AP Environmental Science (REA) - The Best Test Prep for: 2nd Edition (Advanced Placement (AP) Test Preparation)

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9780738604244: AP Environmental Science (REA) - The Best Test Prep for: 2nd Edition (Advanced Placement (AP) Test Preparation)
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REA Real review, Real practice, Real results.
Get the college credits you deserve. Newly revised 2nd Edition!AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Completely aligned with today’s AP exam
Are you prepared to excel on the AP exam? 
* Set up a study schedule by following our results-driven timeline
* Take the first practice test to discover what you know and what you
   should know
* Use REA's advice to ready yourself for proper study and success
Practice for real
* Create the closest experience to test-day conditions with 4 full-length practice tests
* Chart your progress with full and detailed explanations of all answers
* Boost your confidence with test-taking strategies and experienced advice
Sharpen your knowledge and skills
* The book's full subject review features coverage of all AP Environmental Science subjects and exam topics, including conservation, environmental health hazards, and biodiversity, earth systems, population dynamics, human health, planetary resources and more
* Smart and friendly lessons reinforce necessary skills
* Key tutorials enhance specific abilities needed on the test
* Targeted drills increase comprehension and help organize study
Ideal for Classroom, Family, or Solo Test Preparation!
REA has provided advanced preparation for generations of advanced students who have excelled on important tests and in life. REA’s AP study guides are teacher-recommended and written by experts who have mastered the course and the test.

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About This Book
This book provides a thorough review for the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Examination written in a way that high school students will readily grasp and appreciate. REA’s mission is to translate environmental science into terms the student can understand and benefit from. Four full-length practice exams are included to get you ready for the actual exam. Use them, along with the detailed explanations of answers, to help determineyour strengths and weaknesses, and to prepare you to score well on exam day. About the Advanced Placement Program
The Advanced Placement program is designed to provide high school students with the opportunity to pursue college-level studies. The program consists of two components: an AP course and an AP exam. Students are expected to gain college-level skills and acquire college-level knowledge of environmental science through the AP course. Upon completion of the course, students take the AP exam. Test results are used to grant course credit and/or determine placement level in the subject when entering college. AP exams are administered every May. Additional information can be requested from the following source:
AP Services
Educational Testing Service
P.O. Box 6671
Princeton, New Jersey 08541-6671
Phone: (609) 771-7300 or (888) 225-5427
Fax: (609) 530-0482
E-mail: apexams@ets.org
Website: www.collegeboard.com About the AP Environmental Science Exam
The AP Environmental Science exam is three hours long. Each section in each exam is completed separately. You will have 90 minutes to answer 100 multiple-choice questions, which are worth 60% of your final grade. Each correct answer is worth one point, and each incorrect answer takes away 1/4 point. The free response section is 90 minutes long and has four questions. The first question will ask you to make conclusions based on a set of data, the second question will be document-based, and the third and fourth questions are synthesis and evaluation questions. All four questions are weighted equally. AP Environmental Science Exam Content
I. Interdependence of Earth’s Systems: Fundamental Principles and Concepts (25%)
A. The Flow of Energy
1. forms and quality of energy
2. energy units and measurements
3. sources and sinks, conversions
B. The Cycling of Matter
1. water
2. carbon
3. major nutrients
a. nitrogen
b. phosphorus
4. differences between cycling of major and trace elements
C. The Solid Earth
1. Earth history and the geologic time scale
2. Earth dynamics: plate tectonics, volcanism, the rock cycle, soil formation
D. The Atmosphere
1. atmospheric history: origin, evolution, composition, and structure
2. atmospheric dynamics: weather, climate
E. The Biosphere
1. organisms: adaptations to their environments
2. populations and communities: exponential growth, carrying capacity
3. ecosystems and change: biomass, energy transfer, succession
4. evolution of life: natural selection, extinctionII. Human Population Dynamics (10%)
A. History and Global Distribution
1. numbers
2. demographics, such as birth and death rates
3. patterns of resource utilization
B. Carrying Capacity Local, Regional, Global
C. Cultural and Economic Infl uencesIII. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources: Distribution, Ownership, Use, Degradation (15%)
A. Water
1. fresh: agricultural, industrial, domestic
2. oceans: fisheries, industrial
B. Minerals
C. Soils
1. soil types
2. erosion and conservation
D. Biological
1. natural areas
2. genetic diversity
3. food and other agricultural products
E. Energy
1. conventional sources
2. alternative sources
F. Land
1. residential and commercial
2. agricultural and forestry
3. recreational and wildernessIV. Environmental Quality (20 25%)
A. Air/Water/Soil
1. major pollutants
a. types, such as SO2, NO2, and pesticides
b. thermal pollution
c. measurement and units of measure such as ppm, pH, pg/L
d. point and nonpoint sources (domestic, industrial, agricultural)
2. effects of pollutants on:
a. aquatic systems
b. vegetation
c. natural features, buildings and structures
d. wildlife
3. pollution reduction, remediation, and control
C. Impact on Human Health
1. agents: chemical and biological
2. effects: acute and chronic, dose-response relationships
3. relative risks: evaluation and responseV. Global Changes and their Consequences (15 20%)
A. First-order Effects (changes)
1. atmosphere: CO2, CH4, stratospheric O3
2. oceans: surface temperatures, currents
3. biota: habitat destruction, introduced exotics, overharvesting
B. Higher-order Interactions (consequences)
1. atmosphere: global warming, increasing ultraviolet radiation
2. oceans: increasing sea level, long-term climate change, impact on El Niño
3. biota: loss of biodiversityVI. Environment and Society: Trade-Offs and Decision Making (10%)
A. Economic Forces
1. cost-benefit analysis
2. marginal costs
3. ownership and externalized costs
B. Cultural and Aesthetic Considerations
C. Environmental Ethics
D. Environmental Laws and Regulations (International, National, and Regional)
E. Issues and options (conservation, preservation, restoration, remediation, sustainability, mitigation) About Our AP Course Review
As mentioned earlier, this review is designed to prepare you for success on the AP Exam. Therefore, an entire year’s work has been distilled into the leanest preparation manual possible to ensure victory on exam day. This text is aimed at students serious about improving their likelihood of success through hard work and attention to the key elements to be tested. This text will also help a student prepare for daily classroom success as well. Students have a variety of learning styles that are not always met by classroom teachers, so this text will serve well as a supplement to daily classroom learning. Components of this review have been field-tested in the classroom by students of varying capacity, and all can attest to their improved performance both in the classroom, as well as on the exam. Scoring REA’s Practice Exams
Scoring the Multiple-Choice Sections
The book provides a formula for scoring the practice exams.  Note: Candidates’ scores are weighted by a formula determined in advance each year by the Development Committee. Scoring the Official Exams
Weighted Multiple-Choice + Weighted Free-Response = Total Composite Score
The College Board creates a formula (which changes slightly every year) to convert raw scores into composite scores grouped into broad AP grade categories.
The weights for the multiple-choice sections are determined by the Chief Reader, who uses a process called equating. This process compares the current year’s exam performance on selected multiple-choice questions to that of a previous year, establishing a level of achievement for the current year’s group and a degree of difficulty for the current exam. This data is combined with historical trends and the reader’s professional evaluation to determine the weights and tables. The AP free-response is graded by teacher volunteers, grouped at scoring tables, and led by a chief faculty consultant. The consultant sets the grading scale that translates the raw score into the composite score. Past grading illustrations are available to teachers from the College Board, and may be ordered using the contact information given on page 3. These actual examples of student responses and a grade analysis can be of great assistance to both the student and the teacher as a learning or review tool. Composite Score AP Percentage of students Grade at this grade (2007)
70 90 5 (extremely well qualified) 10.8
54 69 4 (well qualified) 23.1
45 53 3 (qualified) 17.9
29 44 2 (possibly qualified) 17.5
0 28 1 (no recommendation) 30.7
Total number of students: 52,416
Mean Grade: 2.66
Source: www.collegeboard.com Studying for your AP Exam
To best utilize your study time, follow our Study Schedule, which you will find in the front of this book. The schedule is based on a six-week program, but if necessary can be condensed to three weeks by collapsing each two-week period into one week. Use previous tests and quizzes to provide a study guide outline. Focus particular attention on questions that you got wrong. Do not repeat the same mistake. Study with another student or in a group. Take turns asking each other questions. You will be amazed at how much you learn by playing the teacher! Draw all the key models that you are required to be fluent in. Practice the possible movements that may result from change in the variables present in the model. For example, draw the various population curves and age distributions.Create a study sheet with all of the key formulae. Use the text or past exams to test your ability to solve questions on the population growth rate, for example. Continue until you are error-free. Prepare for the test over several days. Don’t cram. Communicate with your teacher regarding areas that you don’t understand. Give your teacher adequate time to prepare an answer. Whenever possible, take as many practice tests as possible. Review errors with your teacher or other students. Again, past tests and quizzes are invaluable as a learning tool.&...

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