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What do we mean when we say an explorer discovered a particular piece of land? Do we mean he saw it first? Or he was the first to set foot on it? Or he was the first to recognize the importance of his discovery? It is the third possibility that fascinates Eviatar Zerubavel, the only author to look at the mental discovery of America.
When Columbus landed on an island in the Antilles in 1492, he thought he had discovered a few islands off the coast of Asia. He did not realize he had found a previously unknown continent. In our action-oriented civilization, we value the 'actual' physical discovery of land more than the 'merely' intellectual activity of recognizing the true geographical nature of discovery. It is one thing to discover a coast; it is another and more significant thing to realize that that coast constitutes the outline of an entirely "new world".
Our image what we now call North and South America emerged slowly, over two and a half centuries. Europeans had to place the information brought back by explorers about hundreds of often disjointed pieces into a jigsaw puzzle to complete their picture of America. They had to figure out that all the lands, including British Columbia and Patagonia, were part of a single geographic entity, a full-fledged continent that is cut off by water from Asia. They also had to realize that the various lands discovered only appeared to be separate, independent discoveries but were actually part of the same landmass. Using fascinating old maps to prove his point, Zerubavel explains that as late as 1546, many Europeans failed to recognize that North and South America were connected by land, or that America was detached from Asia. Vespucci, Balboa, and Magellan were more instrumental than Columbus in recognizing these facts, especially for South America. But there remained confusion for another eighty years over whether North America could be a part of Asia. Not until 1778, when Cook sailed along America's entire northwest shore, could Europeans be abolutely certain that Asia and America were not connected in the far north.
Zerubavel discusses the process of the mental discovery, in terms of new explorations. More importantly, he discusses the psychology of discovery. Columbus was reluctant to give up on his idea that he had found Asia, no matter how many facts he learned that called his sense of geography into question. Other explorers, and a number of creative mapmakers were more open to new ideas. We actually celebrate the discovery of an explorer who was a cognitive coward, unusually resistant to change. Zerubavel thus gives us a new way to think about discovery. It requires an open mind as well as physical bravery.
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Eviatar Zerubavel is professor of sociology at Rutgers University. He is also the author of Patterns of Time in Hospital Life, The Seven-Day Circle, Social Mindscapes, The Clockwork Muse, and Time Maps.
"Eviatar Zerubavel is one of the most original and versatile scholars in the field of sociology, the kind of man who sees important patterns and relationships where others see only the banalities of everyday life. [Terra Cognita] pulls together history and geography with the sociology of culture, and the result is one that gives new meaning and depth to the notion of discovery."
– David S. Landes, Coolidge Professor Emeritus of History and Economics, Harvard University
“A fascinating, brightly written and cogently argued work on the power of the geographical imagination to discover and fabricate reality...will delight and stimulate all cognitive geographers and students of the world map, and those concerned with the epistemological standing and psychology of exploration and discovery.”
– Yi-Fu Tuan, J.K., University of Wisconsin, Madison
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Book Description Rutgers University Press, 1992. Paperback. Condition: New. Never used!. Seller Inventory # P110813518989
Book Description Rutgers University Press. PAPERBACK. Condition: New. 0813518989 New. Seller Inventory # Z0813518989ZN
Book Description Rutgers University Press. PAPERBACK. Condition: New. 0813518989 New Condition. Seller Inventory # NEW7.1337966
Book Description Rutgers University Press, 1992. Paperback. Condition: New. Seller Inventory # DADAX0813518989