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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1889 Excerpt: ...must be lower than that of the oxyhydrogen flame by which it is heated. The various inflammable hydrocarbons burn with different degrees of luminosity; marsh gas and alcohol emit but very little light; defiant gas, on the other hand, burns with a very luminous and smoky flame. As a general rule, the heavier hydrocarbons produce more light in burning than those which are less dense. During the combustion of such a body as defiant gas, the hydrogen, being more inflammable, seizes first hold of the oxygen, and more or less of the carbon is liberated either in the free state or else as vapour of exceedingly dense hydrocarbons. The finely divided particles of carbon or dense hydrocarbons, as the case may be, are heated by the burning hydrogen and by abundantly emitting light impart luminosity to the flame. 138. Structure of Flame.--The actual structure of a flame may be studied by observing a jet of coal gas burning from the end of a round pipe, such as A in Fig. 29. In the interior of the flame there is a jet of unburnt gas, marked a, a in the figure, and appearing black by contrast with the surrounding brighter portions of the flame, by which it is enveloped. This bright or luminous zone, f, e, g, is that portion of the flame in which combustion of the hydrogen is proceeding, the unbuvnt carbon being thereby M heated to the point at which it emits light. In such a burner as is figured, there will be seen ascending from the upper portion of this zone a stream of smoke, consisting of carbon, which altogether escapes combustion. Outside /, e, g there may be distinguished another envelope, b, c, d, scarcely at all luminous, and much resembling the flame of burning hydrogen. This outer zone is that in which there is an ample supply of atmospheric oxygen, and conseq...
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