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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1889 Excerpt: ... were constantly being washed away, which, by increasing the surface of the water, allowed the waves to become higher by the action of the wind, and thus the surrounding country became subject to inundation. This work, undertaken in 1839, was a gigantic operation. From an area of 70 square miles of average depth of water of 12 J feet, situated below the level of any sluices that could be constructed, it was required to raise the water an average height of 16 feet, and to an estimated possible amount of 35,000,000 tons in a month. An enormous steam-engine was constructed in London for working 11 pumps of 63 inches diameter each and 10 feet stroke, the maximum capacity of which was to raise 112 tons of water 10 feet at each stroke. These were set around the circular tower which contained the engine, and from the upper portion of which the balance-beams radiated, one for each pump. They raised in actual work 66 tons per stroke, discharging the water in a large canal 38 miles long and from 115 to 130 feet wide. Two other similar engines were applied to the same work, and the pumping was continued from May, 1848, to July 1, 1852. Then the area was thoroughly drained. The entire expenses from the commencement of operations in 1839 to the close of 1855 were estimated at £718,445, which would be more than paid by the proceeds of the sale of the lands. Drain-Conduits.--Covered drains are made in a variety of ways, as shown in Fig. 1007, in which 1 is a perforated drain-pipe of circular or oval section, covered in by stones or earth; 2 consists of two semi-cylindrical tiles respectively above and below a flat tile, the whole covered in by stones or earth; 3 consists of a bed stone and side stones, to form a triangular duct, covered in by stones, a layer of turf,...
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