Plain and Ornamental Forging

 
9781130329162: Plain and Ornamental Forging
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1916 Excerpt: ...converter. Up to this point the product is a simple, molten cast iron, which, if run into molds, would form the common, commercial cast or pig iron used in the foundry.. From this point on the process is one of converting the cast iron into steel by decarbonizing the molten metal in the converter, and finally by reintroducing the necessary amount of carbon and manganese for the required composition and quality. 53. The Bessemer Converter. The Bessemer converter is a pear or barrel-shaped vessel made of boiler plates, holding ten to fifteen tons of metal, lined with refractory material and carried on trunnions. Through one of the trunnions, which is hollow, an air blast is conveyed to the bottom of the converter. Through the openings in the tuyere or bottom plate of the converter the blast of air is forced through the molten pig iron. The air passing through the molten mass produces great heat; the oxygen combines with the carbon and silicon, and the heat caused by their combustion is sufficient, not only to keep the metal in the liquid state, but to increase the temperature about 700 to 800 higher than at the beginning of the "blow." The flames and resulting gases escape from the mouth of the converter, and after eight or ten minutes the impurities are practically burned out. This is recognized by the color of the flame. The almost pure iron which is left after the impurities are exhausted is comparatively soft, and to obtain the required degree of hardness and toughness a rich alloy, such as spiegeleisen or ferromanganese, is added, which reintroduces the necessary amount of carbon and manganese. Spiegeleisen is a pig iron containing about 12 per cent of manganese, the proportion being such as to introduce into the metal in the converter the prop...

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Ernst Schwarzkopf
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ISBN 10: 113032916X ISBN 13: 9781130329162
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