This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1897 Excerpt: ...chemical equivalents of the two constituents. 219. Nature of an Electrolyte. Electrolytes are, almost universally, solutions (generally aqueous solutions) of acids, bases, or salts. Neither the solvent nor the substance dissolved conducts electricity when pure. The conductivity of the solution is not directly proportional to the number of grams of the salt per litre of the solvent. Etch additional gram produces less effect than the preceding gram. In fact, the ratio of the conductivity of a solution to the number of grams dissolved in a litre of the solvent approaches a maximum for extremely dilute solutions. There seems to be good reasons, both electrochemical and nonelectrical, for believing that many aqueous solutions consist of molecules of the compound (ZnSOi for example), and of a greater or less propartion of "free atoms" of the metal, and of the acid radicle; in the above case, free atoms of Zn and of SOt. The solvent appears to have the power of separating molecules into these two "free atoms" which are called Ions. This process is called Ionisation and is more and more complete the more dilute the solution. 220. Theory of Electrolysis. Besides the laws of electrolysis, the most important fact to account for is the appearance of the two products of electrolytic decomposition at two, often widely separated points,--the metal at the cathode and the acid radicle at the anode. The prevailing theory of electrolysis is based on the theory of solutions briefly stated in § 219. According to this theory each of the Ions is supposed to have a free charge of electricity,--the metal ion having a positive charge and the other ion a negative charge. These charges are all exactly equal for monivalent ions while divalent ions have a double...
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