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This text presents a carefully selected group of readings on medical history and development that allow students to evaluate primary sources, test the interpretations of distinguished historians, and draw their own conclusions.
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1. What Is the History of Medicine and Public Health? ESSAYS Susan Reverby and David Rosner, Medical Culture and Historical Practice Charles E. Rosenberg, Medicine's Institutional History and Its Policy Implications James T. Patterson, Disease in the History of Medicine and Public Health 2. Colonial Beginnings: A New World of Peoples, Disease, and Healing DOCUMENTS 1. Le Page du Pratz, a French Observer in Louisiana, Reports on Natchez Nation Healing Practices, 1720-1728 2. Cotton Mather, a Boston Minister, Proselytizes for Smallpox Inoculation, 1722 3. William Douglass, Boston Physician, Decries the Dangerous "Infatuation" with Smallpox Inoculation, 1722 4. A Broadside Laments the Death of Fifty-Four in a Hartford Epidemic, 1725 5. Zabdiel Boyston of Boston Recounts His Experiences as the First Physician to Inoculate Against Smallpox in the American Colonies, 1726 6. A Virginia Domestic Guide to the Diseases of the American Colonies Makes "Every Man His Own Doctor," 1734 7. Andrew Blackbird of the Ottawa Nation Records a Story from Indian Oral Tradition About the Decimation of His People by Smallpox in the Early 1760s, 1887 ESSAYS Colin G. Calloway, Indians, Europeans, and the New World of Disease and Healing John B. Blake, Smallpox Inoculation Foments Controversy in Boston 3. The Medical Marketplace in the Early Republic, 1785-1825 DOCUMENTS 1. George Washington's Physicians Narrate His Final Illness and Death, 1799 2. Elizabeth Drinker, a Philadelphia Quaker, Recounts in Her Diary the Physician-Attended Birth of Her Daughter's Sixth Child, 1799 3. Benjamin Rush Tells His Medical Students at the University of Pennsylvania of the Trials and Rewards of a Medical Career, 1803 4. A Medical Apprentice in Rural South Carolina Records Daily Life in His Diary, 1807 5. James Jackson and John C. Warren, Leading Boston Physicians, Solicit Support for Founding the Massachusetts General Hospital, 1810 6. Walter Channing, a Harvard Medical Professor, Warns of the Dangers of Women Practicing Midwifery, 1820 7. A Young Physician Struggles to Get into Practice in Ohio, 1822 8. Samuel Thomson, Botanic Healer, Decries the Regular Medical Profession as a Murderous Monopoly, 1822 ESSAYS Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, The Medical Challenge to Midwifery Lisa Rosner, The Philadelphia Medical Marketplace 4. Antebellum Medical Knowledge, Practice, and Patients, 1820-1860 DOCUMENTS 1. A New York Medical Student Recounts in His Diary His Emotional Responses to Surgery, 1828 2. Jacob Bigelow, Harvard Medical Professor, Challenges the Physician's Power to Cure, 1835 3. A Medical Apprentice Writes from Rochester About a Cadaver "Resurrected" for Dissection, 1841 4. An Eastern-Educated Physician in Indiana Advises Other Emigrants About the Distinctive Character of Diseases of the West, 1845 5. Reformer Dorothea Dix Calls on Tennessee Legislators to Turn State Insane Asylum into a "Curative" Hospital, 1847 6. A Yale Medical Student Decries the Use of Anesthesia in Childbirth, 1848 7. Samuel Cartwright, Medical Professor and Racial Theorist, Reports to the Medical Association of Louisiana on the "Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race," 1851 8. A Tennessee Physician Calls for the Cultivation of a Distinctive Southern Medical Literature, 1860 ESSAYS Charles E. Rosenberg, Belief and Ritual in Antebellum Medical Therapeutics Martin S. Pernick, Pain, the Calculus of Suffering, and Antebellum Surgery Todd L. Savitt, Race, Human Experimentation, and Dissection in the Antebellum South 5. The Healer's Identity in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Character, Care, and Competition, 1830-1875 DOCUMENTS 1. A County Medical Society Bemoans the Prevalence of Quackery and Public Opinion Opposed to Legal Regulation of Medical Practice, 1843 2. Mary Gove Nichols, Women's Health Reformer, Explains Why She Became a Water-Cure Practitioner, 1849 3. A New York State Doctor Rails to His Professional Brethren Against the Education of Women as Physicians, 1850 4. John Ware, Harvard Medical Professor, Advises What Makes a Good Medical Education, 1850 5. Domestic Practitioners of Hydropathy in the West Testify to Their Faith in Water Cure, 1854 6. Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell, Pioneer Women Physicians, Extoll the Woman Physician as the "Connecting Link" Between Women's Health Reform and the Medical Profession, 1859 7. Edward H. Clarke, an Eminent Boston Physician, Asserts That Biology Blocks the Higher Education of Women, 1873 ESSAYS John Harley Warner, Science, Healing, and the Character of the Physician Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Science, Health Reform, and the Woman Physician 6. The Civil War, Efficiency, and the Sanitary Impulse, 1845-1870 DOCUMENTS 1. John Griscom, Physician and Reformer, Reports to the Municipal Government on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of New York, 1845 2. World Traveler Harriet Martineau Advises America on Keeping Troops Healthy During Wartime, 1861 3. Kate Cumming, Alabama Nursing Volunteer, Writes in Her Journal About Conditions in the Confederate Army Hospital Service, 1862 4. Medical Editor Stephen Smith Preaches the Gospel of Sanitary Reform During Wartime, 1863 5. Nursing Volunteer Louisa May Alcott Reports to Readers at Home About Her Experiences in the Union Army, 1863 6. A Maine Physician Writes to His Wife About His Experiences in the Union Army, 1864 7. Sanitary Reformers Build upon Civil War Precedents to Clean Up Post-War Cities, 1865 ESSAYS Suellen Hoy, American Wives and Mothers Join the Civil War Struggle in a Battle Against Dirt and Disease Bonnie E. Blustein, Linking Science to the Pursuit of Efficiency in the Reformation of the Army Medical Corps During the Civil War 7. Reconfiguring "Scientific Medicine," 1865-1900 DOCUMENTS 1. Henry P. Bowditch, a Recent Harvard Medical Graduate Studying in Europe, Finds in Experimental Laboratory Physiology the Path to a New Scientific Medicine, 1869 2. Clarence Blake, a Young Boston Physician Studying in Europe, Finds in Clinical Specialism the Path to a New Scientific Medicine, 1869 3. Roberts Bartholow, Philadelphia Medical Professor, Celebrates Experimental Medicine and the Ongoing Therapeutic Revolution, 1879 4. Daniel W. Cathell, M.D., Councils Physicians on How to Succeed in Business, 1882 5. New York Newspaper Launches Fundraising Campaign for "Miraculous" New Diphtheria Cure, 1894 ESSAYS John Harley Warner, Professional Optimism and Professional Dismay over the Coming of the New Scientific Medicine Bert Hansen, Popular Optimism About the Promise of the New Scientific Medicine: The Case of Rabies Vaccine 8. The Gospel of Germs: Microbes, Strangers, and Habits of the Home, 1880-1925 DOCUMENTS 1. A Professor of Hygiene Reports on the Success of Municipal Laws in Battling the American "Spitting Habit," 1900 2. Charles V. Chapin, Public Health Leader, Proclaims a New Relationship Among "Dirt, Disease, and the Health Officer," 1902 3. Terence V. Powderly, Commissioner-General of Immigration, Warns of the Menace to the Nation's Health of the New Immigrants, 1902 4. John E. Hunter, African American Physician, Admonishes Antituberculosis Activists to Recognize That Blacks and Whites Must Battle Germs as Their Common Enemy, 1905 5. Advertising Health, the National Association for the Prevention and Study of Tuberculosis Promotes Antituberculosis Billboards, 1910 6. A Georgia Physician Addressing "the Negro Health Problem" Warns That Germs Know No Color Line, 1914 7. The Modern Health Crusade Mobilizes Children for Health Reform, 1918 8. Popular Health Magazine Hygeia Depicts the Germ as a Stereotyped Dangerous Alien Criminal, 1923 ESSAYS Nancy Tomes, Germ Theory, Public Health Education, and the Moralization of Behavior in the Antituberculosis Crusade Alan M. Kraut, Physicians and the New Immigration During the Progressive Era Guenter B. Risse, Bubonic Plague, Bacteriology, and Anti-Asian Racism in San Francisco, 1900 9. Strategies for Improving Medical Care: Institutions, Science, and Standardization, 1870-1940 DOCUMENTS 1. Educational Reformer Abraham Flexner Writes a Muckraking Report on Medical Schools, 1910 2. Black Woman Physician Isabella Vandervall Laments the Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Program for Reforming Medical Education, 1917 3. The American College of Surgeons Urges Standards for Hospital Efficiency and Physician Accountability, 1918 4. Reform Committee Led by Josephine Goldmark Probes Nursing Education, 1923 5. Rockefeller Foundation Reacts to a Growing Concern That Medical Education Reform Has Worsened Doctor Shortages in Rural America, 1924 ESSAYS Ronald L. Numbers, Physicians, Community, and the Qualified Ascent of the American Medical Profession Kenneth M. Ludmerer, Balancing Educational and Patient Needs in the Creation of the Modern Teaching Hospital Janet A. Tighe, A Lesson in the Political Economics of Medical Education 10. Expert Advice, Social Authority, and the Medicalization of Everyday Life, 1890-1930 DOCUMENTS 1. Questions Answered in a Leading Popular Journal About the Medical Status of Inebriety, 1911 2. A Doctor Advises Mothers in a Mass-Circulation Women's Journal, 1920 3. Psychiatrist Augusta Scott Proselytizes for Greater Legal Reliance on Medical Assessments of Mental Health, 1922 4. The United States Army Tests the Mental Fitness of Recruits, 1921 5. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Upholds State Sterilization Practices, 1924 6. Families Seek Expert Advice from the Children's Bureau When Health Questions Arise, 1916-1926 ESSAYS Rima D. Apple, Physicians and Mothers Construct "Scientific Motherhood" Elizabeth Lunbeck, Psychiatrists, the "Hypersexual Female," and a New Medical Management of Morality in the Progressive Era 11. The Technological Imperative? Hospitals, Professions, and Patient Expectations, 1890-1950 DOCUMENT 1. Physician Charles L. Leonard Extolls the Diagnostic Virtues of the New X-Ray Technology, 1897 2. Editor of Leading Medical Journal Urges "Precautionary X-ray Examinations," 1912 3. Journalist William Armstrong Reports to Women About His Investigation of the New Birthing Technology, "Twilight Sleep," 1915 4. Doctor Analyzes Clinical Data to Determine the Safety and Effectiveness of "Twilight Sleep," 1915 5. Advertisement Insists That for a Hospital to Refuse to Buy Its "Pulmotor" Is Tantamount to Malpractice, 1919 6. Medical Educator Francis Peabody Cautions Against Blind Faith in the Clinical Authority of the Laboratory, 1922 7. Prominent African American Anatomy Professor Montagu Cobb Questions the Assumptions of a Leading Textbook About the Biology of Race, 1942 ESSAYS Joel D. Howell, Making Machines Clinically Useful in the Modern Hospital Judith Walzer Leavitt, "Twilight Sleep": Technology and the Medicalization of Childbirth Keith Wailoo, The Power of Genetic Testing in a Conflicted Society 12. The Culture of Biomedical Research: Human Subjects, Power, and the Scientific Method, 1920-1965 DOCUMENTS 1. Public Health Service Physicians Publish Their Observations of Untreated Syphilis in a Population of African American Men in Macon County, Alabama, 1936 2. A Tuskegee Doctor in the Field Requests Research Advice from the Public Health Service Office in Washington, D.C., 1939 3. A. N. Richards, Head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Updates the Medical Community on Promising Wartime Science, 1943 4. The Elite of World War II Medical Science Rally Support for a Greater Public Investment in Biomedical Research, 1945 5. A Leading Research Scientist Embraces the Nuremberg Code as a Guide to Ethical Practice in an Age of Human Experimentation, 1953 6. Public Health Service Physicians Praise Thirty Years of Government-Sponsored Human Subject Research in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1964 7. A Private Physician Raises Questions That Go Unanswered About the Morality of the Tuskegee Experiment, 1965 8. A Physician-Historian-Activist Explores the "Legacy of Distrust" Fostered by the Tuskegee Study, 1993 ESSAYS Harry M. Marks, The Politics and Protocols of World War II Veneral Disease and Pencillin Research Programs Susan E. Lederer, The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment and the Conventions and Practice of Biomedical Research 13. Public Health and the State During an Age of Biomedical Miracles, 1925-1960 DOCUMENTS 1. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Calls Out the Vote for a County Tuberculosis Hospital, c. 1920s 2. A Group of Private Citizens Organize to Investigate and Reform the American Health Care System, 1932 3. Texas Congressman Maury Maverick Pleads for a National Cancer Center, 1937 4. Science Writer Paul deKruif and Surgeon General Thomas Parran Join Forces to Admonish Women About the Dangers of Venereal Disease, 1937 5. President Truman Confronts Congress About the Need for a National Health Program, 1947 6. Journalist Bernard Devoto Offers a Public Tour of the AMA's Annual Meeting and a Glimpse into the Mind of the Medical Profession, 1947 7. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis Instructs Parents and Physicians About Human Trials of a New Polio Vaccine, 1954 ESSAYS Susan E. Lederer and John Parascandola, Screening Syphilis: Hollywood, the Public Health Service, and the Fight Against Venereal Disease Allan Brandt, Polio, Politics, Publicity, and Duplicity: The Salk Vaccine and the Protection of the Public 14. Rights, Access, and the Bottom Line: Health Politics and Health Policy, 1960-2000 DOCUMENTS 1. Medical Editor Warns About the "New Medical-Industrial Complex," 1980 2. Public Health Advocates Plead for AIDS Awareness, 1980s 3. President Clinton Calls for a Health Security Act, 1993 4. Journalist Laurie Abraham Captures the Human Drama of Medicare, 1993 5. Federal Committee Criticizes Actions of the National Cancer Institute, 1994 6. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop Remembers the "Early Days of AIDS," 1995 ESSAYS Rosemary Stevens, Medicare and the Transformation of the Medical Economy Amy Sue Bix, Breast Cancer and AIDS Activism Revolutionize Health Politics 15. The Persisting Search for Health and Healing at the End of the Twentieth Century DOCUMENTS 1. Feminists Reclaim Women's Health Care, 1971 2. A Psychiatrist Integrates Folk and Medical Healing Practices, 1975 3. Patient Audre Lorde Confronts Breast Cancer Treatment, 1980 4. Mexican Immigrant Jesusita Aragon Recounts Her Work as a Midwife, 1980 5. Perri Klass, a Physican and Writer, Ponders the Feminization of the Medical Profession, 1992 6. Journalist Anne Fadiman Chronicles a Collision of Healing Cultures, 1997 ESSAYS David J. Rothman, The Doctor as Stranger: Medicine and Public Distrust Allan M. Brandt, Risk, Behavior, and Disease: Who Is Responsible for Keeping Americans Healthy?
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