The limnological study of Toolik Lake began in the Summer of 1975. This research was an outgrowth of the arctic IBP project which had focused mainly on small Arctic pond ecosystems on the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. It was thought desirable to study larger, deeper lakes which contained fish to further generalizations developed during the IBP study.
Initial research on Toolik Lake and the surrounding lakes and ponds focused on process studies such as annual primary productivity of the lake or the vertical migration patterns of the resident zooplankton. In 1983 the philosophy of the research changed with the funding of a more integrated programme. The fundamental question posed was whether Arctic lake and stream ecosystems are regulated from the bottom up by nutrient availability or from the top down by the density and activity of top predators.
In 1987 the Toolik Lake area was designated an LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) site, one of 18 such sites throughout the United States, Puerto Rico and the Antarctic. The research theme for the Arctic LTER also focuses on the regulation of Arctic ecosystems, whether regulation comes from the top down or bottom up. The Arctic LTER also incorporates a terrestrial component as well as a lake and stream component.
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James J. O'Brien, PE, PMP, was vice chair of the board of O'Brien-Kreitzberg & Associates, Inc., the construction management firm that handled the renovation of San Francisco's cable car system. He was also the program manager for the redevelopment of JFK International Airport. Mr. O'Brien is the author or editor of many other books, including "Contractor's Management Handbook, " Second Edition; "Construction Management: A Professional Approach; Value Analysis in Design and Construction;" and "Scheduling Handbook, " all published by McGraw-Hill. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Project Management Institute, and the Construction Management Association of America. He is a charter member and a vice president of the PMI College of Scheduling.
Fredric L. Plotnick, Esq., PE, is CEO and principal consultant of Engineering & Property Management Consultants, Inc. He has bachelor's and master's degrees in civil engineering and is a registered Professional Engineer. He is also an attorney and a member of the bars of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Florida. Mr. Plotnick is an adjunct professor in the departments of Civil Engineering, Engineering Management, and Construction Management at Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is a past president of the Philadelphia chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, past Construction Group chair of the Philadelphia section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and member of the American Association of Cost Engineers. He is a charter member and director of the annual Technical Track conference of the PMI College of Scheduling.
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Book Description Kluwer Academic Publishers, Secaucus, New Jersey, U.S.A., 1992. Hard Cover. Book Condition: Fine. No Jacket. First Edition. This is a fine, unmarked, hardcover first edition copy in blue binding, no DJ. Bookseller Inventory # 047233
Book Description Springer, 1992. Hardcover. Book Condition: As New. As New. book. Bookseller Inventory # F5S3-7-Z-0792319524-5