A textbook of chemistry

9781231064061: A textbook of chemistry
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1913 Excerpt: ...with formation of sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO2, by one liter of water which has been in contact with ordinary air? 4. An effervescent drink is sometimes prepared by mixing two solutions containing sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar (HKC4HOs). What is the equation for the reaction? 5. A water contains 0.130 g. per liter of calcium sulfate, CaSO4How may grams of crystallized sodium carbonate (Na2CO2.10 H2O) per cubic meter will be required to soften the water? How many gra1ns of sodium fluoride? 6. How many grams of potassium cyanide will be required to reduce 15 g. of stannic oxide, SnOt, to metallic tin? CHAPTER XIX ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ACIDS, FATS, CARBOHYDRATES The most important classes of compounds of carbon with oxygen and hydrogen are given in the heading of this chapter. The number of such compounds is very large and even a superficial knowledge of them can be gained only by a study of their structure, that is, by learning the arrangement of the atoms within their molecules. This is especially true because many different compounds having the same composition are known. Thus there are no less than seventy-five compounds having the formula C7HuCv Compounds like these which have the same composition but different properties are called isomers. The empirical formula of such a compound will give very little information about its properties, but a structural formula often shows to a chemist, at once, many important relationships. Structural formulas are established mainly on the basis of three very simple principles: 1. Valence. The valence of the elements. Carbon is almost always quadrivalent, oxygen is bivalent and hydrogen univalent. Nitrogen may be trivalent or quinquivalent. An example of the use of the principle of valence in explaining an...

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