Electrons come and go (ions) but protons definitively define and determine the properties of the Elements. The Pauli Exclusion Principle Proton Theory for the Elements by increasing atomic number states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. For protons of ALL Elements, it states that no two protons can have the same four quantum numbers underlying n, l, m and ms, therefore, if n, l, and m are the same, ms must be different hence the protons have opposite spins. It appears that this is true because a proton is composed of two positively charged up quarks (uu) and one negatively charged down quark (d). The positive and negative charges of the proton (uud) create the electrons opposite spin revealed in ms. The protons dominion of the atomic orbital of the electron is clearly revealed by the sequential numbers of protons underlying the Azmuthal (angular) quantum numbers from Principal energy level to Principal energy level of the Elements in the ground state of the QUANTUM MECHANICS of the Periodic Table Protons REVEALED. These sequential numbers of protons are the dominate energy force creating the physical and chemical properties of the Elements and provide the atomic orbitals of the electron the foundation for their spatial relationship to the nucleus as described by the Azimuthal and specifically the Magnetic and Magnetic spin numbers of quantum chemistry. These sequential numbers of protons are very important, as they reveal new quantum explanation to chemical bond angles and the molecular geometry and structure of molecules.
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