Ignatian Humanism: A Dynamic Spirituality for the Twenty-First Century

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9780829419863: Ignatian Humanism: A Dynamic Spirituality for the Twenty-First Century
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“Ignatian Humanism puts into perspective our contemporary search for a spirituality that responds both to our search for meaning and desire for God.”
—John W. Padberg, S.J., director, Institute of Jesuit Sources “Modras integrates fascinating history, contemporary theology, and inspiring spirituality with consistent focus on central issues for our day.”
—Joann Wolski Conn, associate professor of religious studies, Neumann College “A stunning book! Modras has profiled a number of Jesuit thinkers and activists as role models for our time—revitalizing humanism as a model for moderns.”
—Leonard Swidler, professor of Catholic thought and inter-religious dialogue, Temple University Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order, is one of a mere handful of individuals who has permanently changed the way we understand God. In this vividly written and meticulously researched book, Ronald Modras shows how Ignatian spirituality retains extraordinary vigor and relevance nearly five centuries after Loyola’s death. At its heart, Ignatian spirituality is a humanism that defends human rights, prizes learning from other cultures, seeks common ground between science and religion, struggles for justice, and honors a God who is actively at work in creation.
 The towering achievements of the Jesuits are made tangible by Modras’s vivid portraits of Ignatius and five of his successors: Matteo Ricci, the first Westerner at the court of the Chinese emperor; Friederich Spee, who defended women accused of witchcraft; Karl Rahner, the greatest Catholic theologian of the twentieth century; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the scientist-mystic; and Pedro Arrupe, the charismatic leader of the Jesuits in the years following Vatican II.

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About the Author:

Ronald Modras is professor of theology at Saint Louis University. He is the author of five other books, including Paul Tillich's Theology of the Church: A Catholic Appraisal and The Catholic Church and Antisemitism: Poland, 1933–1939.  He lectures throughout the United States, England, Israel, and Germany. He currently resides in Webster Groves, Missouri. Additional information about his work can be found at www.RonaldModras.com.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

INTRODUCTION
Ignatian Humanism: A Spirituality for the Twenty-first Century
Book titles commonly call for some explanation. This title all but cries out for one. Virtually every word of it raises questions. First, Ignatian. Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, a humanist? If humanism implies anything, it implies a high regard for human freedom. Wasn’t it Ignatius Loyola who wrote something to the effect that what he sees as white he will believe to be black if the Catholic Church hierarchy says so? That hardly sounds humanistic. Putting together the words Ignatian and humanism is curious, to say the least. What do I mean by humanism?
Or by spirituality, for that matter? Doesn’t spirituality have to do with escaping from life’s temptations and challenges by going off someplace where people pray all day? What does that have to do with life in the twenty-first century? Don’t Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits go back to the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation, when they battled Protestants as part of the Catholic Counter-Reformation? Most Catholics and Protestants have risen above those old quarrels. What does the sixteenth century have to say to the twenty-first? Answers to some of these questions simply raise more questions.
Most of this book is devoted to five Jesuit humanists. In that case, why not just call it Jesuit Humanism? Or, if it’s about spirituality, why not Jesuit Spirituality? Why Ignatian? Again, for that matter, why Humanism? Most of these questions will be addressed in the chapters that follow. Some will take the entire book to answer adequately. Others, like the last, can be dealt with at the outset.
A book with Ignatian Humanism in the title will not, I hope, mislead librarians into cataloging it next to Bertrand Russell, John Dewey, or Jean-Paul Sartre. This book assumes, on the contrary, that humanism is more encompassing than its narrower, purely secular subspecies. And it makes dual claims. One is that Ignatian spirituality is rooted not in the Catholic Counter-Reformation conflict with Protestantism but in sixteenth-century Renaissance humanism, indeed that its humanistic features are so numerous and intrinsic as to justify calling it a form of humanism. The second claim is that those humanist features make it exceptionally relevant for anyone—not just Roman Catholics and maybe not just Christians either—looking for a way to live a responsible spiritual life at the dawn of a new century, in which the only constant seems to be change. For a clearer understanding of the two foregoing claims, the reader deserves some immediate explanation of what I mean by three words under discussion here: spirituality, humanism, and Ignatian. The first two have evolved from ideas that reach back deep into the history of Western culture. They have come to acquire disparate, sometimes competing definitions, necessitating the addition of modifying adjectives that point to their particular historical provenance. The third word is one of those adjectives. Spirituality
Spirituality is a word moderns tend to identify with matters otherworldly and exotic. It conjures up images of hermits in deserts and gurus on mountaintops. When modified by Catholic adjectives like Benedictine, Carmelite, or Trappist, it brings to mind clicking rosary beads and silent cloisters. In the early 1960s, Protestant theologian Paul Tillich lamented that the words spirit and spiritual had lost any meaning for modern Western culture. Books surveying the religious landscape spoke of secular cities and the death of God. Spirituality was associated with matters pious and churchy. Anyone could see that the churches were in trouble and that the 1960s were anything but pious.
If he were alive today, Tillich would express pleasant surprise at the comeback spirituality has made in the last thirty years in North America— but then quickly add, he knew we couldn’t do without it. Bookstore shelves are crammed with titles ranging from the classics of Western spirituality to Eastern mysticism, Blessed Mother Teresa, and New Age. Without much reflection on the difference, people—the younger generation in particular— identify themselves as being spiritual but not religious. Though church life is in decline, interest in spirituality is thriving—which is not to say that the moguls of popular culture acknowledge it as something central to the human enterprise. The mass media still tend to see spirituality as a fringe phenomenon best ignored except at Christmas and Easter or at times like the 9/11 terrorist attacks when “God bless America” came so easily to the lips.
The resurgent interest in spirituality merits reflection, if only because it tells us something important about ourselves. At the same time that science and technology are creating new forms of life and already have the basic knowledge and skills to clone human life, we are experiencing a need to talk about ourselves in terms other than DNA molecules and genes. When biologists demonstrate how little genetic difference there is between human beings and higher primates, when anthropologists discover the bones of ancestors that we share with those primates on our evolutionary family tree, we are drawn to focus on that difference. There is something at our core that resists being reduced to merely bigger brains and clever thumbs.
The word spirit is how we talk about that core. The English—along with the Italian and Spanish—goes back to the Latin spiritus, which, like its Hebrew and Greek counterparts, has to do with wind, the air we breathe, and, as a result, life. Spirit is what the prescientific ancients saw as the difference between a living person and a corpse. In German, Geist links spirit to the Geisteswissenschaften, the “sciences of the spirit” that study the full range of human endeavor and its achievements. The French esprit suggests that spirit has something to do with being fully alive. All these cognates give us some idea why spirit and spirituality resisted being swept into the dictionary’s dustbin for obsolete words. They point to something inalienable and central to who we are. They point to that difference, that something more, that makes it possible—how did someone put it?—for the rubbing of horsehair over gut to come out as Beethoven’s First Violin Sonata. They point to that which makes us unique . . . which makes us human.
It is also in that dimension we call the human spirit that we experience what we in the West, under the influence of the Judeo-Christian tradition, call the Holy Spirit. That familiar but confusing compound is translated more prosaically as holy wind or holy breath. Because the Hebrew for holy (qadosh) refers to that which is out of the ordinary, Holy Spirit became the way the Hebrew and Christian scriptures talk about God not far off in some seventh heaven but as a mysterious power (like the wind) that is beyond the ordinary and yet experienced as a presence (like the breath we inhale and feel deep within us).
Spirituality is about the experience at the core of our beings of something— a power, presence, drive, longing—that is beyond the ordinary. Defined in this way, spirituality is not about something at the fringes of human life. It is not a leisure-time activity or option for people with a taste for the exotic. It is about what one thoughtful author has called the “holy longing” or “dis-ease” (St. Augustine called it a “restlessness”) at the heart of human life.1 It is about the eros, the energy or drive within us that shapes our actions and ultimately our lives. Seeing spirituality this way makes it a “nonnegotiable,” more basic than religion:
Long before we do anything explicitly religious at all, we have to do something about the fire that burns within us. What we do with that fire, how we channel it, is our spirituality. Thus, we all have a spirituality, whether we want one or not, whether we are religious or not. Spirituality is more about whether or not we can sleep at night than about whether or not we go to church. It is about being integrated or falling apart, about being within community or being lonely, about being in harmony with Mother Earth or being alienated from her.2
This view of spirituality is obviously at odds with those who see it as something only for churchgoers or devotees of the paranormal. But does that make it so broad as to become meaningless? Is it an abuse of the word to say that people who do not pray are spiritual? (Whether or not their spirituality is adequate or complete is another question.) But how else do we take people at their word when they say that they are spiritual though not religious? How else do we interpret Albert Einstein, when— though not one to frequent a synagogue—he tells us that, as a scientist, he wanted to know God’s thoughts? How else do we understand Spinoza, the seventeenth-century Dutch philosopher, being regarded both as an atheist and as “God-intoxicated”? How else do we explain researchers who make their science a religion, or self-styled atheists with a totally selfless commitment to justice? For the prescientific ancients, spirit was what held a body together, keeping it from disintegrating. For us moderns, as individuals or in communities, spirituality can still be a way of talking about what holds us together, what keeps us from disintegrating.
Humanism
Humanism is another word with a complicated history. But it has an even wider range of possible meanings that, if left unmodified, make it hopelessly ambiguous, some might even say useless. To resolve the difficulty, some authors argue that its unmodified use should be restricted to the eighteenth-century Enlightenment’s rejection of religion and to themselves— the modern proponents of that rejection—who would include signatories of the 1933 and 1973 Humanist Manifestos; the members of various national humanist leagues, such as the American Humanist Association, which publishes The Humanist, and those who agree with the notion that humanism constitutes an alternative to religion with a term less negative than atheism.
Atheistic (a.k.a. secular, rational, or ethical) humanists are not the only ones to advocate limiting the word exclusively to themselves. There are conservative Christians of various churches and denominations who happily cede the word to secularists for the sake of having an unambiguous label for the enemy camp. Televangelists of this stripe, for example, blame all that is wrong in America and modern culture—from public education to the feminist movement—on humanism, regarding it with the same animosity as they do liberalism, their other (or is it the same?) bête noire.
Despite such efforts at simplification, however, humanism remains stubbornly ambiguous. The Oxford English Dictionary offers several different subdefinitions, which one scholar of the word’s usage and history finds to be only a fraction of the various senses and contexts in which it has been applied. Its range extends, as he puts it, “from the pedantically exact to the cosmically vague.” One of those vague but, I would argue, legitimate extended meanings refers to humanism as an evaluation of human achievements and cultivation of human enrichment. But in addition to that nondescript, nonthreatening definition are meanings that carry powerful positive or negative connotations, depending on one’s ideological allegiance.3
The word, in a word, is loaded. For those who salute it, humanism stands for human freedom and dignity, synonymous with the best of modern Western culture. At the other end of the playing field, postmodern critics of the Enlightenment fault the word for masking its users’ restriction of full dignity and freedom to a particular race (white), gender (male), and class (fellow aristocrats, landowners, or nationals). Like the Athenian Greeks whom they emulated, the colonial founding fathers who announced American independence with a declaration that “all men are created equal” owned slaves. In the course of Western history, full humanity at various times has been denied to women, children, those who did not speak Greek (or more recently English), and Jews. For its critics (like Theodor Adorno), the Enlightenment’s rationalist, humanist enterprise came to its logical conclusion at Auschwitz. For more recent postmodern critics of the word (Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida), the humanity to which humanism appeals and on which it is based is little more than a pretentious metaphor.
That’s a lot of baggage for a word first coined to describe an academic reform. In the early nineteenth century, a group of German educators began promoting a curriculum that gave pride of place to what they regarded as the wellsprings of Western civilization and culture, the literary classics and achievements of ancient Greece and Rome. They called their program Humanismus, a word evocative of the Italian Renaissance umanisti, who advocated replacing Aristotle and scholastic theology with the study of Cicero, Virgil, and other Latin and Greek classic texts. The fifteenth- and sixteenth-century umanisti were speech and letter writers for the nobility and ruling magistrates of their day. But they were also the teachers of grammar, rhetoric, history, and ethics, who cultivated what they called—borrowing a phrase from Cicero—the studia humanitatis, or what today we call the humanities. Needless to say, the word has wandered far beyond the precincts of academe or the fifteenth-century Italian taste for literature.
Renaissance humanism will be treated at some length in chapter 2 of this book. Suffice it for now to say that virtually all the Renaissance humanists were practicing Christians. They did not renounce religion or Christian faith. But they did criticize the Latin style and pedagogy of the “scholastics,” who dominated university faculties at the time. And some humanists could be quite forthright in criticizing the state of the church, clergy, and popular piety, most notable among these being the acerbic priest Erasmus and his friend Thomas More. Both, though critical Catholics, would stoutly rebuff any aspersions cast on their Catholic loyalty or humanist credentials. Other Christians with substantial humanist claims are, to name but a few, Florentine Platonist Pico della Mirandola, Luis Vives and Fray Luis de León in Spain, Jacques Lefévre d’Estaples in France, and John Milton and John Donne in England. The word can also be justifiably ascribed to more recent, though heterogeneous, Christian thinkers such as Gabriel Marcel, Thomas Merton, Paul Tillich, and (Erasmus redivivus?) Hans Kung.4 Obviously humanism cannot be simply identified with irreligion.
But what do the ideas and writings of the above Christian humanists have to do with those heroes of secular humanism for whom Christianity and the church were not objects of loyal criticism but contempt? One thinks here of Diderot (for whom Christianity was “the Great Prejudice”), David Hume (“Christian superstition”), and Voltaire (“écrase l’infame”). Humanists less polemical but just as averse to all forms of religion were Karl Marx (“opium” for the oppressed masses) and Sigmund Freud (“neurosis”). Clearly we have here two very different strains of a bifurcated intellectual tradition, both laying claim to be legitimate heirs of the Renaissance humanists.
The genesis of the secular humanist tradition is to be found in the writings of the eighteenth-century British freethinkers and French philosophes who made up what came to be called the “Age of Reason” or “Enlightenment” (siècle de lumières; Aufklärung). The Renaissance umanisti had immersed themselves in...

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Book Description Loyola University Press,U.S., United States, 2004. Paperback. Condition: New. Language: English . Brand New Book. Ignatian Humanism puts into perspective our contemporary search for a spirituality that responds both to our search for meaning and desire for God. --John W. Padberg, S.J., director, Institute of Jesuit Sources Modras integrates fascinating history, contemporary theology, and inspiring spirituality with consistent focus on central issues for our day. --Joann Wolski Conn, associate professor of religious studies, Neumann College A stunning book! Modras has profiled a number of Jesuit thinkers and activists as role models for our time--revitalizing humanism as a model for moderns. --Leonard Swidler, professor of Catholic thought and inter-religious dialogue, Temple University Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order, is one of a mere handful of individuals who has permanently changed the way we understand God. In this vividly written and meticulously researched book, Ronald Modras shows how Ignatian spirituality retains extraordinary vigor and relevance nearly five centuries after Loyola s death. At its heart, Ignatian spirituality is a humanism that defends human rights, prizes learning from other cultures, seeks common ground between science and religion, struggles for justice, and honors a God who is actively at work in creation. The towering achievements of the Jesuits are made tangible by Modras s vivid portraits of Ignatius and five of his successors: Matteo Ricci, the first Westerner at the court of the Chinese emperor; Friederich Spee, who defended women accused of witchcraft; Karl Rahner, the greatest Catholic theologian of the twentieth century; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the scientist-mystic; and Pedro Arrupe, the charismatic leader of the Jesuits in the years following Vatican II. Seller Inventory # AAC9780829419863

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Book Description Loyola University Press,U.S., United States, 2004. Paperback. Condition: New. Language: English . Brand New Book. Ignatian Humanism puts into perspective our contemporary search for a spirituality that responds both to our search for meaning and desire for God. --John W. Padberg, S.J., director, Institute of Jesuit Sources Modras integrates fascinating history, contemporary theology, and inspiring spirituality with consistent focus on central issues for our day. --Joann Wolski Conn, associate professor of religious studies, Neumann College A stunning book! Modras has profiled a number of Jesuit thinkers and activists as role models for our time--revitalizing humanism as a model for moderns. --Leonard Swidler, professor of Catholic thought and inter-religious dialogue, Temple University Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order, is one of a mere handful of individuals who has permanently changed the way we understand God. In this vividly written and meticulously researched book, Ronald Modras shows how Ignatian spirituality retains extraordinary vigor and relevance nearly five centuries after Loyola s death. At its heart, Ignatian spirituality is a humanism that defends human rights, prizes learning from other cultures, seeks common ground between science and religion, struggles for justice, and honors a God who is actively at work in creation. The towering achievements of the Jesuits are made tangible by Modras s vivid portraits of Ignatius and five of his successors: Matteo Ricci, the first Westerner at the court of the Chinese emperor; Friederich Spee, who defended women accused of witchcraft; Karl Rahner, the greatest Catholic theologian of the twentieth century; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the scientist-mystic; and Pedro Arrupe, the charismatic leader of the Jesuits in the years following Vatican II. Seller Inventory # AAC9780829419863

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Book Description Jesuit Way Loyola Press. Paperback. Condition: New. 368 pages. Dimensions: 9.6in. x 6.9in. x 0.5in.Ignatian Humanism puts into perspective our contemporary search for a spirituality that responds both to our search for meaning and desire for God. John W. Padberg, S. J. , director, Institute of Jesuit SourcesModras integrates fascinating history, contemporary theology, and inspiring spirituality with consistent focus on central issues for our day. Joann Wolski Conn, associate professor of religious studies, Neumann CollegeA stunning book! Modras has profiled a number of Jesuit thinkers and activists as role models for our timerevitalizing humanism as a model for moderns. Leonard Swidler, professor of Catholic thought and inter-religious dialogue, Temple UniversityIgnatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order, is one of a mere handful of individuals who has permanently changed the way we understand God. In this vividly written and meticulously researched book, Ronald Modras shows how Ignatian spirituality retains extraordinary vigor and relevance nearly five centuries after Loyolas death. At its heart, Ignatian spirituality is a humanism that defends human rights, prizes learning from other cultures, seeks common ground between science and religion, struggles for justice, and honors a God who is actively at work in creation. The towering achievements of the Jesuits are made tangible by Modrass vivid portraits of Ignatius and five of his successors: Matteo Ricci, the first Westerner at the court of the Chinese emperor; Friederich Spee, who defended women accused of witchcraft; Karl Rahner, the greatest Catholic theologian of the twentieth century; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the scientist-mystic; and Pedro Arrupe, the charismatic leader of the Jesuits in the years following Vatican II. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Seller Inventory # 9780829419863

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