This book estimates the physical and economic cost of air and water pollution in China as reflected in the burden of mortality and morbidity associated with environmental pollution, pollution-exacerbated water scarcity, wastewater irrigation, fisheries loss, crop loss, and material damage. Building upon willingness-to-pay surveys for reducing health risks from pollution among households in Shanghai and Chongqing municipalities, the study finds that the health costs of air and water pollution are equivalent to about 4 percent of GDP in China. By adding the non-health impacts of pollution, estimated to be equivalent to about 1.5 percent of GDP, the study indicates that the total cost of air and water pollution in China are equivalent to more than 5 percent of GDP. The book estimates the economic and physical damage at both national and provincial levels, and finds that China's poor are disproportionately affected by the environmental health burden. The study also provides a set of policy interventions to reduce air and water pollution in China.
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