Contested Spaces of Early America (Early American Studies)

0 avg rating
( 0 ratings by GoodReads )
 
9780812245844: Contested Spaces of Early America (Early American Studies)

Colonial America stretched from Quebec to Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. Although European settlers laid claim to territories they called New Spain, New England, and New France, the reality of living in those spaces had little to do with European kingdoms. Instead, the New World's holdings took their form and shape from the Indian territories they inhabited. These contested spaces throughout the western hemisphere were not unclaimed lands waiting to be conquered and populated, but a single vast space, occupied by native communities and defined by the meeting, mingling, and clashing of peoples, creating societies unlike any that the world had seen to that time.

Contested Spaces of Early America brings together some of the most distinguished historians in the field to view colonial America on the largest possible scale. Lavishly illustrated with maps, Native art, and color plates, the twelve chapters span from the southern reaches of New Spain through Mexico and Navajo Country to the Dakotas and Upper Canada, and from the early Indian civilizations to the ruins of the nineteenth-century West. At the heart of this volume is a search for a human geography of colonial relations: Contested Spaces of Early America aims to rid the historical landscape of imperial cores, frontier peripheries, and modern national borders to redefine the way scholars imagine colonial America.

Contributors: Matthew Babcock, Ned Blackhawk, Chantal Cramaussel, Brian DeLay, Elizabeth Fenn, Allan Greer, Pekka Hämäläinen, Raúl José Mandrini, Cynthia Radding, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Alan Taylor, and Samuel Truett.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

About the Author:

Juliana Barr is Associate Professor of History at the University of Florida and author of Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands. Edward Countryman is University Distinguished Professor at Southern Methodist University and the author of several books, including The American Revolution, Americans: A Collision of Histories, and most recently Enjoy the Same Liberty: Black Americans and the Revolutionary Era.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Introduction
Maps and Spaces, Paths to Connect, and Lines to Divide
Juliana Barr and Edward Countryman

"In the last decades of the twentieth century," argued David J. Weber, "American historians discovered America." Scholars of New Spain, New France, and New England began to look toward other colonial regions for connections and comparisons. Ethnohistorians explored the commonalities and contrasts in histories of indigenous people from Peru to Greenland. We cannot speak of "early America" anymore with only the East Coast British colonies, the St. Lawrence River Valley, or Mexico and Peru in mind. The topic has grown vastly larger.

This volume suggests that we should think of "early" or "colonial" America on the largest possible scale. In its own historical time, our subject stretched from north of Quebec to south of Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. It needs to stretch just as far in modern understanding. This book brings together scholars and scholarly perspectives from the entirety of that zone around the organizing theme of contested spaces, places throughout the hemisphere where people who had been total strangers met, mingled, and clashed, creating colonial societies unlike any that the world had seen to that time. Our original intention was to honor David Weber's career and achievements upon his retirement, but his death in August 2010 turned this project into a memorial. The book thus has emerged both from Weber's lifework and from a larger turn in the study of early America to which he contributed mightily. David offered a bridge—in scholarship and among scholars—to link together the historic Americas and to see beyond borderlands, borders, and territorial crossings to imagine that history as a hemispheric project. The authors here are based at institutions not just across the United States but also in Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and Great Britain, and we hope that the essays will in some way embody the scope and breadth of David's vision to bring together the histories of early America.

In geographical terms, our writers deal largely but not exclusively with the areas that now compose the U.S. Southwest and the northern parts of Mexico. But their discussions also extend to what now forms Canada; the western, northern, and eastern United States; and Argentina. Our interest is with contestation over places that did not yet bear their modern names, not with any kind of precursor to the modern nation-states whose seemingly timeless boundaries are the main subject of conventional classroom and textbook political maps. For our purposes those nations and their internal divisions into states and provinces do not exist. Instead, a really good map of the colonial situation of the early western hemisphere would show a set of sometimes fluid, sometimes unbending fields of force, all of them dealing with the issue of space. We need not look for such an ideal map. Instead, we can turn to the maps that people who were caught up in colonial interactions generated as they tried to make sense of one another. The potential set of such maps is enormous, and no single map within that set is perfect. But taken together they bring out the theme of contested spaces that is our subject here.

Let's first look at the map that appears on the cover of this book and also in Figure I.1, drawn by the Portuguese adventurer-soldier Antonio Pereira half a century after the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Pereira certainly saw America all of a piece, as did most cartographers of his age. His depiction of the western hemisphere as a single extensive landmass is part of an illuminated vellum map of the world in his time. What Pereira showed represented the sum of knowledge gained from Spanish and Portuguese explorers, primarily by sea, and from travel reports, notably regarding the Amazon River, and that information dates the map almost precisely to the year 1545. Scattered throughout North, South, and Meso-America appear three Portuguese flags, two flags sporting the French fleur-de-lis, and thirteen Spanish standards—all along the coastlines. To Pereira the vast interior remained unknown and apparently undeveloped, uncontrolled, or simply unpopulated. A caravel carries the Portuguese cross of Christ across to South America, another approaches the Strait of Magellan, and five Spanish ships navigate the Pacific Ocean. This is a space preeminently about Europeans in motion, transforming oceans from barriers into highways, while creating Portuguese and Spanish commercial empires built "literally on water."

Early modern European cartography reflected not just the advancement of knowledge but also the machinations of geopolitics. Geographic information (or sometimes the lack of it) determined the power and fate of nations. The flags and ships of Pereira's map proclaim America to be a world of competing European nations already divvying up rights within the hemisphere, and a blue banner unfurled across North America asserts possession by declaring the land there to be "Nova España." Early modern maps such as Pereira's thus created a landscape for colonialism, both anticipating the territory that vying European nations claimed in America and licensing plans to appropriate, conquer, and colonize. Visualizing a "breathless progression from 'I see' to 'I possess,'" colonial maps were expressions of desire, not reality. The names "New Spain," "New France," and "New England" appeared on maps long before the lands claimed became active zones of European invasion and settlement. European rulers legitimated colonial authority in America through cartography just as they had previously done with state systems in Europe; they used it primarily as a "political discourse concerned with the acquisition and maintenance of power" within national borders and across them. Maps were part and parcel of military intelligence, commercial activity, and territorial and proprietary rights and in America maps were "tools of imperialism as much as guns and warships."

In the hands of rulers, as scholars beginning with the late Brian Harley taught us to understand, such maps gave the illusion of control over distant lands and of powers claimed vis-à-vis other European nations; in the hands of colonizers, they promoted the lands to would-be settlers, proprietors, and investors. Such maps were not accurate, mirrorlike representations of objective reality. They were intensely political documents, boasts of power that were open to contestation and that could not be definitively enforced, despite all the might of the distant monarchs whose American dominions they purported to depict. Looked at carefully, they reveal tension and dispute, rather than settlement. One dimension of such dispute pitted European claimants against one another in a paper war of differently colored spaces and supposed borderlines. But other dimensions also are present, if we look. One such dimension involves all the Europeans, taken as a group despite their differences in language, religion, culture, and politics, vis-à-vis all Natives, also taken as a group, despite differences that dwarf the ones that separated Europeans. Another dimension takes those differences into account, showing how different sorts of Native people and different sorts of invaders cooperated in some situations and clashed in others.

A key quality in colonial-era European and later Euro-American maps of America was the attempted erasure of indigenous populations from the land and its history, viewing American space in purely European terms. Maps charted voyages of "discovery" in an "age of exploration" in which Europeans moved across spaces, and the land and sea became surfaces for European action. Such spatial narratives reduced Indian places, people, and cultures to "phenomena on this surface." They appeared as if always in one place, unbounded from one another yet simultaneously unconnected to one another. Their lands seemingly had no borders, and their towns and communities no names. They were not in movement—Europeans were—and, in that immobilization, Indians were denied their own trajectories, histories, and "potential for their own, perhaps different, futures."

The story of these cartographic landscapes is one of beginnings, the first acts in "the one and only narrative it is possible to tell." Just as in maps of Europe itself, political priorities imposed a silence on subject populations (or soon-to-be subject populations). Promotional visions flattened out the American landscapes that European readers and observers sought to possess into ones that were comfortably safe, familiar, and homogeneous. In its inventions of "New Spain," "New France," "New Netherlands," and "New England," and its "engulfing [of Indians] with blank spaces," cartography anachronistically rewrote historical spaces as "new" European creations while simultaneously denying the presence and the past of America's indigenous populations.

But none of the European maps could fully repress the large reality that Native people possessed the land, knowing it, using it, understanding it, and either ruling it or remembering how it had been entirely theirs. The British scholar G. Malcolm Lewis taught students of early American maps to recognize that much of what those maps depicted actually was Native knowledge that Europeans were appropriating, rather than the result of direct European exploration. Barbara Mundy demonstrates that both Nahua knowledge and Nahua spatial and cultural understanding underpinned the map of Tenochtitlan (published in Germany in 1524) that Hernán Cortés sent back to the King of Spain. John Smith showed on the first map that he drew of Virginia (1612) precisely where what Smith had seen gave way to what the people of the land they knew as Tsenacommacah had taught him. In 1673 Illinois Indians told the French Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette, in effect, that if he ascended the Missouri and Platte rivers he could portage to the upper Colorado and descend it to the Pacific Ocean.

Giving the lie completely to European claims, Indians, too, charted their visions of America via the borders, experiences, and histories that gave meaning to the spaces they inhabited. Using written, carved, and narrative forms to represent the world as they saw it, Indians located themselves in celestial, cosmographic, and terrestrial terms. The landscape itself carried inscriptions of Indian history and identity. Indigenous maps and place-names give linguistic, cognitive, and visual testimony to the communities and cultures that created those sites through their material practices, claimed and developed them economically and politically, and defended them in diplomacy and war. Rock-art cartography found throughout North America provides carved and painted narratives of the pre-Columbian landscape. The oldest North American cartographic representation is found in southeastern Missouri. There, a Mississippian map at Commerce Quarry combines a meandering line representing the Mississippi River with interconnected dotted lines (thoroughfares) and dotted clusters and glyphs (towns and surrounding settlements). Other rock-art panels marked the extensive borders of the Cahokia polity, centered near the point where the Missouri River joins the Mississippi. For the people they served, such maps carried multiple functions. They provided guides to routes, signposts, trespass warnings, markers of conquest, and signs of territorial possession. For modern scholars, surviving Native maps present historical and political storyboards.

In contrast to European cartography that made Indians stationary in place and across time, Indian maps tell of old spaces, as deeply layered with history, movement, and meaning as any in Europe, spaces where empires and communities sat on the sites of previous ones. Native communities offer just as rich a story as the contemporaneous rise and fall of cultures, communities, and empires in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Some American landscapes were highly urbanized. The city-state of Tenochtitlan, so coveted and then conquered by Hernán Cortés, dwarfed Madrid and equaled Rome or Constantinople with its monumental sculpture and architecture, temples, palaces, marketplaces, suburbs, and roads radiating out in all directions. But prior to Tenochtitlan there had been Teotihuacan, and before Teotihuacan there had been other rich cultures and empires. With a total mileage of more than fourteen thousand miles, the Peruvian highway system offered eloquent testimony to "the scale and precision of Inca geographic conceptions" and the imperial control needed to "keep track of their wide-flung possessions." Distance markers, roadside shelters, and storehouses—all spaced at regular intervals along the roads—gave further evidence of the vision and authority behind the roads' operation.

In comparison to the more readily recognized Indian cities of South and Meso-America, metropolis building north of the Rio Grande until recently fell victim to a scholarly tendency to set "a glass ceiling on ancient Native American history." Consider the monumental earthen structures of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. A "myth of the mound builders" long denied that Native American peoples had built them. Now, we understand that people north of the Rio Grande created many paramount chiefdoms that sometimes amounted to city-states. The largest and most notable was Cahokia, but it did not stand alone. It seems quite likely that Cahokia's power and influence lingered in the knowledge and memories of Indians some three hundred years after its fall; the site of Quivira to which El Turco sought to guide Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in all probability was Cahokia. Meanwhile, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon—as well as the two subsequent ceremonial cities at Aztec Ruins and Paquimé that followed—operated as a capital where a ruling class of Chacoans built canonical and monumental structures to incorporate elite residence and governance (for and by rulers, bureaucrats, and palace functionaries exercising authority over the entire region), warehouses, craft workshops, public and private ritual sites, guardrooms, and barracks. Commercial, geographical, political, and imperial markers filled and defined pre-Columbian American space.

Indian mapping traditions did not stop when those spaces became contested by a new round of challenges, this time not among Native peoples but rather from Europeans. Indigenous people in post-Columbian America most often made maps in response to European land claims and disputes, creating images of their territory in order to substantiate their borders and the political and economic integrity those borders represented. Local Peruvian communities adapted "memory mapping" to Spanish boundary marking by walking the course of topographical features and man-made signposts that marked the boundaries of a pueblo de indios, creating cartographic art that visualized the routes and recorded Native place-names. From early in their encounters with French, Dutch, and English invaders, representatives of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy repeatedly met with colonizer officials to direct the drawing of maps with demarcations for their sovereign borders, first showing the land as they understood it and eventually using the cartographic methods of Europeans to protect their territories from incursive English settlers. Indian communities dealing with New Engla...

"About this title" may belong to another edition of this title.

Top Search Results from the AbeBooks Marketplace

1.

Juliana Barr
Published by John Hopkins University Press
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Quantity Available: > 20
Seller
INDOO
(Avenel, NJ, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description John Hopkins University Press. Book Condition: New. Brand New. Bookseller Inventory # 0812245849

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 36.71
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 3.50
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

2.

Juliana Barr
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Quantity Available: 5
Seller
GreatBookPrices
(Columbia, MD, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Book Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory # 20906403-n

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 41.22
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 2.64
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

3.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Quantity Available: 1
Seller
PBShop
(Wood Dale, IL, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. HRD. Book Condition: New. New Book.Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000. Bookseller Inventory # IB-9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 45.85
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 3.99
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

4.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press, United States (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
The Book Depository US
(London, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press, United States, 2014. Hardback. Book Condition: New. 231 x 168 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book. Colonial America stretched from Quebec to Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. Although European settlers laid claim to territories they called New Spain, New England, and New France, the reality of living in those spaces had little to do with European kingdoms. Instead, the New World s holdings took their form and shape from the Indian territories they inhabited. These contested spaces throughout the western hemisphere were not unclaimed lands waiting to be conquered and populated but a single vast space, occupied by native communities and defined by the meeting, mingling, and clashing of peoples, creating societies unlike any that the world had seen before. Contested Spaces of Early America brings together some of the most distinguished historians in the field to view colonial America on the largest possible scale. Lavishly illustrated with maps, Native art, and color plates, the twelve chapters span the southern reaches of New Spain through Mexico and Navajo Country to the Dakotas and Upper Canada, and the early Indian civilizations to the ruins of the nineteenth-century West. At the heart of this volume is a search for a human geography of colonial relations: Contested Spaces of Early America aims to rid the historical landscape of imperial cores, frontier peripheries, and modern national borders to redefine the way scholars imagine colonial America. Contributors: Matthew Babcock, Ned Blackhawk, Chantal Cramaussel, Brian DeLay, Elizabeth Fenn, Allan Greer, Pekka Hamalainen, Raul Jose Mandrini, Cynthia Radding, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Alan Taylor, and Samuel Truett. Bookseller Inventory # AAC9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 51.35
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

5.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
Movie Mars
(Indian Trail, NC, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press. Hardcover. Book Condition: New. 0812245849 Brand New Book. Ships from the United States. 30 Day Satisfaction Guarantee!. Bookseller Inventory # 16986229

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 48.69
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 3.99
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

6.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press, United States (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
The Book Depository
(London, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press, United States, 2014. Hardback. Book Condition: New. 231 x 168 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book. Colonial America stretched from Quebec to Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. Although European settlers laid claim to territories they called New Spain, New England, and New France, the reality of living in those spaces had little to do with European kingdoms. Instead, the New World s holdings took their form and shape from the Indian territories they inhabited. These contested spaces throughout the western hemisphere were not unclaimed lands waiting to be conquered and populated but a single vast space, occupied by native communities and defined by the meeting, mingling, and clashing of peoples, creating societies unlike any that the world had seen before. Contested Spaces of Early America brings together some of the most distinguished historians in the field to view colonial America on the largest possible scale. Lavishly illustrated with maps, Native art, and color plates, the twelve chapters span the southern reaches of New Spain through Mexico and Navajo Country to the Dakotas and Upper Canada, and the early Indian civilizations to the ruins of the nineteenth-century West. At the heart of this volume is a search for a human geography of colonial relations: Contested Spaces of Early America aims to rid the historical landscape of imperial cores, frontier peripheries, and modern national borders to redefine the way scholars imagine colonial America. Contributors: Matthew Babcock, Ned Blackhawk, Chantal Cramaussel, Brian DeLay, Elizabeth Fenn, Allan Greer, Pekka Hamalainen, Raul Jose Mandrini, Cynthia Radding, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Alan Taylor, and Samuel Truett. Bookseller Inventory # AAC9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 53.88
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

7.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
THE SAINT BOOKSTORE
(Southport, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press. Hardback. Book Condition: new. BRAND NEW, Contested Spaces of Early America, Juliana Barr, Edward Countryman, Colonial America stretched from Quebec to Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. Although European settlers laid claim to territories they called New Spain, New England, and New France, the reality of living in those spaces had little to do with European kingdoms. Instead, the New World's holdings took their form and shape from the Indian territories they inhabited. These contested spaces throughout the western hemisphere were not unclaimed lands waiting to be conquered and populated but a single vast space, occupied by native communities and defined by the meeting, mingling, and clashing of peoples, creating societies unlike any that the world had seen before. Contested Spaces of Early America brings together some of the most distinguished historians in the field to view colonial America on the largest possible scale. Lavishly illustrated with maps, Native art, and color plates, the twelve chapters span the southern reaches of New Spain through Mexico and Navajo Country to the Dakotas and Upper Canada, and the early Indian civilizations to the ruins of the nineteenth-century West. At the heart of this volume is a search for a human geography of colonial relations: Contested Spaces of Early America aims to rid the historical landscape of imperial cores, frontier peripheries, and modern national borders to redefine the way scholars imagine colonial America. Contributors: Matthew Babcock, Ned Blackhawk, Chantal Cramaussel, Brian DeLay, Elizabeth Fenn, Allan Greer, Pekka Hamalainen, Raul Jose Mandrini, Cynthia Radding, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Alan Taylor, and Samuel Truett. Bookseller Inventory # B9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 50.37
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 7.40
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

8.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Quantity Available: 1
Seller
Books2Anywhere
(Fairford, GLOS, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. HRD. Book Condition: New. New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000. Bookseller Inventory # IB-9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 47.15
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 11.22
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

9.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press 2014-03-24, Pennsylvania (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
Blackwell's
(Oxford, OX, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press 2014-03-24, Pennsylvania, 2014. hardback. Book Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory # 9780812245844

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 55.44
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: US$ 5.61
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

10.

Juliana Barr
Published by University of Pennsylvania Press (2014)
ISBN 10: 0812245849 ISBN 13: 9780812245844
New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1
Seller
Irish Booksellers
(Rumford, ME, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. Hardcover. Book Condition: New. book. Bookseller Inventory # 0812245849

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
US$ 61.18
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

There are more copies of this book

View all search results for this book