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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1917 Excerpt: ...Before laying the concrete a foundation of porous material, such as cinders or screened gravel, must be placed and as much care should be taken in laying this as the walk itself. Foundations should generally be six inches to twelve inches deep, depending upon the climate and character of the soil. In sections where there is a porous soil and a mild climate, foundations are sometimes omitted entirely. If the soil is clayey, blind drains of coarse gravel or tile pipe should be laid at the lowest points in the excavation to carry off any water that might accumulate in the porous material of the excavation. Walks are frequently ruined by water freezing in the foundations and heaving them out of place. Excavate to the subgrade, previously determined upon, three inches wider on each side than the proposed walk, and fill with broken stone, gravel or cinders to within four inches of the proposed finished surface, wetting well and tamping in layers, so that when complete it will be even and firm but porous. Place 2-inch by 4-inch scantlings (preferably dressed on inside and edge and perfectly straight) on top of the cinder foundation, the proper distance apart to form the inner and outer edges of the walk. The outside or curb strips must be one inch to two inches lower than the inner edge of the walk. This will give a slight incline to the finished surface and allow the water to run off. A good rule to follow is to allow % inch slope to every foot of width of walk. For wide walks lay off the space between the scantlings into equal sections not larger than six feet square, put 2-inch by 4inch scantlings crosswise and in the center, as shown in figure 12. This will make every alternate space, shown in figure by diagonal line, the size desired. Fill these spaces with c...
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