The American Spirit

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9780669343625: The American Spirit

This detailed primary source reader focuses on political, diplomatic, and social history, presenting documents that include travel literature, religious sermons, newspaper articles, court testimony, and diary entries. An ideal companion for THE AMERICAN PAGEANT, this book can be used with any U.S. history survey text.

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About the Author:

Thomas A. Bailey (1903-1983) taught history at his alma mater, Stanford University, for nearly forty years. Long regarded as one of the nation's premier historians of American diplomacy, he was honored by his colleagues in 1968 with election to the presidencies of both the Organization of American Historians and the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. He was the author, editor, or co-editor of some twenty-books, but the work in which he took the most pride was The American Pageant through which, he liked to say, he had taught American history to several million students.

David M. Kennedy received his Ph.D. from Yale University. He is the Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History Emeritus and co-director of The Bill Lane Center for the Study of the North American West at Stanford University. His first book, BIRTH CONTROL IN AMERICA: THE CAREER OF MARGARET SANGER, was honored with both the Bancroft Prize and the John Gilmary Shea Prize. He has won numerous teaching awards at Stanford, where he teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in American political, diplomatic, intellectual, and social history, and in American literature. Dr. Kennedy published a volume in the OXFORD HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, FREEDOM FROM FEAR: THE AMERICAN PEOPLE IN DEPRESSION AND WAR, 1929--1945, for which he was honored with the 2000 Pulitzer Prize. He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Philosophical Society, and he served from 2002--2011 on the board of the Pulitzer Prizes.

Review:

22. THE ORDEAL OF RECONSTRUCTION, 1865-1877. A. The Status of the South: Black Leaders Express Their Views (1865). Carl Schurz Reports Southern Defiance (1865). General Ulysses S. Grant Is Optimistic (1865). The Former Slaves Confront Freedom (1901). Emancipation Violence in Texas (c. 1865). B. The Debate on Reconstruction Policy: Southern Blacks Ask for Help (1865). The White South Asks for Unconditional Reintegration into the Union (1866). The Radical Republicans Take a Hard Line (1866). President Andrew Johnson Tries to Restrain Congress (1867). The Controversy over the Fifteenth Amendment (1866, 1870). C. Impeaching the President: Johnson's Cleveland Speech (1866). Senator Lyman Trumbull Defends Johnson (1868). D. "Black Reconstruction": Thaddeus Stevens Demands Black Suffrage (1867). Black and White Legislatures (c. 1876). W. E. B. Du Bois Justifies Black Legislators (1910). Benjamin Tillman's Antiblack Tirade (1907). E. The Ku Klux Klan's Reign of Terror: Alfred Richardson Testifies About Reconstruction-Era Georgia (1871). Maria Carter Describes an Encounter with the Klan (1871). Henry Lowther Falls Victim to the Klan (1871). F. The Legacy of Reconstruction: Editor E. L. Godkin Grieves (1871). Frederick Douglass Complains (1882). Booker T. Washington Reflects (1901). 23. POLITICAL PARALYSIS IN THE GILDED AGE, 1869-1896. A. The South After Reconstruction: Zachariah Chandler Assails the Solid South (1879). Reconstruction and Redemption (1882). B. Race Divides the South: A Southern Senator Defends Jim Crow (1900). A Spokesman for the "New South" Describes Race Relations in the 1880s (1889). An African American Minister Answers Henry Grady (1890). Booker T. Washington Accommodates to Segregation (1895). A Southern Black Woman Reflects on the Jim Crow System (1902). C. The Populist Crusade in the South: Tom Watson Supports a Black-White Political Alliance (1892). A Black-Alliance Man Urges Interracial Cooperation (1891).3. The Wilmington Massacre (1898). D. The Spread of Segregation: The Supreme Court Declares That Separate Is Equal (1896). A Justice of the Peace Denies Justice (1939). E. The United States Emerges as an Industrial Giant: United States Balance of Trade and Share of World Exports (1870-1910). Composition of United States Exports (1869-1908). Destination of United States Exports (1869-1908). Distribution of Long-Term Foreign Investments in the United States (1803-1880). 24. INDUSTRY COMES OF AGE, 1865-1900. A. The Problem of the Railroads: A Defense of Long-Haul Rates (1885). Railroad President Sidney Dillon Supports Stock Watering (1891). General James B. Weaver Deplores Stock Watering (1892). B. The Trust and Monopoly: John D. Rockefeller Justifies Rebates (1909). An Oil Man Goes Bankrupt (1899). Weaver Attacks the Trusts (1892). C. The New Philosophy of Materialism:. Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth (1889).. The Nation Challenges Carnegie (1901).. Russell Conwell Deifies the Dollar (c. 1900). D. The Rise of the New South: Henry Grady Issues a Challenge (1889). A Yankee Visits the New South (1887). Life in a Southern Mill (1910). E. Labor in Industrial America: In Praise of Mechanization (1897). A Tailor Testifies (1883). The Life of a Sweatshop Girl (1902). The Knights of Labor Champion Reform (1887). Samuel Gompers Condemns the Knights (c. 1886). Capital Versus Labor (1871). F. The Environmental Impact of Industrialization: Upton Sinclair Describes the Chicago Stockyards (1906). An Engineer Describes Smoke Pollution (1911). 25. AMERICA MOVES TO THE CITY, 1865-1900. A. The Lures and Liabilities of City Life: Frederick Law Olmsted Applauds the City's Attractions (1871). Sister Carrie Is Bedazzled by Chicago (1900). Cleaning Up New York (1897). Jacob Riis Photographs the New York Tenements (1890). Jacob Riis Documents the Tenement Problem (1890). B. The New Immigration: Mary Antin Praises America (1894). The American Protective Association Hates Catholics (1893). President Cleveland Vetoes a Literacy Test (1897). Four Views of the Statue of Liberty (1881, 1885, 1886). Jane Addams Observes the New Immigrants (1910). Global Migrations (1870-2001). C. The Church on the Defensive: The Shock of Darwinism (1896). Henry Ward Beecher Accepts Evolution (1885). D. The Anti-Saloon Crusade: Frances Willard Prays in a Saloon (1874). Samuel Gompers Defends the Saloon (c. 1886). E. The Changing Role of Women: Victoria Woodhull Advocates Free Love (1871). The Life of a Working Girl (1905). An Italian Immigrant Woman Faces Life Alone in the Big City (c. 1896). Jane Addams Demands the Vote for Women (1910). 26. THE GREAT WEST AND THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1865-1890: A. The Plight of the Indian: The U.S. Army Negotiates a Treaty with the Sioux (1868). Harpers Weekly Decries the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876). She Walks with Her Shawl Remembers the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876). Chief Joseph's Lament (1879). Theodore Roosevelt Downgrades the Indians (1885). Carl Schurz Proposes to "Civilize" the Indians (1881). A Native American Tries to Walk the White Man's Road (1890s). B. The Crusade for Free Homesteads: "Vote Yourself a Farm" (1846). A Texan Scorns Futile Charity (1852). President James Buchanan Kills a Homestead Bill (1860). C. Life on the Frontier: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way (1868). A Pioneer Woman Describes the Overland Trail (1862). Taming the Canadian Frontier (1877). Opening Montana (1867). Sodbusters in Kansas (1877). John Wesley Powell Reports on the "Arid Region" (1879). D. The Farmers' Protest Movement: The Evolving Wheat Economy (1852-1914). An Iowan Assesses Discontent (1893). Mrs. Mary Lease Raises More Hell (c. 1890). William Allen White Attacks the Populists (1896). E. The Pullman Strike: A Populist Condemns George Pullman (1894). Pullman Defends His Company (1894). Starvation at Pullman (1894). F. The Free-Silver Mirage: Coin's Financial School (1894). William Jennings Bryan's Cross of Gold (1896).27. EMPIRE AND EXPANSION, 1890-1909. A. Yellow Journalism in Flower: Joseph Pulitzer Demands Intervention (1897). William Randolph Hearst Stages a Rescue (1897). B. The Declaration of War: President McKinley Submits a War Message (1898). Professor Charles Eliot Norton's Patriotic Protest (1898). C. The Debate over Imperialism: Albert Beveridge Trumpets Imperialism (1898). Mark Twain Denounces Imperialism (c. 1900). David Starr Jordan Spurns Empire (1898). William Jennings Bryan Vents His Bitterness (1901). The Nation Denounces Atrocities (1902). Cartoonists Tackle the Philippines Question (c. 1900). D. The Panama Revolution: John Hay Twists Colombia's Arm (1903). Theodore Roosevelt Hopes for Revolt (1903). Official Connivance in Washington (1903). E. The Monroe Doctrine in the Caribbean: Roosevelt Launches a Corollary (1904). A Latin American Protests (1943). F. Tensions with Asia: Californians Petition for Chinese Exclusion (1877). The New York Times Champions Exclusion (1880). A Christian Chinese Protests Restrictions on Civil Liberties (1892). President Roosevelt Anticipates Trouble (1905). Japan Resents Discrimination (1906). The Gentleman's Agreement (1908). 28. PROGRESSIVISM AND THE REPUBLICAN ROOSEVELT, 1901-1912. A. The Heyday of Muckraking: Exposing the Meatpackers (1906). Theodore Roosevelt Roasts Muckrakers (1906). B. Corruption in the Cities: Lincoln Steffens Bares Philadelphia Bossism (1904). George Washington Plunkitt Defends "Honest Graft" (1905). C. The Plight of Labor: From the Depths (1906). George Baer's Divine Right of Plutocrats (1902). Child Labor in the Coal Mines (1906). Sweatshop Hours for Bakers (1905). The Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire Claims 146 Lives (1911). D. The Conservation Crusade: Roosevelt Defends the Forests (1903). The West Protests Conservation (1907). Gifford Pinchot Advocates Damming the Hetch Hetchy Valley (1913). John Muir Damns the Hetch Hetchy Dam (1912). "Beauty as Against Use" (1920s). E. The Crusade for Woman Suffrage: Senator Robert Owen Supports Women (1910). A Woman Assails Woman Suffrage (1910). Images of the Suffrage Campaign (1900-1915). 29. WILSONIAN PROGRESSIVISM AT HOME AND ABROAD, 1912-1916. A. The Election of 1912: Theodore Roosevelt Proposes Government Regulation (1912). Woodrow Wilson Asks for "a Free Field and No Favor" (1912). B. Campaigning for Monetary Reform: Louis Brandeis Indicts Interlocking Directorates (1914). J. P. Morgan Denies a Money Trust (1913). William McAdoo Exposes the Bankers (c. 1913). C. Moral Meddling in Mexico:1. Mexico Warns Against Intervention (1913).2. Wilson Asks for War on General Huerta (1914).3. A Republican Assails "Watchful Waiting" (1916). D. Acquiescing in the British Blockade:1. Lord Bryce's Propaganda Report (1915).2. Walter Page Plays Britain's Game (c. 1915).3. Robert Lansing's Pro-Ally Tactics (c. 1916). 30. THE WAR TO END WAR, 1917-1918. A. War with Germany: President Wilson Breaks Diplomatic Relations (1917). Representative Claude Kitchin Assails the War Resolution (1917). B. The War for the American Mind: Un-Christlike Preachers (1918). Abusing the Pro-Germans (1918). Robert La Follette Demands His Rights (1917). The Supreme Court Throttles Free Speech (1919). Zechariah Chafee Upholds Free Speech (1919). C. The Propaganda Front: George Creel Spreads Fear Propaganda (c. 1918). Woodrow Wilson Versus Theodore Roosevelt on the Fourteen Points (1918). D. The Face of War: General John Pershing Defines American Fighting Tactics (1917-1918). A "Doughboy" Describes the Fighting Front (1918). E. The Struggle over the Peace Treaty: The Text of Article X (1919). Wilson Testifies for Article X (1919). The Lodge-Hitchcock Reservations (1919). Wilson Defeats Henry Cabot Lodge's Reservations (1919). F. The Treaty in Global Perspective: Germany Protests (1918). Jan Christiaan Smuts Predicts Disaster (1919). Ho Chi Minh Petitions for Rights (1919). 31. AMERICAN LIFE IN THE "ROARING TWENTIES," 1919-1929. A. The Great Immigration Debate: Theodore Roosevelt Preaches "Americanism" (1915). Randolph Bourne Defends Cultural Pluralism (1916). The World's Work Favors Restrictive Quotas (1924). The New Republic Opposes Racialized Quotas (1924). Samuel Gompers Favors Restriction (1924). Two Views of Immigration Restriction (1921, 1924). B. The Reconstituted Ku Klux Klan: Tar-Bucket Terror in Texas (1921). A Methodist Editor Clears the Klan (1923). C. The Wets Versus the Drys: A German Observes Bootlegging (1928). Fiorello La Guardia Pillories Prohibition (1926). The WCTU Upholds Prohibition (1926). D. New Goals for Women: Margaret Sanger Campaigns for Birth Control (1920). The Lynds Discover Changes in the Middle-American Home (1929). The Supreme Court Declares That Women Are Different from Men (1908). The Supreme Court Declares That Men and Women Are Equal (1923). E. The Fundamentalist Controversy: Conservative Clergymen Uphold The Fundamentals (1910). A Liberal Protestant Assails Fundamentalism (1922). The Christian Century Acknowledges the Religious Divide (1924). F. Cultural Upheaval in the Roaring Twenties: A Critic Blasts Materialism (1924). An African American Reflects on Jazz (1925). The Flapper Takes the Stage (1926). Advertising Targets Women Consumers. 32. THE POLITICS OF BOOM AND BUST, 1920-1932. A. Warren Harding and the Washington Conference: President Harding Hates His Job (c. 1922). William Randolph Hearst Blasts Disarmament at Washington (1922). Japan Resents the Washington Setback (1922). B. The Depression Descends: The Plague of Plenty (1932). Distress in the South (1932). Rumbles of Revolution (1932). C. Herbert Hoover Clashes with Franklin Roosevelt: On Public Versus Private Power (1932). On Government in Business (1932). On Balancing the Budget (1932). On Restricted Opportunity (1932). D. An Appraisal of Hoover: Hoover Defends His Record (1932). Roosevelt Indicts Hoover (1932). 33. THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL, 1933-1938. A. A World in Depression: The Contracting Spiral of World Trade (1929-1933). France Champions International Cooperation (1933). Jan Christiaan Smuts Blames the Versailles Treaty (1933). John Maynard Keynes Praises Roosevelt (1933). B. The Face of the Great Depression: Cesar Chavez Gets Tractored off the Land (1936). A Salesman Goes on Relief (1930s). A Boy in Chicago Writes to President Roosevelt (1936). Hard Times in a North Carolina Cotton Mill (1938-1939). C. An Enigma in the White House: The Agreeable FDR (1949). Coffee for the Veterans (1933). FDR the Administrative "Artist" (1948). D. Voices of Protest:1. Senator Huey P. Long Wants Every Man to Be a King (1934).2. Father Coughlin Demands "Social Justice" (1934, 1935).3. Norman Thomas Proposes Socialism (1934).4. Dr. Francis E. Townsend Promotes Old-Age Pensions (1933). E. The Struggle to Organize Labor: Tom Girdler Girds for Battle (1937). John Lewis Lambastes Girdler (1937). F. Conservation in the New Deal: Backcountry Poets Reflect on the Civilian Conservation Corps (1934, 1935). A Daughter of the Plains Struggles with Dust Storms (1934). Franklin Roosevelt Creates the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933). Roosevelt Promotes Natural Resources Planning (1935). Roosevelt Dedicates Boulder (Hoover) Dam (1935). G. The Supreme Court Fight and After: Harold Ickes Defends His Chief (1937). Dorothy Thompson Dissents (1937). Republicans Roast Roosevelt (1940). Assessing the New Deal (1935, 1936). 34. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR, 1933-1941. A. The Struggle Against Isolationism: Two Views of Isolationism (1936, 1938). Roosevelt Pleads for Repeal of the Arms Embargo (1939). Senator Arthur Vandenberg Fights Repeal (1939). Charles Lindbergh Argues for Isolation (1941). The New York Times Rejects Isolationism (1941). B. The Lend-Lease Controversy: FDR Drops the Dollar Sign (1940). Senator Burton Wheeler Assails Lend-Lease (1941). William Randolph Hearst Denounces Aid to the Soviet Union (1941). C. War in the Atlantic: Framing the Atlantic Charter (1941). The Chicago Tribune Is Outraged (1941). FDR Proclaims Shoot-on-Sight (1941). D. Blowup in the Pacific: Harold Ickes Prepares to "Raise Hell" (1941). Togo Blames the United States (1952). Cordell Hull Justifies His Stand (1948). E. The Blame for Pearl Harbor: War Warnings from Washington (1941). Admiral H. E. Kimmel Defends Himself (1946). Secretary Henry Stimson Charges Negligence (1946). Franklin Roosevelt Awaits the Blow (1941). 35. AMERICA IN WORLD WAR II, 1941-1945. A. War and American Society: The War Transforms the Economy ( 1943). A Black American Ponders the War's Meaning (1942). A Woman Remembers the War (1984). B. Japanese Internment: Yamato Ichihashi Relates His Relocation Experience (1942). A Japanese American Is Convicted (1943). A Draft Register Explains His Decision (1943-1944). C. The Second-Front Controversy: Eisenhower Urges the Earliest Possible Second Front (1942). Churchill Explains to Stalin That There Will Be No Second Front in 1942 (1942). Stalin Resents the Delay of the Second Front (1943). A Russian Novelist Appeals to the American People (1943). Roosevelt and Stalin Meet Face-to-Face (1943). Two Allies, One War? (1941-1945). D. The "Unconditional Surrender" Controversy: Robert Sherwood Defends FDR (1948). Cordell Hull Opposes Unconditional Surrender (1948). E. America and the Holocaust: Vivian Fry Considers the Causes of Skepticism (1942). Frieda Kirchwey Blasts Allied Reticence (1943). John W. Pehle Wants to Bomb Auschwitz (1944). John J. McCloy Opposes Bombing Auschwitz (1944). The War Refugee Board Reports on Rescue Efforts (1945). The Christian Century Grapples with the Holocaust (1945). F. The Face of Battle: A Soldier at Anzio (1944). An Airman Recounts the Regensburg Raid (1943). A Marine Assaults Peleliu (1944). An American Encounters a Wounded Enemy (1943). G. Dropping the Atomic Bomb: Japan's Horrified Reaction (1945). The Christian Century Deplores the Bombing (1945). Harry Truman Justifies the Bombing (1945). 36. THE COLD WAR BEGINS, 1945-1952. A. The New Shape of Postwar Socie...

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