This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 Excerpt: ...a first-hand judgment of the lubricating value of an oil, except by practical test of his machine. Such tests often prove exceedingly costly, as a bearing may be ruined in an instant by melting, cutting or scoring due to the failure of the oil to lubricate under heat. In practice, then, the owner of a car should insist upon Pure Pennsylvania Oil only, and should have absolute confidence in the knowledge, judgment and integrity of the manufacturer from whom he buys. Flash And Fire Tests. Flash Test of an oil is the temperature at which-it gives off vapor that will flash or ignite when exposed to flame, but will not continue to burn. The Fire Test is the temperature at which the vapor will ignite and continue to burn; it is usually from 40 to 60 higher than the flashing point. Mr. Souther says: "The ideal auto oil must have a flash test of not less than 400 F. and a fire test of not less than 450 F." Now, the temperature of the exploding gas in a cylinder is approximately 2,000 F. The walls of the cylinder, however, are kept cooler by the circulation of water or air. The outside walls of a water-cooled motor do not get much over 212 because that is the temperature at which water goes into steam. But the inside walls, where the oil is, do get hotter than that because the heat of 2,000 is being applied constantly. The wisdom of a 400 F. flash point is obvious; if oil is exposed to a temperature exceeding its flash test it is immediately converted into a vapor, and in that form it cannot accomplish its function of lubrication. As to the fire test, experts have proved that an oil with a very high fire test will deposit excessive carbon--while that with a moderately high fire test will burn up much cleaner--leaving no troublesome carbon deposit. It is th...
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