded. Again, many fallacious arguments are intricate and complex almost beyond the power of analysis, and really involve several fallacies. Yet some sort of classification, even though it be only tentative, will aid us in comprehending this difficult and important chapter in logic. The subject of fallacies is important because they are so insidious and common. Particularly where wordy debates take the place of modest and careful statements of the reasons for and against a position, we find fallacies lurking. And since proneness to talk much and say little is a universal human failing, we. may readily see how many are the opportunities for fallacy. It is to make the student feel the danger and keep his attention alert to prevent these errors that a section of our general subject is assigned to this topic. Following time-honored custom, we distinguish two great kinds of deductive fallacy: first, those due to incorrectness in the syllogistic form, and second, those resulting from a misapprehension of the content or subject-matter of the argument. The first kind are technically called...
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